Published on January 8, 2009
Quality of work and employment in Europe: ongoing changes and future challenges Greet Vermeylen, research manager European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (eurofound) 18/12/2008 1
Quality of work and employment : a multidimensional concept Career and employment security . Employment status . Income . Social protection . Workers’ rights Skills development Health and well-being . Qualifications Quality of . Health problems . Training work and employment . Risk exposure . Learning organisation . Work organisation . Career development Reconciliation of working and non-working life . Working/non-working time . Social infrastructures 18/12/2008 2
Measuring QWE through working conditions: the European Working Conditions Survey European wide survey – 4 waves already: 1991, 1995, 2000 (+01/02) and 2005, now preparing 5th wave 1 questionnaire / 25 languages and 16 variants 4th EWCS: 31 countries covered : EU27 + ACC2 + NO + SW 29680 interviews in total (1000/600 interviews per country) Workers survey: employees and self-employed (15+) (LFS def) Face to face interviews of around 35 minutes From 1991 to 2005: questionnaire has expanded from 30 to 100 questions – however attempt to keep ‘trends’ Revision of questionnaire with the support of an expert questionnaire development group Revision of the quality process and strict quality assurance mechanisms 18/12/2008 3
Measuring QWE through working conditions: the European Working Conditions Survey- ctd Covers different aspects of conditions of work and employment of European workers (more than 100 questions) Demographics, structure of workforce, job characteristics Working time : duration, organisation Physical and psychosocial work factors Nature of work Place of work /work organisation Work-life balance Job content and training Information and consultation Outcomes (health, job satisfaction, work life balance etc) Earnings Challenges of the survey: To give trends in EU working conditions in the last 15 years (where possible) To cover all European countries in a completely homogeneous way (allowing for detailed comparisons) 18/12/2008 4
Men and women at work: changes and challenges More people work in all sectors; however relative decline in manufacturing industry and increase in service industry Increasing proportion of women on the labour market (44% of the workforce) …Accompanied by a prevalence of part time (80 % of part timers are women) New way of organising work for couples … But high segregation in the labour market remains Occupational and sectoral segregation only 23% of workers work in gender mixed occupations Also pay, time, employment gender gaps persist 18/12/2008 5
Employment and part-time by gender 100 Employment rate - Men 90 80 70 Employment rate - Women 60 % 50 40 Part-time work rate - Women 30 20 Part-time work rate - Men 10 0 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Source: Eurostat, LFS 18/12/2008 6
Employment concentration (EWCS) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% men all women all Manufacture and mining Wholesale and retail trade Construction Education and health Transport and cummunication Public adminsitration and and defence Real estate Agriculture and fishing Hotels and restaurants Financial intermediation 18/12/2008 Electricity, gas and water supply 7
More women managers ... managing women Y o u r im m e d ia t e b o s s is … 100% 90% 2 0 .1 7 % 2 3 .1 6 % 2 4 .1 6 % 2 4 .8 1 % 2 8 .6 3 % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 7 9 .8 % 7 6 .8 % 7 5 .8 % 7 5 .2 % 7 1 .4 % 30% 20% 10% 0% EU15 EU15 EU25 (E U 1 5 ) (N M S ) 1995 2000 2005 (2 0 0 5 ) A m an A wom an 18/12/2008 8
Gender pay gap, EU27 employees only 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% male part-time female part-time male full-time female full-time Low est income band Highest income band 18/12/2008 9
Increase in ‘non-standard’ employment More part-time work(18,5%) More temporary employment (14%) More second jobs (4%) … but big differences over countries Some challenges: More flexibility in the labour market … and security? Life course: one job for life is (long time over) – more complex picture of division of work over the life course and within the couple Building up your rights in this more complex framework Challenge for individuals, companies, countries, European Union 18/12/2008 10
Rise in non-standard employment in the European Union, 1991-2005 (%) 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Self-employed Part-time Temporary Second job employment 1991 (EU12) 1995 (EU15) 2000 (EU15) 2005 (EU25) 18/12/2008 11
But some differences over countries… Temporary employment Part-time work < 10 % BG, CZ, EE, EL, ES, < 10 % AT, BE, BG, CZ, CY, LV, LT, HU, PL, DK, EE, IE, LV, PT, RO, SI, SK LT, LU, HU, MT, RO, SK, UK 10-20% DE, EL, FR, IT, 10-20% FR, IE, IT, LU, MT, CY, NL, T, SI, FI, PT, FI SE >20% BE, DE, DK, NL, AT, >20% ES, PL, PT SE, UK 18/12/2008 12
Parttime work: varies considerably across Europe (EWCS) 70 60 50 40 m f total 30 20 10 0 NL UK BE DK SE LU AT IE DE PL FR IT RO ES FI EE BG LT MT CZ EL HU PT LV CY SI SK Source: Fourth European Working Conditions Survey (2007) 18/12/2008 13
