R&D Management-Questions & Answers, Fill in Blanks, Multi Choice

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Information about R&D Management-Questions & Answers, Fill in Blanks, Multi Choice
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Published on December 15, 2017

Author: gcmohanta29

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slide 1: Questions Answers Multi-Choice Questions Answers and Fill in the Blanks R D Innovation Management – By Dr. G C Mohanta PhD SECTION – A Answer all questions. Each question carries ½ marks. 10x1/25 Marks Write the choice in the given bracket for the following: 1. RD can be classified into 3 categories ……….…………………………………….d a Basic research b Applied research c Experimental development d All e None. 2. For a strategy to be successful it should be in harmony with the firm’s ………….c a Internal environment b External environment c Both d None. 3. RD produces value directly in relation to………………………………………...b a How much funding is made b Practices talents and innovations of the people c Both d None. 4. It is qualitative review opinion and advice from experts on the subject being evaluated based on objective criteria……………………………………………………………..c a Bibliometric Method b Data Mining c Peer Review d All e None. 5. It is a continuous assessment of key program functions organized internally by program management and carried out on an on-going basis.........................................................a a Program Performance Monitoring b Hotspot patent analysis c Network Analysis d All e None. 6. It is a method used by RD programs as indicators of program knowledge outputs by counting of publications patents…………………………………………………..b a Peer Review b Bibliometric Method c Data Mining d All e None. 7. It is the extraction of key concepts or relationships from large quantities of digitized natural language text…………………………………………………………………c a Peer Review b Bibliometric Method c Data Mining d All e None. 8. This method identifies patents that are highly cited by recently issued patents......b a Program Performance Monitoring b Hotspot patent analysis c Network Analysis d All e None. 9. This is a method of visually mapping and measuring relationships and linkages among researchers groups of researchers laboratories or other organizations......................c a Program Performance Monitoring b Hotspot patent analysis c Network Analysis d All e None. slide 2: 10. This type of technology acquisition involves bringing in new technologies from external sources……………………………………………………………………………………..b a Internal technology acquisition b External technology acquisition c Both d None. 11. This type of technology acquisition involves using the firm’s own internal RD activities…………………………………………………………………………………a a Internal technology acquisition b External technology acquisition c Both d None. 12. In this type of technology acquisition control on the ownership usage of technology usually does not remain with transferor………………………………………….……b a Internal technology acquisition b External technology acquisition c Both d None. 13. It is an attempt by a firm to realize its objectives through cooperation with other firms in strategic alliances and partnerships...............................................................................c a Licensing agreement b Contracting agreement c Co-operative collaborative ventures/strategic alliances d All e None. 14. It is an agreement where the licensor grants the licensee the right to produce sell goods................................................................................................................................ a a Licensing agreement b Contracting agreement c Co-operative collaborative ventures/strategic alliances d All e None. 15. A voluntary arrangement between two or more firms which is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement....................................................................................................b a Licensing agreement b Contracting agreement c Co-operative collaborative ventures/strategic alliances d All e None. 16. It is the process of acquiring an enterprise to build on its strengths............................c a Licensing agreement b Contracting agreement c Enterprise acquisition d All e None. 17. The problem solving can be viewed as an interaction among.....................................d a the humans working to solve a problem b accumulated knowledge of the human race c the problem to be solved d All e None. 18. It is the knowledge about how to do things.................................................................b a Declarative knowledge b Procedural knowledge c Both d None. 19. It is concerned with the facts that we know….…………………………………….a a Declarative knowledge b Procedural knowledge c Both d None. 20. This type of knowledge can be embedded in objects rules systems methods etc…b a Tacit knowledge b Explicit knowledge c Both d None. slide 3: 21. This type of knowledge is in our heads…………………………………………a a Tacit knowledge b Explicit knowledge c Both d None. 22. This type of knowledge has been codified by us………………………………b a Tacit knowledge b Explicit knowledge c Both d None. 23. This type of knowledge involves theories and formulae usually available in written form as textbooks and handbooks..........................................................................................a a Formal knowledge b Informal knowledge c Both d None. 24. This type of knowledge is made up of such things as rules of thumb or tricks of the trade.. .......................................................................................................................... b