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Information about QUMRAN COMPRESSED

Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Nivedi

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Dead Sea Scrolls Slide2:  Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest available Hebrew manuscript of the Old Testament was one produced around 1000 AD, almost 1400 years after the last book (Nehemiah, c.425 BC) was composed. Slide3:  According to carbon dating, textual analysis and handwriting analysis the scrolls recovered from caves in and around Wadi Qumran near the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran were written at various times between the middle of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD. Slide4:  Scrolls represent about 500 books, divided into two categories. 100 are books of the Hebrew Bible; rest are sectarian (non-biblical). Every book represented except for Esther. Most books are in fragmentary form, but some are relatively complete. Slide5:  Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls Slide6:  Discovered in 1947 by Bedouin goat- or sheep herder Mohammed Ahmed el-Hamed (nicknamed edh-Dhib, “the wolf”). Slide7:  Most commonly told story: He threw a rock into a cave to drive out a missing animal under his care. Slide8:  The sound of shattering pottery drew him into the cave, where he found ancient jars containing seven scrolls wrapped in linen. Slide9:  Scrolls first brought to Bethlehem antiquities dealer Ibrahim ‘Ijha, who returned them after being warned that they may have been stolen from a synagogue. Slide10:  The scrolls then fell into the hands of Khalil Eskander Shahin (nicknamed “Kando”), a cobbler and antiques dealer in Bethlehem. Slide11:  By most accounts the Bedouin removed only three scrolls following their initial find and, encouraged by Kando return, revisited the site to gather more. Alternatively, Kando engaged in his own illegal excavation. He possessed at least four scrolls. Slide12:  Arrangements with Bedouin left the scrolls in the hands of a third party, George Isha’ya, until a sale could be negotiated. Isha’ya, a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, contacted St. Mark’s Monastery in Jerusalem hoping for an appraisal of the texts. Slide13:  News of the find reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel (referred to as “Mar Samuel”). After examining the 4 scrolls, Mar Samuel negotiated a purchase for about $97.00, intending to re-sell them on behalf of the church. Slide14:  In the meantime, another man had been following the rumors about ancient scrolls. E. L. Sukenik of Hebrew University, an expert on ancient texts and archaeologist, acquired three scrolls not bought by Mar Samuel. Slide15:  Israel’s 1947 War of Independence forced Mar Samuel to move the scrolls in his possession first to Beirut, Lebanon and ultimately to Worcester, Massachusetts. Despite his best efforts, there were few interested buyers in the U.S. In a desperate attempt at publicity, Mar Samuel took the scrolls to the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. for display. Slide16:  With nothing to lose, Mar Samuel placed an ad in the Wall Street Journal on June 1, 1954: Slide17:  The ad was brought to the attention of E.L. Sukenik’s son, recently retired general of the Israeli Defense Forces, Yigael Yadin, who had returned to his first love, archaeology. Working through an intermediary, Yadin purchased Mar Samuel’s 4 scrolls for $250,000 and returned them to Israel. Slide18:  Throughout most of the 1950s into the 1960s, Jordanians and Israelis scoured their respective portions of the Judean Desert, searching for more scrolls. Ultimately, 11 caves with scrolls were discovered. Slide19:  June 1967 - Israel defeated Arabs in the Six Day War. Israel occupied Palestine to the Jordan River, gaining control of Khirbet Qumran, the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum and all the scrolls (except the Copper Scroll and fragments from Cave 1 sent to Amman, Jordan). Slide20:  Essenes Slide21:  Josephus identified Essenes as one of three major Jewish sects —with Pharisees and Sadducees —of that period. Practiced frequent baptism. Required