Questions & answers_MOB_Internal Assessment Test-I

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Published on December 15, 2017

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slide 1: 1 Questions Answers – Short Type Management and Organization Behavior Internal Assessment Test – I –By Dr. G C Mohanta PhD Multi-Choice Questions 1. High relationship orientation high task orientation leadership style is called as… b a Dedicated b Integrated Type c Related Type d Separated Type e None 2. High relationship orientation low task orientation leadership style is called as………………………………………………………………………………….…c a Dedicated b Integrated Type c Related Type d Separated Type e None 3. Low relationship orientation high task orientation leadership style is called as………………………………………………………………………………..……a a Dedicated b Integrated Type c Related Type d Separated Type e None 4. Low relationship orientation low task orientation leadership style is called as…………………………………………………………………………………….d a Dedicated b Integrated Type c Related Type d Separated Type e None 5. It is the ratio of useful output to total input or doing the thing right………………………………………………………………………….………b a Productivity b Efficiency c Effectiveness d All e None. 6. It is the degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved or doing the right thing…………………………………………………….c a Productivity b Efficiency c Effectiveness d All e None. 7. Controlling involves………………………………………………………………….d a establishing standards of performance b measuring work in progress and interpreting results achieved c taking corrective actions d All e None. 8. This approach focuses on decision-making processes individuals use in difficult situations.……………………………………………………………………………….…d a Rational b Behavioural c Practical d Personal e All f None 9. This approach attempts to account for the limits on rationality in decision-making…..b a Rational b Behavioural c Practical d Personal e All f None 10. This approach is appealing as it is logical and economical……………………………a a Rational b Behavioural c Practical d Personal e All f None 11. This approach combines features of the rational and behavioural approaches……….c a Rational b Behavioural c Practical d Personal e All f None 12. It is the systematic delegation of authority at all levels of management and throughout the organization……………………………………………………………………………b a Centralization b Decentralization c Recentralization d All e None. slide 2: 2 13. It means back to centralization where the top management may hold back the power or authority from the lower level managers which were earlier decentralized……………c a Centralization b Decentralization c Recentralization d All e None. 14. It is the systematic and consistent reservation of authority at central points in the organization……………………………………………………………………………a a Centralization b Decentralization c Recentralization d All e None. 15. If the manager operates in a known environment then it is called...........................b a Open decision making model b Closed decision making model c Both d None 16. If the manager operates in an unknown environment then it is called .....................a a Open decision making model b Closed decision making model c Both d None 17. Plans that set out general guidelines provide focus yet allow discretion in implementation are known as………………………………………………………….d a Long-Term Plans b Short-Term Plans c Specific Plans Plans d Directional Plans e None. 18. Plans with Time frames extending beyond three years are known as…………… a a Long-Term Plans b Short-Term Plans c Specific Plans Plans d Directional Plans e None. 19. Plans that are clearly defined and leave no room for interpretation are known as…..c a Long-Term Plans b Short-Term Plans c Specific Plans Plans d Directional Plans e None. 20. Plans with time frames of one year or less are known as……………………………b a Long-Term Plans b Short-Term Plans c Specific Plans Plans d Directional Plans e None. 21. Factors which influence internal and external attributions are…………………….d a Distinctiveness b Consensus c Consistency d All e None. 22. This error applies to the evaluation of someone else’s behavior it attributes success to the influence of situational factors and it attributes failure to the influence of personal factors.……………………………………………………………………………………a a Fundamental attribution error b Self-serving bias c both d None. 23. This error applies to the evaluation of our own behavior it attributes success to the influence of personal factors and it attributes failure to the influence of situational factors.……………………………………………………………………………….……..b a Fundamental attribution error b Self-serving bias c both d None 24. This type of personality trait refers to the tendency to experience negative feelings… b a Agreeableness b Neuroticism c Conscientiousness d All e None. slide 3: 3 25. This type of personality trait reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony……………………………………………………………………….a a Agreeableness b Neuroticism c Conscientiousness d All e None. 26. This type of personality trait concerns the way in which we control regulate and direct our impulses…………………………………………………………………………....c a Agreeableness b Neuroticism c Conscientiousness d All e None. 27. Persons differ from each other in their construction of events………………………b a Construction Corollary b Individuality Corollary c Organization Corollary d All e None. 28. A person anticipates events by construing their replications………………………. a a Construction Corollary b Individuality Corollary c Organization Corollary d All e None. 29. Each person characteristically evolves for his convenience in anticipating events a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs……………. c a Construction Corollary b Individuality Corollary c Organization Corollary d All e None. 30. A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomised construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system…………b a Dichotomy Corollary b Choice Corollary c Range Corollary d All e None. 31. A person’s construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs. ……………………………………………………………………………..