a Formal knowledge b Informal knowledge c Both d None. 25. This type of knowledge is the essential knowledge without which an organisation cannot survive...........................................................................................................................b a Embedded Knowledge b Critical Knowledge c Both d None. 26. This type of knowledge is the knowledge embedded in objects rules systems methods etc……………………………………………………………………………………..a a Embedded Knowledge b Critical Knowledge c Both d None. 27. Corporate research activities can be classified by the purpose of research…………..d a Supporting current businesses ii Providing new business ventures iii Exploring possible new technologies d All e None. 28. Technology absorbed without changing parameters of acquired technology is called.....b a Technology Absorption bTechnology Adoption c Technology Adaptation d All e None. 29. Technology absorbed by changing certain parameters of acquired technology is called.................................................................................................................................c a Technology Absorption b Technology Adoption c Technology Adaptation d All e None. 30. This capability allows the firm to exploit opportunities or neutralize threats in its external environment…………………………………………………………..…...……………b a Rare b Valuable c Difficult to imitate d All e None. 31. This capability that few of its competitors possess…………………………………….a a Rare b Valuable c Non-substitutable d All e None. 32. This capability that other firms cannot easily develop the capability developed through unique historical conditions………………………………………………………………c a Rare b Valuable c Difficult to imitate d All e None. slide 4: 33. This capability does not have a strategic equivalent…………………….…………..c a Valuable b Difficult to imitate c Non-substitutable d All e None. 34. This is a vision formulated for the logical and appropriate distribution of the companys resources based on analyses of the environment within and outside the company……b a Strategic Management of RD b Strategy c Both d None. 35. This is planning and execution of implementation measures keeping in mind differentiation and prioritization in line with the formulated vision………………….a a Strategic Management of RD b Strategy c Both d None. 36. This method of funding RD for a private corporation uses existing financial and technical resources………………………….…………………………………………b a Collaborative Partnership b Corporate Funded R D c Both d None. 37. In this method of funding RD companies collaborate with national labs private research institutions and universities.............................................................................a a Collaborative Partnership b Corporate Funded R D c Both d None. 38. When the new technology comes into existence but shows little improvement in its performance characteristics this stage in the evolution is known as.......................c a Rapid improvement b Declining improvement c Emergence d All e None. 39. When performance characteristics improve at an accelerating pace this stage in the evolution is known as................................................................................................a a Rapid improvement b Declining improvement c Emergence d All e None. 40. When the pace of improvement declines this stage in the evolution is known as......b a Maturity b Declining improvement c Emergence d All e None. 41. When further improvements become very difficult to achieve this stage in the evolution is known as...................................................................................................................a a Maturity b Declining improvement c Emergence d All e None. SECTION – B Answer all questions. Each question carries ½ mark. 10x1/25 Marks Fill in the Blanks for the following: 1. Basic research is the original investigation undertaken by an investigator based on his scientific interest. 2. Applied research is directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. 3. Experimental development is the use of scientific knowledge in order to produce new or substantially improved materials devices products processes systems or services. slide 5: 4. Business strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long period which seeks to match its resources to its changing environment. 5. Consistency in strategy provides a framework for making consistent decisions over time that build cumulatively toward a desired objective. 6. Coherence in strategy provides an integrating mechanism to ensure that these tactical decisions are coherent. 7. An RD organization needs to have a strategy that is aligned with the broader business strategy of the organization in which it operates. 8. RD helps a business to have a competitive edge over its competitors. 9. Research is the systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge to establish or confirm facts reaffirm the results of existing or previous work. 10. Development means the act or process of growing progressing developing expanding organizing and improving something. 11. Peer Review is qualitative review opinion and advice from experts on the subject being evaluated. 12. Technology Acquisition is the process of acquiring a new technology new product process or service by efforts of an individual or an enterprise 13. The product innovation process is the integration of existing technology and inventions to create a new or improved product process or system. 14. Intellect is the mental capacity for thinking acquiring knowledge especially of a high or complex order. 