to commit to a three year study period, prior to acceptance into the Brotherhood. Slide22:  Sadducees: Priestly and aristocratic families who interpreted the law more literally than the Pharisees. Dominated Temple worship and its rites, including the sacrificial cult. Recognized precepts derived directly from the Torah as binding. Denied the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the existence of angels. Unpopular with the common people. Slide23:  Pharisees: The Pharisees, unlike the Sadducees, maintained the validity of the oral as well as the written law. Flexible in their interpretations and willing to adapt the law to changing circumstances. Believed in an afterlife and in the resurrection of the dead. By the first century AD they came to represent the beliefs and practices of the majority of Palestinian Jews. Slide24:  Essenes: Separatist group, some of whom formed an ascetic monastic community and retreated to the wilderness of Judea. Shared material possessions and occupied themselves with disciplined study, worship, and work. Practiced ritual immersion and ate their meals communally. One branch did not marry. Slide25:  More about the Essenes: Essenes lived a communal life: collective ownership, elected a leader whose orders they obeyed, forbidden from swearing oaths and sacrificing animals, controlled their temper, served as channels of peace, carried weapons only as protection against robbers, had no slaves but served each other, did not engage in trading, may have been strict vegetarians. Slide26:  Essenes supported descendents of Zadok who served during time of David and Solomon as the only legitimate high priests. Essenes viewed Hasmonean priest/kings as usurpers. Essene leader known as the Teacher of Righteousness, possibly the High Priest forcibly retired (and killed?) when Alexander Jannaeus of the Hasmonean dynasty was appointed to replace him. Slide27:  Enemies of the Essenes were called “Sons of Darkness.” Called themselves “Sons of Light,” “the poor,” and members of “the Way” (same as early Christians). Thought of themselves as “the holy ones,” who lived in “the house of holiness,” because “the Holy Spirit” dwelled with them. Slide28:  Essenes believed in immanent arrival of the Messiah. Looked to a time of God’s judgment when the wicked would be punished and the righteous rewarded. Were not confined to Qumran; according to Josephus they lived “in large numbers in every town.” Essene quarter in Jerusalem. Slide29:  Qumran community apparently lived and slept in huts, tents and caves outside the settlement. Essenes at Qumran may have been celibate, but Essenes, like other Jewish sects, were not forbidden to marry and have children. Word Essene is never distinctly mentioned in the scrolls. Essenes refer to themselves in the scrolls as “Judah.” Slide30:  Khirbet Qumran Slide31:  Located on dry plateau about a mile west of the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, 8.5 miles south-southwest of Jericho, 13 miles east-southeast of Jerusalem (about 40 minute drive). Identified with the “City of Salt,” a frontier post in the tribal territory of Judah listed in Joshua 15:62. Constructed during reign of Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus (134-104 BC). Slide32:  Finds of pottery and coins indicate Qumran was occupied at distinct periods:135 BC to 68 AD. About 135 BC - Occupied by Essenes until 31 BC earthquake destroyed water systems and walls. About 4 BC - Essenes returned; buildings repaired, tower reinforced, shaken walls buttressed, new rooms erected and industrial kilns constructed. Slide33:  68 AD (2 years before destruction of Temple) - Romans under General Titus destroyed site during the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70 AD) Just before the Romans came, the members of the community hid their scrolls in nearby caves. 70 AD - Jerusalem and Temple destroyed. 