…a a Dichotomy Corollary b Choice Corollary c Range Corollary d All e None. 32. A construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only……….c a Dichotomy Corollary b Choice Corollary c Range Corollary 33. A person may successively employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other………………………………………………c a Experience Corollary b Modulation Corollary c Fragmentation Corollary d All e None. 34. The variation in a person’s construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose ranges of convenience the variants lie…………………………b a Experience Corollary b Modulation Corollary c Fragmentation Corollary d All e None. 35. A person’s construction system varies as he successively construes the replication of events. ………………………………………………………………………………… a a Experience Corollary b Modulation Corollary c Fragmentation Corollary d All e None. slide 4: 4 36. To the extent that one person construes the construction processes of another he may play a role in a social process involving the other person.……………………………..b a Commonality Corollary b Sociality Corollary c Kelly’s Basic Postulate d All e None 37. To the extent that one person employs a construction of experience which is similar to that employed by another his psychological processes are similar to those of the other person. . …………………………………………………………………………………a a Commonality Corollary b Sociality Corollary c Kelly’s Basic Postulate d All e None. 38. A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events…………………………………………………………………………………….c a Commonality Corollary b Sociality Corollary c Kelly’s Basic Postulate d All e None. 39. As per Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivators are…………………….e a Supervision b Company Policy c Working Condition d All e None. 40. As per Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene Factors are ………………e a Achievement b Recognition c Work itself d All e None. 41. The trait possessed by an arrogant entitled self-important person who needs excessive admiration is known as …………………………………………………………………c a Core self-evaluation b Machiavellianism c Narcissism d All e None. 42. The degree to which people like or dislike themselves is the trait known as………..a a Core self-evaluation b Machiavellianism c Narcissism d All e None. 43. The trait possessed by a pragmatic emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means is known as ……………………………………………………..b a Core self-evaluation b Machiavellianism c Narcissism d All e None. 44. The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome is known as……………………………………………………………………b a Expectancy b Instrumentality c Valence d All e None. The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward to the individual…………..c a Expectancy b Instrumentality c Valence d All e None. 45. The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance is known as ………………………………………………………………a a Expectancy b Instrumentality c Valence d All e None. 46. This type of psychological contract results during company mergers and acquisition downsizing as well as related state of uncertainties in work life………………………c a Transactional b Relational c Transitional d All e None. slide 5: 5 47. This type of psychological contract results when employment arrangement is of a short- term or limited duration primarily focused on exchange of work in lieu of money…………………………………………………………………………………..a a Transactional b Relational c Transitional d All e None. 48. This type of psychological contract results from long-term employment arrangements based upon mutual trust and loyalty growth in career and remuneration comes mainly from seniority………………………………………………………………………………….b a Transactional b Relational c Transitional d All e None. Fill in the blanks: 1. ‘3D Model of Managerial Behaviour’ is also known as Reddin’s ‘3-D Leadership styles’. 2. A manager who is using a high Task Orientation and a high Relationship Orientation is an Executive. 3. Human engineering is also called Ergonomics. 4. The departments in line hierarchy are revenue generators. 5. The departments in staff hierarchy are revenue consumers. 6. Management is the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently through and with other people to achieve the goals of the organisation. 7. Classical Approach to management is thought of organisations in terms of purpose formal structure and common principles of organisation. 8. Human Relations Approach to management is based on the consideration of the social factors at work the groups leadership the behaviour of employees within an organisation. 9. Systems Approach to management is an attempt to reconcile the classical human relations approaches. 10. Contingency Approach to management assumes that there is no one best way to Management. 11. Management is the process of getting things done through other people to achieve the goals of the organisation. 12. Planning involves determination of a course of action to achieve desired results/objectives. 13. Staffing refers to provision of manpower for the execution of a business plan. 14. Directing deals with guiding and instructing people to do the work in the right manner. slide 6: 6 15. Coordination and integration of activities of different departments are essential for orderly working of an organisation. 16. Motivating means encouraging people to take more interest initiative in the work assigned. 17. Communicating involves a systematic and continuing process of telling listening and understanding. 18. Accountability can be described as answerability. 19. Negotiation is the process in which two or more parties reach an agreement even though they have different preferences. 20. Bureaucracy is an administrative system designed to accomplish large-scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals. 21. Decision making is the act of choosing one alternative from among a set of alternatives. 22. Planning involves defining the organization’s goals establishing an overall strategy for achieving these goals and developing plans for organizational work activities. 23. Strategic plans apply to the entire organization establish the organization’s overall goals and cover a long term period. 24. Operational plans specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved and cover a short time period. 25. Single-Use Plan is one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need of a unique situation. 26. Standing Plans are on-going plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly. 27. Internal attribution assigns the cause of the behaviour to some characteristic of the person such as ability personality or motivation. 28. External attribution assigns the cause of the behaviour to factors external to the person such as task difficulty or luck. 29. Extroverts enjoy being with people are full of energy and often experience positive emotions. 30. Introverts lack the exuberance energy and activity levels of extroverts. 