15. Experience is the knowledge or practical wisdom gained from what one has observed encountered or undergone. 16. When we see a scorpion near our leg we withdraw the leg automatically due to instinct. 17. When we are talking we formulate an idea in our head translate it into words and speak the words. 18. We routinely solve many of the problems that we encounter by just using the knowledge we have accumulated throughout our lifetime. 19. The procedural knowledge is called know how. 20. The declarative knowledge is called know what. 21. Tacit knowledge is often subconscious internalized and the individual may or may not be aware of what he or she knows and how he or she accomplishes particular results. slide 6: 22. Explicit knowledge is the visible knowledge available in the form of letters reports memos books literatures drawings etc. 23. Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning or through introspection. 24. Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which customers will pay. 25. Formal knowledge is acquired through a controlled and structured approach on a broad- based institutional level such as formal training programs and/or formal written procedures. 26. Informal knowledge is generally verbal in nature it can also be transmitted in written form as guidebooks or manuals. 27. The more unique or scarce the knowledge is it will have more value. 28. If there is more demand for the knowledge it will have more value. 29. The content value is lowest for the accepted knowledge and highest for the potential knowledge. 30. The more specific the knowledge is the higher will be its value. 31. The validity of knowledge from time perspective refers to its expiry date. 32. Leverage is the ability to influence a system/environment in a way that multiplies the outcome of ones efforts without a corresponding increase in the consumption of resources. 33. Leverage is the advantageous condition of having a relatively small amount of cost to yield a relatively high level of returns. 34. Leveraging Knowledge is effectively managing existing knowledge and transferring the knowledge between various stakeholders for improving the capabilities of an organization. 35. Competitive rivalry looks at the number and strength of the competitors. 36. Supplier Power is determined by how easy it is for the suppliers to increase their prices. 37. Buyer Power is determined by how easy it is for the buyers to drive the prices down. 38. Threat of Substitution refers to the likelihood of the customers finding a different way of doing the task. 39.Threat of New Entry is determined by how easy is it to get a foothold in the industry or market by other company. 40. Invention means to create or devise something new. slide 7: SECTION – C Answer all questions. Each question carries One mark. 5x15 Marks RD Management – Unit I 1. What is RD Ans. RD is the purposeful and systematic use of scientific knowledge to improve man’s lot even though some of its manifestations do not meet with universal approval. RD is to develop new knowledge and apply scientific or engineering knowledge to connect the knowledge in one field to that in others. 2. What are the purposes or objectives of RD Ans. The purposes or objectives of RD are as follows: i Development of the current technologies offered by an organisation ii Development of innovations that make organisations status stronger in the marketplace iii Development of new ideas in order to patent market or sell those ideas iv Development of effective products and v Providing information to solve the problems 3. What is Research and Development RD Management Ans. RD management involves the following: i Overseeing and controlling the research and development department of a given company ii Managing and allocating the budget assigned to given research projects. iiiOverseeing the process of RD and ensuring that all requirements are complied with. ivEnsuring that the funds are allocated only to products likely to produce a good return-on- investment ROI. v Ensuring that funds invested are reasonable in light of what the ROI will ultimately be if the product is developed properly. 4. Discuss RD Management the Industrial Context. Ans. RD is to achieve new knowledge appropriate to the companys business needs resulting in new or improved products processes systems or services that can increase the companys sales and profits. RD management is dependent on industrial context. Industry research of a company focuses on: i product development ii new technologies iii understanding of technologies in existing products iv technologies in manufacturing and v application of knowledge for commercial purpose. RD management in the industrial chemical industry will be completely different from those in the food industry. 1. Discuss RD and its Link with Business Strategy. Ans. The link of RD with Business Strategy may be as follows: i RD for existing businesses - This will ensure the businesses are able to compete and to slide 8: exploit all opportunities available to it. ii Drive new businesses - Business opportunities will continually arise RD will ensure that these can be exploited. iii Exploratory research - This helps to develop understanding of technology that the business is using or may use. 5. How does RD investment affect company growth Ans. The success of RD depends more on the practices talents and innovations of the people working there. A company can spend less money on RD than its competitors but work to secure talented employees with proper goal orientation to produce good results. 