Quipu (Ancient Inca Knot System)

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Published on March 14, 2014

Author: cachichien

Source: slideshare.net

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http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/CachiChien-2097757-quipu-ancient-inca-knot-system/

The Quipu was a system of knotted cords used by the Incas and its predecessor societies in the Andean region to store massive amounts of information important to their culture and civilization. El Quipu era un sistema de cuerdas anudadas utilizadas por los incas y sus sociedades predecesoras en la región andina, para almacenar grandes cantidades de información importante sobre su cultura y civilización.

A quipu usually consisted of colored, spun, and plied thread or strings from llama or alpaca hair. It could also be made of cotton cords. For the Inca, the system aided in collecting data and keeping records, ranging from monitoring tax obligations, properly collecting census records, calendrical information, and military organization Un quipu, generalmente, consistía en hebras de cuerdas coloridas, hiladas o dobladas hechas de pelo de llama o alpaca. También podían estar hechas de algodón. Para los incas, el sistema era una ayuda en la recopilación de datos y el mantenimiento de registros. Variaban desde el seguimiento de las obligaciones tributarias, a recoger adecuadamente los registros del censo, o información del calendario y hasta la organización militar.

The combination of fiber types, dye colors, and intricate knotting could be a novel form of written language, according to Harvard anthropologist Gary Urton. He claims that the quipus contain a seven-bit binary code capable of conveying more than 1,500 separate units of information. La combinación de los tipos de fibras, colores de tinte y los nudos intrincados podrían ser una nueva forma de lenguaje escrito, según el antropólogo de Harvard Gary Urton. Él afirma que los quipus contienen un código binario de siete “bits”, capaz de transportar más de 1.500 unidades de información separadas.

Simple Knot 8/Nudo 8 Values/Valores Largo/Long

The cords contained numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base ten positional system. A quipu could have only a few or up to 2,000 cords. Archaeological evidence has also shown a use of finely carved wood as a supplemental, and perhaps more sturdy, base on which the color-coordinated cords would be attached. Los nudos contenían valores numéricos y otras codificaciones en un sistema posicional basado en el diez. Un quipu podía tener hasta 2,000 cuerdas. La evidencia arqueológica ha mostrado también el uso de madera finamente tallada como soporte y, tal vez más fuerte, en la cual se adjuntaban las cuerdas de colores coordinados.

Quipucamayocs (Quechua khipu kamayuq, "khipu-authority"), the accountants of Tawantinsuyu, created and deciphered the quipu knots. Quipucamayocs could carry out basic arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They kept track of mita, a form of taxation. The quipucamayocs also tracked the type of labor being performed, maintained a record of economic output, and ran a census that counted everyone. The system was also used to keep track of the calendar. According to Guaman Poma, quipucamayocs could "read" the quipus with their eyes closed. Quipucamayocs (Quechua: “khipu kamayuq, khipu-autoridad”). Los contables de Tawantinsuyu, usaban e interpretaban los nudos quipu. Los Quipucamayocs podían realizar operaciones aritméticas básicas, como sumas, restas, multiplicaciones y divisiones. Ellos llevaban un registro de “la mita”, una forma tributaria. También registraban el tipo de trabajo que se realizaba, la producción económica y un censo que contaba a todos. El sistema también se utilizaba para realizar un seguimiento del calendario. Según Guaman Poma, los quipucamayocs podían "leer" los quipus con los ojos cerrados.

Un funcionario - quipucamayoc - dando “cuenta y razón” al inca del contenido de las bodegas estatales. Dibujo, Guamán Poma de Ayala [1615]. An official - quipucamayoc - giving "account and reason" about the content of the Inca state wineries. Drawing, Guaman Poma de Ayala [1615].

Astrólogo y poeta indígena portando un quipu . Dibujo del cronista indígena Guamán Poma de Ayala [1615]. Indian Astrologer and poet carrying a quipu. Drawing by Indian chronicler Guaman Poma de Ayala [1615].

Music: El Condor Pasa (Los Incas).

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