31. Openness to experience style distinguishes imaginative creative people from down-to- earth conventional people. 32. Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. slide 7: 7 33. Content theories of motivation deal with hhuman needs and how people with different needs may respond to different work situations. 34. Process theories of motivation deal with how people give meaning to rewards and make decisions on various work-related behaviors. 35. Hygiene factors are extrinsic environmental factors which create job dissatisfaction. 36. Motivators are intrinsic psychological factors which create job satisfaction. 37. Strong need for achievement people take responsibility for results of behavior. 38. Strong need for power people focus on controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person. 39. Strong need for affiliation people focus on establishing maintaining and restoring positive affective relations with others. 40. Stereotyping is judging someone or something on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that belongs. 41. Profiling is a form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single often racial trait. 42. Selective perception is the selective interpretation of people on the basis of what they see based on their interests background experience and attitudes. 43. Halo Effect is drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. 44. Contrast effects are the evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. 45. Projection is the assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals. 46. Self-fulfilling prophecy is the tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find. 47. Impression management is the systematic attempt of a person to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. 48. Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels thinks and behaves. 49. Personality trait is the specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel think and act in certain ways. 50. The trait known as proactive personality identifies opportunities shows initiative takes action and perseveres to complete a task. slide 8: 8 51. The trait known as risk taking is the willingness of a person to take chances. 52. Psychological contracts are the beliefs individuals hold regarding the terms and conditions of the exchange agreement between themselves and their organisations. 53. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. 54. Organising means bringing the resources together and using them properly for achieving the objectives. 55. Attribution means the act of giving someone credit for doing something or the quality or characteristic of a particular person. Questions Answers: 1.What are the different leadership styles as per 3D Model of Managerial Behaviour As per 3D Model of Managerial Behaviour the different leadership styles are as follows: i Executive ii Compromiser iii Benevolent Autocrat iv Autocrat v Developer vi Missionary vii Bureaucrat and viii Deserter. 2.What are the main phases of the Hawthorne experiments The following are the main phases of the Hawthorne experiments: i The illumination experiments ii The relay assembly test room iii The interviewing programme and iv The bank wiring observation room. 3.What is Peter’s Principle Peter’s Principle states that ‘In a hierarchy - every employee tends to rise to their level of incompetence’. The promotion of a candidate for a position is based on the candidates performance in his/her current role rather than on abilities relevant to the intended role. Thus employees only stop being promoted once they can no longer perform effectively and "managers rise to the level of their incompetence”. 4.What is Parkinson’s Law Parkinson’s Law states that ‘Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.’ A sufficiently large bureaucracy will generate enough internal work to keep itself busy and so justify its continued existence without commensurate output. 5.What is Management By Objectives MBO Management By Objectives MBO can be defined as a process whereby the employees and the superiors come together to identify common goals the employees set their goals to be achieved the standards to be taken as the criteria for measurement of their performance and contribution and deciding the course of action to be followed. slide 9: 9 6.What is Management by walking around MBWA In Management by walking around MBWA practice managers spend a significant amount of their time making informal visits to work area and listening to the employees. It involves direct participation by the managers in the work-related affairs of their subordinates in contrast to rigid and distant management. 7.What is Management process Management process is defined as the process composed of interrelated social and technical functions and activities including roles occurring in a formal organizational setting for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined objectives through the utilization of human and other resources. 8.What are the steps in rational decision-making approach The following are the steps in rational decision-making: i State the Situational Goal ii Identify the Problem iii Determine Decision Type iv Generate Alternatives v Evaluate Alternatives vi Choose an Alternative vii Implement the Plan and viii Control. 9.What is authority and responsibility Authority means the power to take decisions it is the right power to influence the behavior or efforts of other persons. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty when a superior assigns a job to his subordinate it becomes the responsibility of the subordinate to complete the job. 10.What are the steps in planning The following are the steps in planning: i Setting Objectives ii Developing the planning premises iii Examining Alternative Course of Action iv Deciding the planning period v Formulation of policies and strategies vi Preparing operating plans and vii Integration and Implementation of plans. 11.What is Attribution theory Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: i Understand the causes of a certain event and behaviour of self or other person ii Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event and iii Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event. 12.What is Big 5 Model of Personality Traits Big 5 Model of Personality Traits places five general personality traits at the top of the trait hierarchy: i Extraversion ii Agreeableness iii Conscientiousness iv Neuroticism or inversely Emotional Stability and e Openness to Experience. 