6. How do you classify RD Ans. RD can be classified as follows: Basic research is the original investigation undertaken in order to gain new scientific knowledge and understanding. In pure basic research it is generally the scientific interest of the investigator which determines the subject studied. Applied research is original investigation undertaken in order to gain new scientific or technical knowledge. It is directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is the use of scientific knowledge in order to produce new or substantially improved materials devices products processes systems or services. 7. Discuss RD and its Link with Business Strategy. Ans. The link of RD with Business Strategy may be as follows: i RD for existing businesses - This will ensure the businesses are able to compete and to exploit all opportunities available to it. ii Drive new businesses - Business opportunities will continually arise RD will ensure that these can be exploited. iii Exploratory research - This helps to develop understanding of technology that the business is using or may use. 8. Discuss the Strategic Pressures on RD. Ans. The Strategic Pressures on RD are as follows: Strategic Pressures on RD can be internal or external. Internal factors that impact RD include resource mobilization competency development allocation of resources and prioritisation effective execution of projects and fast conversation of ideas into product or service. External factors that impact RD include policies of the government regulators and regulating agencies. Public concern about environmental use of scarce and protected resources and sustainability also pose pressure on RD. RD managers also face pressure in making good decisions to buy and develop new technology set short and long term priorities and attraction and retention of highly talented experts. RD Management – Unit II slide 9: 9. How do you to carry out Effective Research Development Management Ans. For effective R D Management twelve critical activities are to be undertaken as follows : i Selecting the Right RD - Company needs to select the right RD. The RD managers of the Company should involve the business managers to participate in selecting RD. ii Planning RD Projects - The company should plan their RD projects effectively. They should develop a system for tracking the time lines of all of their projects. iii Generating New Ideas - Within RD organization of the Company there should be excellent climate for generating new ideas. Company should recruit competent people to help the RD organization to stay abreast of new ideas. iv Maintaining the Quality of the RD - The RD organizations should be strong in maintaining the quality of their RD. v Motivating RD People - The researchers and the group of technical support people who report to the RD manager should be highly motivated. vi Getting RD People to Play an Effective Role in Commercializing Technology - The RD people should be encouraged to use their talents for the good of the company. They should give advice on how to commercialize technology more effectively. vii Facilitating Communication among the RD People - There should be excellent communication among the RD people. The researchers and the technical support people should communicate well with each other. viii Coordinating RD and Marketing - The coordination between RD and marketing people should be excellent. The RD and marketing managers should share information with each other extremely well. xi Transferring Technology to Manufacturing - The transfer of technology to manufacturing should be smooth. Manufacturing plants need to become more efficient so that they are able to manufacture most of what the RD organization has developed. x Linking RD to Business Planning - There should be appropriate business planning. RD should be linked to business planning well. xi Evaluating the Financial Aspects of RD - There should be evaluations of the financial aspects of RD. At the management level the finance group should be close to the RD organization. xii Maintaining Teamwork within Senior Management Concerning Technology - There should be teamwork within senior management concerning technology. The heads of the various functions i.e. RD marketing and finance should be involved while taking major decisions. 10. Discuss the Changing Nature of RD Management. Ans. The RD management has changed during the years as follows: i During the first generation of RD 1950 to mid-1960s most of the new products that were produced were also sold new industries emerged and technology was generally seen as the remedy for all ailments. ii During the second generation of RD mid-1960s to early 1970s the supply and demand were in a more stable relationship competition was intensified and more emphasis was placed on marketing efforts to increase the sales volume. slide 10: iii The third generation of RD can be noticed during the period of the mid-1970s to mid- 1980s when the economy was shivering with high rates of inflation and demand saturation. Cost control and cost reduction became the name of the game. iv The fourth generation of RD ranged from the early 1980s to mid-1990s when the economy recovered and business people rethought their diversification strategies in favour of returning to their core business. v Fifth generation of RD broadens the boundaries for companies’ RD activities all in the light of increased global competition rapid technological change and the need for sharing heavy technology investments. RD needs to interact with the business environment e.g. competitors distributors customers suppliers etc. vi The sixth generation of RD will re-focus on the research part and enlarge and enhance the capabilities by connecting to loosely tied multi-technology research networks. There will be a broader multi-technology base for high-tech products and a more distributed technology- sourcing structure. 