73 AD - Masada fell. Slide34:  132-135 AD - Qumran last occupied by Jewish insurgent during second revolt against Rome (Bar Kochba Revolt). Use ruins as stronghold or hiding place. Slide35:  Qumran from the west Slide36:  Qumran looking southwest (caves 4 and 5 in bluff beyond) Slide37:  Aerial view from the west: remains lie on barren plateau above deep valley of Wadi Qumran Slide38:  Cister n Assembly and dining hall Scriptorium Cistern 1st Temple period? Aqueduct Aqueduct Potter’s kiln Tower Bath with cracked stairs Visitor center Slide39:  Aqueduct Kitchens Potter’s Kiln Scriptorium Laundry Assembly Hall Tower Scroll caves 4&5 Slide40:  Site plan at Qumran Slide41:  Watchtower in the middle of the north side of the settlement. Most people approached Qumran from Jerusalem and Jericho to the north. Slide50:  Stairs of mikvah with crack caused by 31 BC earthquake Slide55:  Aqueduct Slide56:  A spring at Ain Feshkah, 1 1/2 miles south, supplied abundant water Slide58:  Assembly hall/communal dining room Slide59:  This long room was used for communal meals.  Residents ate in silence at three rows of tables.   Slide61:  Pottery kiln (labeled “Artist’s Kiln”) Slide62:  Two-story “Scriptorium” Slide63:  View of Dead Sea from the Scriptorium Inkwells and “writing benches” found here, suggesting that a second story was where scrolls were copied. Slide64:  No scrolls were found in the “Scriptorium” or in the ruins.  But the same unique pottery was found at both the site and in caves with the scrolls, helping connect the two. Slide66:  Remains of Scribal benches Slide67:  Reconstruction of scribal bench in use Slide72:  Mausoleum Slide73:  Cooking pot with sheep bones in situ Slide75:  Mausoleum Slide76:  Recent discovery proves the Essenes occupied Qumran Slide77:  The nature of the settlement at Qumran has been the subject of a lively debate. Traditional view, supported by a majority of scholars: settlement was inhabited by Essene monks who observed strict rules of ritual purity and celibacy and who wrote many of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Another view: people living at Qumran were farmers, potters or soldiers, and had nothing to do with the Essenes. The scrolls were written in Jerusalem and stashed in caves at Qumran by Jewish refugees fleeing the Roman conquest of the city in the first century AD. Slide78:  Researchers found latrines used by the residents of Qumran. Prove that the Essenes resided at Qumran and wrote the scrolls found in the nearby caves. Slide79:  Instructions in two Dead Sea Scrolls (“War Scroll” and the “Temple Scroll”) specifically required latrines to be located a significant distance “northwest of the city,” and also “not visible from the city.” First century Jewish historian Josephus described similar exotic toilet practices among the religiously strict Essenes. Slide80:  Only members of a sect that paid close attention to hygiene would bother to walk hundreds of yards beyond their camp to relieve themselves, and expend the necessary energy to dig a pit in which to bury their waste. Slide81:  One problem with this conclusion: Archaeologists have already identified a toilet at Qumran inside the settlement. But one scholar believes it was for emergencies: In some cases, divine commandments notwithstanding, nine minutes outside the camp was too far to go! Slide82:  Ironically, despite their near-obsessive ritual use of pools for ritual cleansing and bathing the Essenes at Qumran were very unhealthy. Life expectancy was low—about 6% chance of living to age 40. The water in the bathing pools may have looked clean, but hygienically, it was rarely changed and very dirty with the potentially fatal pathogens shared by everyone. Slide83:  Mikveh cleansing is total immersion. Water gets in your ears, eyes and mouth. It is not hard to imagine how sick everyone must have been. Ironically, both the rigorous latrine and purification practices, combined with the lack of running water appear to be the most likely causes for early mortality at Qumran. Slide84:  Qumran Caves and Their Scrolls Slide85:  Scrolls found in 11 caves near Khirbet Qumran Caves numbered according to the order in which they were discovered Slide87:  Dead Sea Scrolls pre-date what was previously the oldest known biblical manuscript by about a thousand years. Show how accurately the texts were copied over many years. Slide88:  Most scrolls written in Hebrew using square Aramaic script, an alphabet adopted by the Jews after the fall of the Kingdom