13.What is Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator is designed to identify a persons personality type strengths and preferences. In the heart of Myers Briggs theory there are four simple preferences: i Preference for outer world or our inner world: Extraversion E or Intraversion I ii Preference for basic information or interpreting and adding meaning to slide 10: 10 information: Sensing S or Intuition N iii Preference for looking at logic and consistency or looking at people and special circumstances: Thinking T or Feeling F and iv Preference for getting things decided or staying open to new information and options: Judging J or Perceiving P. 14.What is Personal Constructs People look at their world through templates that they create and then attempt to fit over the realities of the world. These templates or transparent patterns are personal constructs which shape behavior. 15.What is motivation Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need where effort is a measure of intensity or drive towards the organizational goals and need is the personalized reason to exert effort. 16.Discuss Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. As per Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory needs are categorized as five levels of lower-to higher-order needs as follows: i Physiological needs are the basic requirements of the human body such as food cloth shelter water sleep etc. ii Safety needs are desires of a person to be protected from physical and economic harm iii Belongingness and love needs social are desires to give and receive affection and be in the company of others iv Esteem needs are self-confidence and sense of self-worth and v Self-actualization needs are desires for self-fulfillment. 17.Discuss Alderfer’s ERG Theory. As per Alderfer’s ERG Theory the following are the three needs: i Existence E needs - These include an individual’s physiological and safety needs. ii Relatedness R needs - Social needs fall under this class of need. iii Growth G needs - Intrinsic component of needs such as achievement esteem and self actualization needs fall under this category of need. 18.Discuss McClelland’s Three Needs Theory. As per McClelland’s Three Needs Theory there are three major acquired needs that are major motivators in work: i Need for achievement nAch – It is the drive to excel and succeed. ii Need for power nPow – It is the need to influence the behavior of others and iii Need for affiliation nAff – It is the desire for interpersonal relationships. 19.What are the perceptual distortions errors The following are the Common perceptual distortions errors: i Stereotypes ii Profiling iii Halo effects iv Selective perception v Projection vi Contrast effects and vii Self-fulfilling prophecy. slide 11: 11 20.How manager should manage perceptual distortion Managers should manage perceptual distortion in following ways: i Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage ii Broaden their expectations based on past experience at the organizing stage and iii Be aware of the source or cause of something at the interpretation stage. 21.Which are organizationally relevant personality traits The following are organizationally relevant personality traits: i Locus of control ii Self-monitoring iii Self-esteem iv Type A and Type B personality v Need for achievement vi Need for affiliation and vii Need for power. 22.Discuss Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. As per Vroom’s Expectancy Theory the tendency to act in a certain way by an individual depends on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome reward and the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships: i Effort-performance ii Performance-reward and iii Rewards-personal goals where Effort is employee abilities and training/development undergone Performance is based on valid appraisal system and Reward is based on understanding of employee needs. 23.Discuss Porter and Lawler Theory. Porter and Lawler Theory states that the relationship amongst effort performance rewards satisfaction. Individual effort of an employee is basically dependent upon the value of expected reward. In anticipation of the expected reward employee effort leads to better performance. For better performance a person must have the necessary traits abilities and skills. The reward along with the equity of individual leads to his/her satisfaction. 24.Discuss Equity Theory. As per Equity Theory employees make comparison of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. Output of A/Input of A Output of B/Input of B – Inequity due to being under-rewarded Output of A/Input of A Output of B/Input of B - Equity Output of A/Input of A Output of B/Input of B - Inequity due to being over-rewarded. If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity fairness exists. If the ratios are perceived as unequal inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded. When inequities occur employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios or seek justice. 25.Discuss Goal Theory. Goal Theory states that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance. Intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be extended. More difficult the goal is higher will be the level of performance because challenging goals help us to get our attention and help us to focus on the goal. Difficult goals energize us because we have to work harder to attain them. slide 12: 12 26.What are the functions of Psychological Contract The functions of the Psychological Contract are as follows: i To reduce the insecurity of employees ii To fill the gaps in the employment relationship that cannot be addressed in a formal written contract iii To shape behaviour of the employees iv To help employees to weigh their obligations towards the organisation against the obligations of the organization towards them v To adjust their behaviour on the basis of critical outcomes and vi To give employees a feeling of influence on what happens to them in the organization. 27.Discuss the Process of Perception. The following are the Process of Perception: i Sensation – The process of receiving stimuli from the external and internal environment. ii Selection - The process used by a person to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. iii Organization - The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for storage and iv Translation - The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

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