11. What is Technology Acquisition Ans. Technology Acquisition is the process of acquiring a new technology new product process or service by efforts of an individual or an enterprise. This process can be conducted either internally or externally to the enterprise. 12. Discuss the different types of technology acquisition. Ans. The following are different types of technology acquisition: i Scientific Knowledge Acquisition ii Direct Technology Acquisition iii Spin-off Technology Acquisition iv Informal Technology Acquisition v Formal Technology Acquisition vi Internal Technology Acquisition and vii External Technology Acquisition. 13. What is External Technology Acquisition Ans. External technology acquisition involves bringing in new technologies from external sources rather than using the firm’s own internal RD activities. In external technology acquisition control on the ownership usage of technology usually does not remain with transferor and it passes on to the acquirer like joint venture with local control licensing agreement etc. 14. Discuss the Advantages of External Technology Acquisition. Ans. Bringing in new technologies from external sources can provide the company with the opportunity to develop new products and also to enter new markets. It helps the firm to overcome limitations of their internal resources and capabilities. The firm can overcome the internal knowledge deficiencies and resolve the problems of insufficient internal resources and capabilities. The firm can acquire industry standard technologies for existing products and thus helps the firm to catch up with competitive moves. It allows the firm to focus on the resources and capabilities of the firm for developing the firm’s core technological competencies. It provides flexibility in strategic decision-making for technology development and the firms can benefit from a larger range of technological solutions and hence take advantage of new business opportunities. slide 11: 15. Discuss the Disadvantages of External Technology Acquisition. Ans. Firms develop key competencies or assets from previous RD investments and ‘learning by doing’. These core competencies can be viewed as resources capabilities and knowledge sets accumulated by the firms over time to gain competitive advantage. The more resources firms invest in external technological acquisition the less they are able to invest in internal RD. Heavy reliance on external technology acquisition may therefore decrease the internal RD capabilities of firms ultimately weakening their core technological competencies. 16. Discuss the Factors affecting the External Technology Acquisition. Ans. Successful external technology acquisition depends upon following factors: i Type of the technology being acquired ii Complexity of the technology being acquired iii Acquisition mechanism selected iv Relationships between the parties – building of mutual trust v Core competencies of the parties compatibilty thereof and vi Organizational culture of the parties mutual understanding thereof. 17. Discuss the need for External Technology Acquisition. Ans. The need for External Technology Acquisition is as follows: iTechnology already developed by other saves time efforts of the firm ii Sometimes Growth objectives or competitive goals of the firm cannot be reached through internal development iii Lack of risk taking ability of the firm for innovations iv Lack of internal resources physical human of the firm for innovation v Firm does not have core competencies to deal with complex technological developments vi Need to keep up with competitors vii Need to cope up with acceleration of technological change and viii Let other firms take big risks the firm will purchase technology developed by them. 18. Discuss the Barriers to External Technology Acquisition. Ans. The following are the Barriers to External Technology Acquisition: i Associated costs – usually high prices are required to be paid in the form of royalities technical knowhow fees etc. over medium to long term period. iiAppropriatesness of the technology i.e. its suitability to core competencies and market needs is always a point of discussion and investigation. iii Heavy reliances on foreign technology - may make transferee/recipient technologically dependent on external technology providers even for small issues. iv Lack of mutual trust between two parties may hinder full timely acquisition. There is risk of loss of control over technology and the transferee / recipient may use technology in an arbitrary manner v Transfer may render existing technology its related products / services / processes obsolete. vi Transferee may turn a potential competitor in future. vii Mismatch in core competencies of the transferor transferee may create difficulties in transfer. slide 12: viii Different organisation cultures may create difficulties in transfer. ix Lack of effective communication between the parties may also create difficulties in transfer. 19. How do you overcome the Barriers to External Technology Acquisition Ans. The Barriers to External Technology Acquisition can be overcome by the following: i Proper well defined technology acquisition agreement should be signed ii Proper assessment/evaluation be made of appropriateness of technology iii Proper assessment/evaluation be made of compatability of core competencies of the parties iv Building pre-agreement relationships so as to develop the mutual trust and also to understand culture of opposite parties v Seeking cross cultural training vi Ensuring effective communication and vii Anticipating problems and adopting measures for facilitating acquisition. 