of Judea, about 586 BC. About 20 percent are in Aramaic (an ancient Semitic language spoken by Jews beginning about 900 BC; language of Jesus). A few written in Greek. Slide89:  Scrolls record prophecies by Ezekiel, Jeremiah and Daniel not found in the Bible. Scrolls contain previously unknown stories about Enoch, Abraham and Noah. Scrolls preserve never before seen psalms attributed to David and Joshua. Slide90:  Eight or more copies of several Old Testament books found, including the Pentateuch, Isaiah, Twelve Prophets, Psalms and Daniel. Scrolls also include sectarian literature—papers describing the rules, beliefs and practices of the sect that stored the scrolls. Slide91:  Some caves at Qumran seem to have been permanent libraries with built in shelves (like Cave 4, the closest to the settlement). Although the Qumran community existed during the time of Jesus’ ministry, none of the scrolls mention him or any of his followers. Slide92:  Location of Caves 1, 2, 3 and 11 Slide93:  Cave 1, the original discovery site Slide94:  View from inside Cave 1 Cave 1:  Cave 1 Along with Cave 4, yielded the greatest number of manuscripts. Scrolls were stored in jars, unlike Cave 4 where they were kept on shelves, as in a library for reference.  Slide96:  Thanksgiving Hymns from Cave 1 Slide97:  Thanksgiving Hymns. Written on leather; estimated to have been ten feet long and about twelve inches wide. Some parts were folded, not rolled. Poems in the scroll are similar to biblical Psalms. Primarily hymns of thanksgiving with two fundamental themes: salvation and knowledge. Some believe it was written by The Teacher of Righteousness; others believe it was written by a disciple(s). Slide98:  Habakkuk Commentary from Cave 1 Slide99:  Habakkuk Commentary Scroll Copied about 30 BC-20 AD. Represents style of composition unique to the sect. Interprets Habakkuk 1:5 concerning the revelation of prophetic knowledge about the “End of Days” to the priest, who is commonly identified with the sect’s Teacher of Righteousness. Slide100:  Daniel Scroll fragments from Cave 1 Daniel 3:26-27 Slide101:  Written in Aramaic on parchment about 4 BC-68 AD. Daniel 3:26-27 is not present on any other Dead Sea Scroll, so this is the earliest witness to the text, actually written in the lifetime of Christ and the Apostles. Slide102:  Community Rule Scroll from Cave 1 Slide103:  Community Rule Written in Hebrew on parchment between 1st century BC-1st century AD. Also known as The Manual of Discipline Describes the rules ordering the communal life of the sect. Deal with the manner of joining the group, relations between members, their way of life and their beliefs. The large number of surviving fragments of this scroll indicate its importance to the sect. Slide104:  Isaiah Scroll from Cave 1 Slide105:  Another section of the Isaiah Scroll Slide106:  Isaiah Scroll. Dated around 100 BC. Only fully intact scroll. Contains entire book of Isaiah—all 66 chapters! Slide107:  Rule of the Community or Manuel of Discipline from Cave 1 Slide108:  Rule of the Community or Manual of Discipline. Contains description of sectarian group whose beliefs and practices resembled those of an ancient pacifist sect known as the Essenes. One of the original seven scrolls discovered by the Bedouin; one of the four acquired by Mar Samuel, then by Yigael Yadin. Slide109:  Unopened Thanksgiving Scroll from Cave 1 Slide110:  Unrolled Thanksgiving Scroll from Cave 1 Slide111:  Thanksgiving Scroll or Hodayot. Another of the original seven scrolls discovered by the Bedouin in 1947. Gets its name from the recurring use of the phrase “I thank you” in many of the poems. Scroll talks about and to God, exalts God’s power and perfection, in contrast with the weakness, dependency, unworthiness of the human condition. Other themes include: salvation of the just and destruction of the wicked. Slide112:  Words of Moses Scroll remnants from Cave 1 Slide113:  Words of Moses. Type of literature called Testament or Farewell Discourse, the “last words” of a famous person to followers giving predictions of the future, warnings of dangers and instructions on behavior. Perhaps intended to serve as a reminder to the people to obey the