Working time Reduction of working hours due to a combination of : Increase of part time : 33% of women and 8% of men work part time Reduction of long weekly hours (>48 hrs) : 15% of workers, 44% of the self-employed Regular working hours and working week, still the norm : 58% of workers work the same number of hours every day, 74% the same number of days every week, 61% have fixed starting and finishing times Employers set working hours in majority of cases : 56% of workers 18/12/2008 14
Working hours 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2000 1995 1990 8.5% 8.7% 16.0% 35.5% 12.9% 18.5% EU12 8.7% 10.4% 19.9% 32.2% 12.4% 16.5% EU15 11.5% 11.5% 20.1% 32.8% 9.5% 14.6% EU15 10.9% 10.5% 21.3% 32.5% 11.0% 13.8% EU25 2005 11.6% 11.3% 24.1% 30.6% 10.2% 12.2% OMS 6.9%5.3%5.4% 43.6% 16.0% 22.8% NMS Less than 20h 21-34h 35-38h 39-41h 42-48h Mo 18/12/2008 15
But again considerable differences between countries Ave rage w e e k ly w ork ing hours in diffe re nt Europe an countrie s 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 TR RO EL BG PL HR SK HU PT SI CZ LV MT LT ES EE CY AT EU IT LU SE IE DE FI CH BE DK FR UK NO NL 18/12/2008 16
Combined working hours : women work the longest (EU27 only) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Part-time 7.3 23.5 male female 21.3 32.7 Full-time 43.1 7.9 male female 40.0 23.0 Paid working hours main job +Paid working hours second job +Commuting time +Unpaid working hours 18/12/2008 17
Working time flexibility does not increase as quickly as one tends to believe Work fixed starting and finishing times by gender, % 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 EU15 EU15 EU15 EU25 1995 2000 2005 2005 male female total Source: Fourth European Working Conditions survey 18/12/2008 18
Possibility to choose your working hours (by country) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% SE NL DK FI AT BE LU UK FR DE IE IT EE SI CZ SK PL ES LV MT LT RO HU EL PT CY BG Your working hours are entirely determined by yourself You can adapt your working hours within certain limits You can choose between several fixed working schedules They are set by the company with no possibility for changes Source: Fourth European Working Conditions survey 18/12/2008 19
And working differently … Increase in computer use Impact on where we work, when we work, how we work, work organisation and team work Increase in pace of work Work intensity : working to tight deadlines, high speed, not having enough time to get the job done: on the increase in the EU Pace of work dependant on others than yourself: mostly demand-led Service society Usually mix of different constraints, but mostly direct people’s demands Control over pace of work (autonomy): able to choose or change order of tasks, methods of work, speed of work, able to take a break when you wish Work organisation Different types of work organisation with different impact 18/12/2008 20
Substantial increase in computer use Does your main paid job involve working with computers? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1990 EU12 1995 EU15 2000 EU15 2005 EU25 (EU15) (2005) (NMS) All of the time Almost all of the time Around 3/4 of the time Around half of the time Around 1/4 of the time Almost never Never 18/12/2008 21
Increase in work intensity Does your job involve working at very high speed? 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% 1990 37.1% 16.8% 12.5% 10.9% 5.0% 10.6% 7.2% EU12 1995 29.4% 16.4% 11.6% 11.8% 5.9% 13.4% 11.6% EU15 2000 EU15 26.8% 17.2% 12.0% 12.4% 7.3% 13.7% 10.6% 2005 21.6% 18.7% 12.4% 12.3% 10.0% 15.1% 10.0% EU25 Never Almost never Around 1/4 of the time Around half of the time Around 3/4 of the time Almost all of the time All of the time 18/12/2008 22
Pace of work: demand led... 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Direct people's Work done by Performance The direct The movement demands colleagues targets control of your of a machine boss 2005 EU15 2005 NMS 1995 EU15 2000 EU15 2005 EU25 18/12/2008 23
Changing risks in a service society Physical risks are still prevalent: either stable or slightly on the increase Repetitive arm and hand movements, painful and tiring positions Psychosocial risks: differences over countries, sectors 18/12/2008 24
Exposure to physical risks : stable or on the increase 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Vibrations Noise Low temps Breathing in Handling Radiation Painful, tiring Repetitive smoke, fumes, chemical (welding light positions hand or arm dust or products / etc) movements powder substances 1990 EU12 1995 EU15 2000 EU15 2005 EU25 2005 EU25 2005 OMS 2005 NMS 18/12/2008 25
Bullying / harassment in the workplace 25 20 15 10 5 0 MT AT LV CY LT PT CZ IT FI SI NO RO BG IE BE DK EE UK DE SK SE ES NL EL PL LU HR FR CH TR HU M F 18/12/2008 26
Violence and harassment by sector 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 M Ag C Tr El Fi W R EU H Pu Ed on an ea ot na an ec ho ric bl uc e s l uf tri nc sp ic le ls u tru at es ac ltu ci sa ia ad or an io ta ct ty tu li re le n ta m io ,g te d nt re an an in n an nd re er as an .a d st d d m co au he an nd d re fis ed m m ta al d ra hi ia de m in th il t ng wa nt tio un in fe s ra te n g nc ic de rs at e io up n ply Threats of violence Violence Bullying / harassment Unwanted sexual attention 18/12/2008 27