20. Discuss the Steps to be taken in External Technology Acquisition. Ans. The following steps are to be taken in External Technology Acquisition: i Identification of Need ii Developing list of suitable technology providers iii Short listing / selecting suitable technology providers on the basis of cultural compatibility compatibility of core competences appropriateness of technology technical feasibility etc. iv Negotiation vAgreement vi Payments as per agreement vii Transfer of specifications blueprints designs documents CDs to acquirer and viii Training of technical personnel of acquirer 21. Discuss the product innovation process. Ans. The innovation process is the integration of existing technology and inventions to create a new or improved product process or system. Innovation in the economic sense is accomplished through the first utilization and commercialization of a new or improved product process or system. Various technology-based organizations look at the overall innovation process differently. In a general sense the innovation process includes: i identifying the market need or technology opportunity ii adopting existing technology that satisfies this need or opportunity iii inventing when needed and iv transferring this technology by commercialization or other institutional means. The innovation process integrates project need invention and development and technology transfer. Ideas and concepts are generated in each of these three major stages. The innovation process is accomplished when these three stages culminate in the utilization and slide 13: commercialization of a new or improved product process or system. Developing the ‘right’ new products through innovation is critical to the firm’s success and is often cited as the key to a sustained competitive advantage. 22. Discuss the steps in linking with the product innovation process and funding RD. Ans. The following 9 steps may be taken in linking Product Innovation Process and funding RD: i Understand the market – Before conducting RD an exercise may be made to fully understand the marketplace in which to compete. ii Define the strategic goals -Whilst researching the overall market position one should also define the specific strategic goals of the RD output. iii Know your capabilities - To create an efficient funding plan one must understand the company’s abilities and resources. iv Include partnerships - Whilst creating an RD funding plan for the business the legal technological and IP ownership of the alliance collaboration or partnership must be included. v Plan for contingencies – Funding plan is always an estimation of costs based on experience and guesswork. it is prudent to include a contingency fund. vi Use forecasting models when possible – Using forecasting model of one-year projections generally have a high reliability but the reliability of five year views are generally low. vii Link RD to revenue growth - By breaking down the RD budget into product related investment streams the link between revenue growth and RD spend can be modelled. viii Bring in the experts - Bring in the staff that will be involved in the project to get the finer details of what will be involved and required. ix Consider the sources of funding – The sources of funding should be considered to create or take advantage of new technologies to support individual business units with next- generation products to help win increased market share. 23. Discuss the various methods for evaluating RD. Ans. The following are some of the important methods: i Peer Review/Expert Judgment Method ii Programme Performance Monitoring iii Bibliometric Method iv Data Mining v Hotspot Patent Analysis and vi Network Analysis. Peer Review/Expert Judgment is qualitative review opinion and advice from experts on the subject being evaluated based on objective criteria. The method combines program performance information with the many years of cumulative experience of the subject-matter experts and focuses that informed expertise and experience on addressing key questions about a program initiative project proposal paper topic or other subject of focus. While information from other sources including other methods of evaluation may provide influential evidence the ultimate conclusions about performance are based on the judgment of the experts. slide 14: Programme Performance Monitoring is a continuous assessment of key program functions organized internally by program management and carried out on an on-going basis. Monitoring entails setting up a data collection system for compiling key data on program activities of participants interim achievements and outputs. The resulting data can be used to develop interim performance metrics or “indicators” of program progress outputs and outcomes and are helpful in keeping a program on track and for guiding mid-course corrections. The data also contribute to evaluation studies. In Bibliometric Method counting of publications patents are often used by RD programs as indicators of program knowledge outputs. Citation analysis of publications and patents is used to reveal relationships and linkages between a program’s knowledge outputs and efforts undertaken by others. Citations demonstrate the dissemination of knowledge creating conditions for knowledge spill-over benefits. The frequency of citations may signal the importance of a program’s knowledge outputs