commandments given by God through Moses. It may also have served as a warning of what would happen if they did not. Slide114:  Unopened Genesis Apocryphon from Cave 1 Slide115:  Genesis Apocryphon. Dated 2nd century BC-1st century AD Retells the story of parts of Genesis, embellishing it and adding details. Should probably be called “Book of the Patriarchs,” because it recounts in embellished form the stories of Noah and Abraham. Actually copied during the lifetime of Jesus. Slide116:  Cave 2 Slide117:  Inside Cave 2 Cave 2:  Cave 2 Bedouin discovered 30 fragments of scrolls, including Jubilees and ben Sirach in the original Hebrew. Cave 3:  Cave 3 Contained 11 scrolls: fragments of 10 scrolls plus the unique Copper Scroll. Slide120:  Copper Scroll from Cave 3 Slide121:  Copper scroll displayed at museum in Amman, Jordan Slide122:  Copper Scroll Two oxidized rolls of beaten copper (the Copper Scroll). Contains a lengthy list of 64 underground hiding places in Israel (real or imaginary?) where amounts of gold, silver, aromatics and manuscripts, believed to be treasures from the Temple at Jerusalem, were hidden for safekeeping. Cave 4:  Cave 4 Contained the largest find: about 15,000 fragments from at least 600 manuscripts. Scrolls in Cave 4 were stored on shelves (not in jars as in cave 1). When the wooden shelves rotted and collapsed, the climate took its toll on the documents.  Slide124:  Panorama of the bluff containing Caves 4 and 5, across the wadi from the Qumran settlement Slide125:  Caves 4 and 5 Slide126:  Inside Cave 4 Slide127:  1 Samuel from Cave 4 Slide128:  1 Samuel Scroll One of three Samuel scrolls from Cave 4 Discovered 1952 in clandestine excavations by Bedouin. Slide129:  Nahum Commentary found in Cave 4 Slide130:  Nahum Commentary Lines from book of Nahum (chapter 2) are interpreted to refer to the dominant political powers in Judea in the writer’s own time. Two successors of Alexander the Great are named: Demetrius (who invaded Israel in 88 BC) and Antiochus (against whom the Maccabean uprising began in c. 166 BC). Text also refers to a person known as the ‘Lion of Wrath... who hangs men alive,’ possibly a reference to crucifixion and its introduction into Israel by the Hasmonaean King Alexander Jannaeus. Slide131:  Damascus Document Cave 4 Slide132:  Damascus Document Scroll Dated to the late 1st century AD. Collection of rules and instructions reflecting the practices of a sectarian community. Includes two elements: Text addresses a community which fled from Judea to the "Land of Damascus." Urges the community to remain faithful and sets out a list of legal precepts, rituals and rules for the community to observe. Slide133:  War Rule from Cave 4 Slide134:  War Rule Scroll (six-line fragment). Copied on parchment, early first century AD. Refers to a Messiah from the Branch of David, to a judgment and a killing. Text (line 4) can be translated “and the Prince of the Congregation, the Branch of David, will kill him,” or alternately as “and they killed the Prince.” Because of the second reading, the text was dubbed the “Pierced Messiah,” alluding to a triumphant Messiah (Isaiah 11:4). A “piercing messiah” reading supports the traditional Jewish view of a triumphant messiah. If the fragment were interpreted as speaking of a “pierced messiah,” it would anticipate the New Testament view of the preordained death of the messiah. Slide135:  Enoch Scroll from Cave 4 Slide136:  Enoch Scroll Copied on parchment about 200-150 BC. Portion of text reads: “[They (the leaders) and all... of them took for themselves] wives from all that they chose and [they began to cohabit with them and to defile themselves with them]; and to teach them sorcery and [spells and the cutting of roots; and to acquaint them with herbs.] And they become pregnant by them and bo[re (great) giants three thousand cubits high...] [They (the leaders) and all...of them took for themselves]” Slide137:  Torah Precepts from Cave 4 Slide138:  Torah Precepts from Cave 4 Slide139:  Torah Precepts Scroll Copied on parchment, late first century BC-early first century AD. Unique document, in the form of a letter. Outlines religious laws peculiar to the sect, and in opposition to the law practiced by the Temple in Jerusalem. Slide140:  Sabbath Sacrifice Scroll from Cave 4 Slide141:  Sabbath Sacrifice Scroll Copied on parchment mid-first century AD. Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, also known as “Angelic Liturgy,” is a liturgical work composed of thirteen separate sections, one for each of the first thirteen Sabbaths of the year. Songs evoke angelic praise and elaborate on the angelic priesthood, the heavenly temple, and Sabbath worship in the heavenly temple. Eight manuscripts of this work were found in Qumran Cave 4; one in Cave 11. Slide142:  Leviticus 26:3-9 from Cave 4 Slide143:  Leviticus Scroll with Leviticus 26:3-9, 33-35 Written in Hebrew on light brown leather, 30 BC-68 AD. Unique scroll, not belonging to any other Leviticus scrolls. Leviticus 26:3-9 is the earliest witness to this part of the Hebrew Bible. Slide144:  Calendrical Document Scroll from Cave 4 Slide145:  Calendrical Document Scroll Copied on parchment, 50-25 BC. A significant feature of the community was its calendar, based on a solar system of 364 days, unlike the common Jewish lunar calendar, which consisted of 354 days. Calendar played a role in the schism of the community from the rest of Judaism, as the festivals and fast days of the group were ordinary work days for the mainstream community. Slide146:  Joshua Scroll from Cave 4 (Joshua 1:7-12; 2:2-3) Slide147:  Joshua Scroll with Joshua 1:7-12; 2:2-3. Written on brown leather, late 1st century BC - early 1st century AD. Only 2 other fragmentary Dead Sea Scrolls of Joshua found at Qumran with parts of the chapters 2, 3, 6-8, 10 and 17, making it the earliest witness to this part of the Bible. Slide148:  Fragment of a commentary on Hosea from Cave 4 Hosea 2:8-14 Slide149:  Hosea Commentary Copied on parchment; late first century BC. Commentary, or “pesher,” on verses from the book of Hosea (2:8-14). Refers to the relationship of God, the husband, to Israel, the unfaithful wife. The document states that the affliction befalling those led astray is famine (either a metaphor or a reference to an actual drought mentioned in historical sources of that time. Slide150:  Judges Scroll from Cave 4 Judges 4:5-6 Slide151:  Judges Scroll (fragment with Judges 4:5-6). Copied on brown leather about 80-30 BC, Judges is only represented on fragments from the 3 Dead Sea Scrolls. The earliest witness to this part of the Bible. Slide152:  The Prayer For King Jonathan Scroll from Cave 4 Slide153:  The Prayer For King Jonathan Scroll Copied on parchment between 103-76 BC. King Jonathan mentioned in the text is Alexander Jannaeus of the Hasmonean dynasty who ruled Judea from 103 to 76 BC. Discovery of a prayer for the welfare of a Hasmonean king among the Qumran texts is unexpected because the community vehemently opposed the Hasmoneans. Scholars are exploring the possibility that unlike other Hasmonean rulers, Jannaeus was favored during certain periods by the Dead Sea community. Slide154:  Fragments of Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes) from Cave 4 Slide155:  Fragments of Qoheleth [Koheleth (Hebrew), Ecclesiastes (Greek)] Copied on parchment between BC. Qoheleth means “preacher” or “speaker.” Author poses as Solomon, the model of the biblical wise man, but the book was not written before 350-250 BC. Slide156:  Tobit Scroll fragment from Cave 4 Slide157:  Tobit Scroll (fragment with Tobit 14:4-6). Aramaic on papyrus, written about 50 BC, With other fragments, it is the earliest witness to this part of the Bible. Tobit (or Tobias), an apochryphal book in the Hebrew Bible, written 5th or 4th century BC. Present text is Tobit’s instructions given when near death in Nineveh to his son Tobias and his 7 sons. Tobit orders them to hurry to Media, as Assyria and Babylonia will not be safe according to the prophets’ of Israel. Slide158:  Community Rule fragment from Cave 4 Slide159:  Community Rule. Manuscripts of the Community Rule from Cave 4 confirm that the work existed in different versions. Most scholars hold that the document describes, together with the rest of the scrolls, the theology of the Essenes resident at Qumran. Slide160:  Isaiah Pesher, or Isaiah Commentary