Impact of work on health Impact of work on health, 2005 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Work affects health Reported symptoms: Backache Muscular pains Stress Fatigue Headache Irritability Anxiety Hearing Respiratory EU15 NMS 18/12/2008 28
Working differently: need to be able to cope with more change over life, transitions, learning possibilities and work organisation In order to smoothen changes in (working) life (transitions) : very important to keep up to date your skills Different ways to ensure continuous development of workers : training, work organisation (functional flexibility) However, huge differences over countries / high or low skilled workers Age of workers 18/12/2008 29
Training per educational level, age, contract 40 35 30 25 q28a_1. Have you undergone: Training paid for or provided by your employer, o 20 15 Occupation high low skilled Total 10 high skilledlow skilled high skilledlow skilled blue collar 5 q28a_1. Ha 42.94158 27.06726 17.54386 16.54453 28.93401 0 15.24795 7.365287 2.684498 3.636275 28.93401 it e ry y rs y rs ry y io n er r rm ry 57.05842 72.93274 82.45614 83.45547 71.06599 ss nge dar o ra e f in nda o ld nda -t e r le -3 9 -5 4 c at 20.26064 19.84576 12.61714 18.34244 71.06599 on yo u mp ed or Ind e co ry o ec o edu 25 40 s ec Total 100 100 100 100 100 F ix Te yrs or rs ma s t -s ry 35.50859 27.21105 15.30164 21.97872 100 per 55 yrs we r ti a P ri Po Up 24 Lo Te 18/12/2008 30
Access to training paid for by employer in previous 12 months 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IE EE DE FI CH EU HR FR HU TR MT IT PT NO RO SE BE UK DK ES NL PL EL SI LU CZ LT BG SK CY AT LV 18/12/2008 31
Some results from qualitative follow- up interviews on development in the job Different traditions in life-long learning across countries Costs is the most often cited reason for insufficient training provision Time pressure may become an obstacle to participation in training, self learning and using full potential and creativity Quality of training and use of acquired skills at work more important than quantity of training Teamwork positively perceived in terms of job development 18/12/2008 32
R o t at ing t asks and t eamwo rk, 2 0 0 5, emp lo yees o nly ( EU 2 7) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 48% Job involves r otating tasks OF WHICH: 78% Tasks r equir ing dif f er ent skills 72% Manager decides on r otation 51% Wor ker s decide r otation 60% Job involves teamwor k OF WHICH: 52% Teammember s decide division of tasks 29% Teammember s elect teamleader 18/12/2008 33
Another way of improving skills as well as increase (functional) flexibility in Europe: a typology of work organisation & impact on learning and developing yourself Discretionary learning forms (38% of employees) Overrepresentation of autonomy, learning dynamics, task complexity, self assessment of work as well as autonomous teamwork Lean production forms (26% of employees) Overrepresentation of teamwork, task rotation, quality management variables and objective determinants of pace of work Taylorist forms (20% of employees) Low autonomy, learning dynamics, complexity and overrepresentation of obj determinants of pace of work, repetitiveness, monotony and quality norms traditional and simple structure forms (16%) Poorly described by the variables of work organisation. 18/12/2008 34
Innovative forms of work organisation index 2 1 0 -1 -2 SE DK FI NL MT BE EE LU FR IE AT UK DE LV SI PL CZ HU PT IT RO CY ES EL SK LT BG 18/12/2008 35
Some changes and some challenges • The way we work is changing is the EU, and the way work is organised at company and household level as well as in society is changing … • Working conditions show considerable variations across Europe • More women in the workforce but gender gaps (pay, time, employment rate, as well as occupational and sectoral gaps) are still apparent across Europe • More flexibility for companies, flexibility for workers: but is all depends on how this can be supported at household (and societal) level • Work intensification on the increase • Health and safety risks are still an issue, including psychosocial risks, particularly in sectors with a high level of customer interaction • Low levels of training and competence development … big challenge in context of growing knowledge economy / drives to life long learning • Work organisation (autonomous teamwork etc) can play an important role in developing skills of workers : towards a learning organisation ? • Companies can make a difference … we find very interesting examples of good practice in Europe • Enhance quality of work in this new world of work is a constant challenge in which all actors have a 18/12/2008 to play and in which trust building in these changes is an important element role 36
Thank you More info: www.eurofound.europa.eu email@example.com 18/12/2008 37
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