to others. Counts of publications and patents filed are often included among an RD program’s outputs and measures of patents granted and Citations of publications and patents are often used in assessing an RD program’s outcomes. Data mining is the extraction of key concepts or relationships from large quantities of digitized natural language text. The method has also been called “literature-based discovery” LBD a descriptive name. As in the case of the other bibliometric methods this approach focuses on written documents - a major output of research and may include reports publications and textual components of patents or other documents. Data mining enables the efficient and effective management and use of large volumes of RD texts by making it possible to integrate across document collections and to discover new information from existing sources. Hotspot patent analysis identifies patents that are highly cited by recently issued patents. The technique offers an unobtrusive and unbiased way to uncover technological “hotspot clusters” i.e. patented technologies that are currently having a large impact on innovation. According to recent studies approximately 2 of recent patents are designated as hotspots. Old patents can also be hotspots if there is a recent big spike in citations of them. Network Analysis” NA is a method of visually mapping and measuring relationships and linkages among researchers groups of researchers laboratories or other organizations. Network analysis shows how knowledge particularly tacit knowledge is disseminated via a variety of communication flows. Network analysis is relevant to evaluation of RD programs because it identifies routes of interactions by which ideas knowledge and information flow among participants in RD thereby possibly influencing the nature quality quantity and speed of research and innovation as well as the dissemination of created knowledge through the network. RD Management – Unit III slide 15: 24. How do you assess Knowledge Discuss. Ans. Corporate knowledge is created captured distributed and shared throughout the organisation. Organisational knowledge can indeed be quantified measured and assessed. This is done by examining the tacit knowledge residing with the knowledge-people and the explicit knowledge residing in the organisation’s data and document storage systems. Measurement and assessment further involves detailed examination of the knowledge - capture creation distribution and dissemination processes and the capabilities of enabling technology that facilitates speed and efficiency of these processes. Accounting of all intangible assets and intellectual property such as: human capital customer capital patents and brands show the corporate value of knowledge. The value of intangible-knowledge-assets can be assessed by demonstrating - how it can be converted into purchasable goods and services. Knowledge Audit is a systematic and scientific examination and evaluation of the explicit and tacit knowledge resources in the company. The knowledge audit can provide accurate identification quantification measurement and assessment of the sum total of tacit and explicit knowledge in the organisation. The knowledge audit process facilitates the mapping of internal organisational knowledge sources and the flow of knowledge within the organisation. It charts the formal and informal knowledge and communication networks and the internal external relationships that exist within this environment. It provides a clear indication of how well corporate knowledge is currently exploited for business and competitive advantage. It contributes to the company’s improvement of its market and financial value. 25. Discuss the Accumulation of Knowledge. Ans. We carry around a great deal of knowledge and experience in our mind. We have a great deal of experiential intelligence. This has been accumulated over many years. We use much of this knowledge freely and easily - nearly effortlessly. When we are talking we formulate an idea in our head translate it into words and speak the words. When we want to use a fork to get a bite of food from a plate and transfer it to our mouth little conscious effort is required. We routinely solve many of the problems that we encounter by just using the knowledge we have accumulated throughout our lifetime. Collectively the human race has accumulated a great deal of knowledge far more than any one person can learn. Much of this accumulated knowledge is stored in peoples heads. A great deal is stored in books films tapes paintings and other artefacts an increasing percentage of that knowledge in present day is stored in computer systems. A computer is an excellent aid to building on the previous work of other people. Many of the problems that people want to solve can be solved by finding out how others have solved the same problem in the past and then doing what they did. The libraries and other information sources throughout the world are being computerized and networked together. Networked Computers can be used as accumulated knowledge to find out the solution for a slide 16: particular problem. An increasing amount of human knowledge is being stored in computer systems. Often it takes relatively little time and effort to learn to make use of this form of previously developed knowledge. 