from Cave 4 Slide161:  Isaiah Commentary (Pesher) A kind of commentary not meant to explain the Bible when originally written, but its meaning to the Qumran community. This manuscript quotes verses from Isaiah 5 concerning punishment or destruction, and applies them to the “arrogant men,” the priests in Jerusalem who they saw as corrupt. Slide162:  Thanksgiving Psalms from Cave 4 Slide163:  Community Rule. Manuscripts of the Community Rule from Cave 4 confirm that the work existed in different versions. Most scholars hold that the document describes, together with the rest of the scrolls, the theology of the Essenes resident at Qumran. Slide164:  Cave 6 Cave 7-10:  Cave 7-10 Discovered 1955. Cave 7 contained 17 Greek documents which caused controversy in the following decades. Cave 8 had five fragments and Cave 9 held one fragment. Cave 10 contained only an ostracon. Slide166:  Cave 11 Slide167:  Inside Cave 11 Slide168:  Fragments of the Temple Scroll from Cave 11 Slide169:  Temple Scroll (fragments) Hebrew on parchment, late 1st century BC-68 AD, Longest scroll (present length 26.7 feet; originally must have been over 28 feet). Text was originally written about 150 BC, and purports to be the second Torah of the Community of Essenes, giving particularly attention to the way the Temple is to be reconstructed. Purpose of the scroll is to be a New Deuteronomy, a law for the remnant of Israel in the future. Slide170:  Leviticus Scroll from Cave 11 Top: entire scroll; bottom: left and right halves Slide171:  Leviticus Scroll Copied on parchment (sheep skin), dated first half of the 1st century AD. Discovered 1956 by Ta’amireh Bedouin, but first unrolled fourteen years later at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Comprises the last chapters of Leviticus, which deal with various matters such as the laws of worship, damages and slaves. Leviticus 23: 23-29 concerns the Israelite festivals, the Jewish New Year and the Day of Atonement. Slide172:  Psalms Scroll from Cave 11 Slide173:  Psalms Scroll Copied about 30-50 AD. Collection of psalms from the last third of the Psalter. Also has previously unknown hymns, as well as a prose passage about the psalms composed by King David. Numbering doesn’t follow that of today’s Bible. One of the longer texts to be found at Qumran. Surface is the thickest of any of the scrolls. Central column is a hymn of praise to Jerusalem. Slide174:  Most of the scrolls are in Israel. Some at the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum (Jerusalem). Some at the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum (Jerusalem). A few scrolls and scroll fragments are housed elsewhere, mainly in Jordan. Slide175:  Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, home of the original 7 Dead Sea Scrolls Slide176:  Viewing display in the Shrine of the Book Slide177:  Rockefeller Museum Slide178:  Recent Discovery: 3 Fragments of a Leviticus Scroll Slide180:  Leviticus Scroll Fragments Dated to the Second Jewish Revolt against Rome (132-135 AD). Not much bigger than a silver dollar. Found by Bedouin in 2004 at Nahal Arugot, just south of Ein Gedi. Small fragment (top) contains portions of Leviticus 23:38 and 39; other fragments: Leviticus 23:40-44; Leviticus 24:16-18. Qumran artifacts:  Qumran artifacts Slide182:  Sandals Slide183:  Combs Slide184:  Combs Slide185:  Sections of woven baskets Slide186:  Cloth Slide188:  Cloth Slide189:  Hoard of coins Slide190:  Front of Tyrian shekel: Laureate head of Melqarth/Heracles. Back of Tyrian shekel: eagle on prow Slide192:  Jars from the Houston Museum of Natural Science exhibit Slide193:  Scroll jars and lids Slide194:  Plates Slide195:  Spindle and whorls for weaving cloth Slide196:  Ropes Slide197:  Measuring cup Slide198:  Pottery and Ink Well Slide200:  Wooden bowl Slide201:  Ink well Slide202:  Ink wells Slide203:  Phylactery cases Slide204:  Dates and pits Slide205:  Temple Scroll linen wrapper Slide206:  Tabs used for securing scroll wrappers Slide207:  Stylus of palm with natural ink groove Slide208:  Exodus Scroll Slide209:  Taking a break to float in the dense waters of the nearby Dead Sea

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