R. Klingbeil, 2016. Water in the Near and Middle East: Availability, Uses, Challenges with Reference to the UN ESCWA BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia

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Information about R. Klingbeil, 2016. Water in the Near and Middle East: Availability,...

Published on December 9, 2016

Author: RKlingbeil

Source: slideshare.net

1. Wasser im Nahen und Mittleren Osten: Verfügbarkeit, Nutzungen, Herausforderungen unter Bezugnahme auf das UN ESCWA BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) Vortrag im Rahmen des Fachgesprächs “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten” BMZ, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016

2. Middle East North Africa (MENA) Arab / UN ESCWA Region • 22 Arab countries • 18 UN ESCWA member states • Sub-regions • Maghreb • Mashreq • GCC • … plus BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 2www.unescwa.org

3. BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 3 Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft Let’s talk about water …

4. Übersicht • Herausforderungen, Verfügbarkeit, Nutzungen: • Risiken, governance & Integrität, Wissenschaft & Entwicklungschancen • Quantität und Qualität, Dürren und Nutzungskonflikte • Nicht-erneuerbare Wasserressourcen • Arabische Transformationsprozesse und governance natürlicher Ressourcen einschl. Wasser • Grenzüberschreitende Wasserressourcen: • Rechtliche Grundlagen • Wissensbasis • UN ESCWA – BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (2013) • Grenzüberschreitende Kooperation • Zusammenfassung / Ausblick BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 4

5. World Economic Forum 2016 Global Risks of Highest Concern 2016 BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 5 WEF,2016.Whatarethetopglobalrisksfor2016? 14Jan2016,www.wef.ch/risks2016.

6. The World Bank Companies Constraint by Corruption BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 6 TheWorldBank,2016.EnterpriseSurveys, www.enterprisesurveys.org. 1 in 3 Companies Constrained by Corruption, MENA: 1 in 2 Percent of firms identifying corruption as a major constraint Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get a water connection

7. Arab Science and Technology “Arab world’s path to progress goes through science” • R&D as % of GDP • Egypt: 0.4 South Korea: 4.0 • Researchers per million people • Arab region: 371 World: 1,081 • Sudan: 19 Bahrain: 50 Oman: 137 … Egypt: 581 Morocco: 864 Tunisia: 1,394 • Scientific and technical articles: • Arab region: 1.3% of journal entries published • Patent applications: • Arab region: 0.1% at US Patent and Trademark Office (2013) • Disconnect between businesses and R&D community • Egypt: only 5% of R&D from private sector • Gender • Female university students: > 50%, Female researchers: only 37% of researchers BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 7 www.thearabweekly.com,04March2016

8. Verfügbarkeit Nutzungen Herausforderungen • pro-Kopf-Verfügbarkeit • nicht-erneuerbare Wasserressourcen • Dürreperioden • Nutzungskonflikte • arabische Transformationsprozesse, governance BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 8 Inamo,20001.

9. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand MENA - The Many Dimensions of Water BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 9 Governance Demographics Food Water & Land Energy

10. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita by Region BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 10 FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007

11. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 11 FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007

12. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Sources of Water BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 12 ICBA,Barghouti,2009

13. Scarcity and Drought - Iraq Displacement due to Drought Water Needs 2008 - 2010 BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 13 IOM,July2010

14. Scarcity and Drought - Syria Scarcity of water and groundwater – or scarcity of adequate water governance? Triggers for migration / displacement: • Drought, physical scarcity, • Economic scarcity, inappropriate governance, … BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 14 Left:irinnews.org,2009.Syria’sdrought-affectedprovincesasof Aug2009,right:Evans,J.P.,2009.21stCenturyClimateChange intheMiddleEast.

15. Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon 2014 - One drought comes rarely alone BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 15 bg:MEW,2014.NationalWaterConservationCampaign,Lebanon, fg:TuTiempo.net,2016.http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.. 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014

16. Water and scarcity in the MENA Region Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 16 TheWorldBank,2007.MakingtheMostofScarcity.

17. Non-Renewable Groundwater - Food Production Agricultural Groundwater Use, Saudi Arabia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 17 1991 2000 2012

18. Non-Renewable Groundwater - Food Production Accumulated 30 yrs GW Abstractions 1975 - 2004 per Region, Saudi Arabia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 18 WaterWatch,2006

19. Grenzüberschreitende Wasserressourcen • Rechtliche Grundlagen • Wissensbasis • UN ESCWA – BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (2013) • Grenzüberschreitende Kooperation BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 19 Inamo,20001.

20. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Legal Instruments: Global and Regional BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 20 1966 Helsinki Rules 1997 UN Watercourse Convention ... 2014 UNWC Entry into Force 2008 UN GA Law of TBAs 2011 1st UN GA Review 2013 2nd UN GA Review 2016 3rd UN GA Review 1992 UN ECE Water Convention 1999 Protocol on Water and Health 2003 UN ECE Amendment 1998 SADC Water Protocol 2000 SADC Revised Water Protocol 2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir 2010 AMWC Res for Drafting AWC Annual AMWC Reviews

21. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Schematic Diagram of Shared Aquifer BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 21 RedrawnbyUNESCWA-BGR,2013, basedonPuriandArnold2002.

22. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Challenges for Cooperation on Transboundary Water Resources BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 22 Klingbeil&Al-Hamdi,2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable vs. Non-renewable Groundwater Differences between Recharge and Use / Abstraction Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System

23. Shared Water Resources BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 23 www.waterinventory.org

24. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 24 Euphrates River – Syrian Arab Republic The Inventory is… the first UN-led effort to take stock of the region’s shared surface and groundwater resources in a comprehensive, systematic and standardized manner. Key Themes: • Hydrology, hydrogeology • Water resources development and use • Agreements and cross-border management efforts Objectives: • Identify and document the state of shared water resources and their use • Improve the knowledge base and facilitate information access • Create awareness and stimulate informed dialogue within and between riparian countries • Support regional processes towards improved dialogue and cooperation over shared water resources www.waterinventory.org

25. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Work Process BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 25 www.waterinventory.org • A total of 22 shared aquifer systems and 6 shared river basins were identified. • 9 chapters on shared surface waters and 17 chapters on shared aquifer systems, each following a standardized structure and methodology. • 624 pages of detailed information with 60 new maps and over 200 figures, tables and boxes.

26. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 26 www.waterinventory.org

27. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (South): Rub’ al Khali BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 27 www.waterinventory.org

28. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 28 www.waterinventory.org Example: Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) ‘Disi’ Aquifer • approximate exploitability • groundwater development

29. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 29 www.waterinventory.org Example: Water Use Remote Sensing Studies Agricultural Statistics

30. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 30 www.waterinventory.org

31. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 31 VISIT OUR WEBSITE www.waterinventory.org contact: waterinventory@un.org United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) P.O. Box 11-8575 Beirut, Lebanon

32. Shared Water Resources - Transboundary Cooperation Track 2 - Research Cooperation: Kuwait and Neighbours • Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta • Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) research project based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory • Activites: • KISR / ESCWA Workshop Shared Groundwater Aquifers in GCC Countries, April 2014, • Support and technical inputs for research proposal on shared groundwater aquifers between Kuwait and neighbouring countries, 2014 - 2015, • Further activities envisaged • Backstopping and advice through participation in advisory committee. BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 32

33. Shared Water Resources - Transboundary Cooperation Track 1 - Intergov. Cooperation: Jordan River Basin Dialogue • 2013 Request from Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) • Based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory • UN ESCWA facilitated 1st official Jordan river riparian dialogue between Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine, Amman, April 2014 • Addressed themes: Hydrology and hydrogeology, historic development of water use and options for further riparian cooperation BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 33

34. Water, Energy and Food in the MENA Region Groundwater between Jordan and Saudi Arabia Energy for Water: Saq-Ram Aquifer System • Exploitable area • Irrigation areas • Energy use for groundwater pumping BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 34 UNESCWA,2016.

35. Zusammenfassung - Ausblick • Soziale Gerechtigkeit - Generationen-übergreifende Gerechtigkeit • Ökologisch nachhaltige Nutzung erneuerbarer Ressourcen • Sozio-ökonomische best benefits von nicht-erneuerbaren Ressourcen • Bessere Sektor-governance – water integrity • Grenzüberschreitende Kooperation BMZ Fachgespräch “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten”, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016 Slide 35

36. Wasser im Nahen und Mittleren Osten: Verfügbarkeit, Nutzungen, Herausforderungen unter Bezugnahme auf das UN ESCWA BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) Vortrag im Rahmen des Fachgesprächs “Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten” BMZ, Bonn, 08. Dezember 2016

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