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Published on November 29, 2007

Author: Arkwright26

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Semi structured interviews for examining intra-household gender and poverty impact of micro finance :  Semi structured interviews for examining intra-household gender and poverty impact of micro finance Ranjani.K.Murthy (used in India, Vietnam, Moldova, Sudan) Objectives:  Objectives To arrive at an understanding of why intra-household gender and poverty impact assessments are important in the context of micro finance programmes To learn from each other’s experiences in using semi structured interviews for assessing intra household gender and poverty impact of micro finance To evolve a checklist of issues for exploration of intra-household gender and poverty impact of micro finance programmes through individual interviews (Tamil Nadu and other contexts) To brainstorm on the dos and don’ts in carrying out such an assessment Qualitative methods:  Qualitative methods Qualitative research involves the use of qualitative data, such as interviews, review of documents, action-research, participant observation, ethnographic studies, sociogramming to understand and explain social phenomena. Intra household interviews are one amongst the qualitative methods Our experience is using intra-household interviews :  Our experience is using intra-household interviews Pair up with a person you do not know Find out the other person’s Name Organisation Experience in using quantitative methods for intra household gender and poverty impact assessment Introduce the other person in the larger group Why intra-household interviews are important for assessing poverty impact? :  Why intra-household interviews are important for assessing poverty impact? Household level poverty assessments often do not capture poverty* of women, girls, people with disability and elderly in the household as resources are not always equally distributed within the household. At times household level assessments may over estimate the poverty of men as they have greater access to household resources than women. * Poverty levels, process of slipping into poverty, means to overcome poverty (adapted, Mayoux, 2004) Why intra-household interviews are important for assessing gender impact? :  Why intra-household interviews are important for assessing gender impact? Household is one of the key institutional sites in which gender inequalities are played out Being considered ‘private’, household is the most difficult institution in which to bring about change Background:  Background Name Village Family size and composition Nature of household (several hearthholds, one hearthhold/nuclear family, one hearthhold/larger household) Marital status of the women Land holding of household Membership in micro finance and other groups (also since when, and in what position, whether attended training) Loans (No, amounts, purposes) and savings details of members Framework for assessing poverty and gender impact (Murthy,2000):  Framework for assessing poverty and gender impact (Murthy,2000) Capturing Changes :  Capturing Changes Compare situation before the group and as of now Compare changes in members and non members lives during the same period (of similar background - ‘before’ period) Explore causality of changes Ideally parameters to be evolved with women as a collectively Labour:  Labour May include changes in - strengths and weakness in work - decision to work - number and nature of livelihood of all household members - relations of work (self employed/wage/employer/unpaid) - number of days of employment/involuntary unemployment - seasonality of work - wages - conditions at work - managing the enterprise - enterprise location May capture sex and age disaggregated data May capture perceptions on the desirability of changes May capture perceptions on causality of change Mobility:  Mobility Changes in Freedom to move Where she travels Which institution she visits Distance she travels When she travels With whom she travels May capture perceptions on the desirability of changes May capture perceptions on causality of change Resources- Credit and Income :  Resources- Credit and Income Changes in: Access to credit (across sources, purposes, quantity) of different household members Decision making on credit taken by different household members Who is managing the enterprise Level of income of herself and other earning household members How much of their income different earning household members manage, how much is pooled in one place, and how much is handed over to others (to whom) Allocation of income across various expenditure heads (by different earning household members) In particular allocation of income to personal needs and household needs, Allocation of income to drinking, smoking and other wasteful expenditures May capture perceptions on the desirability of changes May capture perceptions on causality of change Resources: Assets:  Resources: Assets Changes in: Assets of the household (savings, land, jewels, livestock, house, machines, license etc.) Legal ownership of the asset (where applicable) Customary ownership of the asset Release of any mortgaged asset May capture perceptions on causality of change Basic needs:  Basic needs Changes in Whether the person has a ration card, whether mortgaged or operational Content of food eaten by different household members Who eats first and last in the household Quantity of food eaten by different household members Whether food shortage is faced by the household, which season, number of days, coping mechanisms, and who bears the brunt of it Access to drinking water/fuel: nature of water/fuel source, distance, availability, who fetches water/fuel Who does cooking Shelter , how many rooms, no of persons per room Access to electricity: availability, source Access to toilet: availability, distance, use Any morbidity and mortality of different household members last year Access to health services of different household members last year Place of delivery if any of women members Clothing Access to nutrition service of boys and girls under five years Access to education of boys and girls May capture perceptions on causality of change Political participation:  Political participation Changes in: Freedom to vote Freedom to contest elections Freedom to be present in Gram Sabha (village assembly) meetings Freedom to place issues in Gram Sabha meetings Freedom to proposal in a local government meeting Causality of change Bodily integrity:  Bodily integrity Changes in Decision making in the last year on whether to have children, how many, where, whether to go for contraception etc. Experience of gender based violence at home (type, frequency, by whom, action taken). Experience of gender/caste/religious identity/ethnic based violence at work place (type, frequency, by whom, action taken). Experience of gender/caste/religious/ethnic based violence in the public (type, frequency, by whom, action taken) Experience of gender/caste/religious based violence in service delivery institutions (health, nutrition/child care etc)- again type, frequency, by whom, action taken Knowledge of sexula and reprodcutive rights Can she say no to husband for sexuality Freedom to marry May capture perceptions on causality of change Identity/happiness/autonomy:  Identity/happiness/autonomy Changes in Whether she can call her natal family to visit Whether she can call her natal family to stay Overall control over her life when compared to her husband/partner Overall happiness level as a couple and with her children Is she free to remarry Autonomy from extended family In relation to your natal family how do you martial family Have you been able to change role models Attitude twoards her/others May capture perceptions on causality of change Other household members’ perceptions on changes in her confidence Dos and don’ts:  Dos and don’ts In private space Being with women and then move to her With other members not being present At a time convenient to the woman Mention purpose Start by getting informed consent Mention confidentiality Do not give false expectations Interview in pairs Sit at same level of as the woman Conversation method, one asking, another recording/reminding No prompting or putting your views into her mouth Respect if the woman does not want to answer If there is a time constraint- on the woman’s part- come back again Find out how the woman felt about the discussion Thank her for the time Apologize for inconvenience Field test before finalising (context specific variations)

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