26. How do you leverage knowledge Discuss. Ans. Leveraging Knowledge can be done through Knowledge Management systems. There are four knowledge management systems: i Knowledge discovery systems ii Knowledge capture systems iii Knowledge sharing systems and iv Knowledge application systems. Knowledge discovery system supports the process of developing new tacit or explicit knowledge from: data information or the synthesis of prior knowledge. Two KM sub- processes are associated with KM discovery: Combination enabling the discovery of new explicit knowledge and Socialization enabling the discovery of new tacit knowledge. Knowledge capture systems support the process of retrieving either explicit or tacit knowledge. It captures the knowledge which is residing within/outside organizational boundaries with: Consultants Competitors Customers Suppliers and Prior employers of the organization’s new employees. Knowledge sharing systems support the process through which explicit/tacit knowledge is communicated to other individuals. Depending on whether explicit or tacit knowledge is shared exchange or socialization processes are used. Socialization facilitates sharing of tacit knowledge in cases where new tacit knowledge is created. Exchange focuses on sharing of explicit knowledge. Knowledge Application Systems contribute directly to organizational performance when used for making decisions performing tasks. Knowledge Application Systems make use of two KM sub-processes: Routines such as organizational policies and Direction such as help desks and support centers. 27. Why is RD important Ans. RD is important due to the following reasons: i Fast changing environment ii Continuous technology change iii Competition iv Changing consumer preferences v To survive in the market vi To gain advantages in the market by: a Understanding what market needs b Having technology suitable for making the products and c Having efficient production processes. 28. What are the typical RD functions in Business Ans. The typical RD functions in business are: i Development of New Products/Services - This usually is the primary function of RD. slide 17: ii Product Maintenance - It is the most important secondary function of RD- short term income is important. iii Product Enhancement - It helps to keep the company’s products ahead of the competitors and extend the life of its products. iv Regulatory Compliance - It is a legal requirement- products sold in a country must ensure compliance to laws of the country. v Quality and RD Interface - The quality is a major issue and RD is heavily involved in ensuring new products attaining the required level of quality. 29. Discuss the typical business strategy of a company. Ans. The typical business strategy of a company can be as follows: i To provide support infrastructure to ensure business success ii To match RD to market realities and opportunities iii To study and forecast the state of operating environment iv To have capacity to adjust to changes e.g. climate change v To conduct Risk analysis and vi To carry out Capability analysis. 30. Is there any need to integrate RD to overall business strategy Ans. RD should not be independent of business strategy. RD should be part of the business support infrastructure. It’s aims should be: i To provide support to existing businesses by keeping them competitive and improving efficiencies and effectiveness ii To drive new businesses and opportunities and iii To broaden and deepen technological capability for long-term benefits 31. Discuss Business Context for RD. Ans. Research and development RD is more important for some companies than others. A software company would spend more money on RD than a retail sales company. Technology companies survive by developing more effective technology than their competitors. A company like Apple has many employees that work in RD because Apple competes in its market by first developing and then releasing the devices that are better and more appealing than those created by its competitors. The high tech. software or pharmaceutical companies need to pay more attention in RD to develop state of the art products or services. Since Revenue is generated by these companies by selling their products/services. These products/services should be more useful and advanced than its competitors. These companies need more investment in RD for innovation. RD Management – Unit IV 32. What is Technology Absorption Ans. Technology Absorption refers to the acquisition development assimilation utilization slide 18: of technological knowledge and capability by a firm. It occurs between transferring receiving entities. 33. Discuss Structure/Components of Technology Absorption. Ans. Technology Absorption involves following four basic components: i Hardware – This refers to particular physical structure and layout which are part of absorption process. ii Software – This refers to ‘know-how’ of carrying out tasks to achieve goals objectives. iii Brainware - This refers to application justification of hardware software development ‘know-what’ ‘know-why’ of technology what to employ how when where and why. iv Support Net - This refers to complex network of physical informational and socio– economic transformations that support the proper use and functioning of given technology. 34. How do organizations manage technology absorption Ans. The organizations take following steps to manage technology absorption: i Developing good understanding and mutual trust between technology transferor and technology recipient organizations. ii Providing proper clearcut and well-defined agreement between technology transferor and technology recipient organizations. iii Developing time-bound and target-oriented schedule for technology absorption. iv Getting top management support to technology absportion. v Using of multifunctional teams by the technology acquirin

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