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Product-Training-Manuals

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Mertice

Source: authorstream.com

Enterprise QoS: Be Careful What You Ask For!:  Enterprise QoS: Be Careful What You Ask For! Terry Gray University of Washington UW Network Overview:  UW Network Overview 70,000 accounts 30,000 end systems 2,000 modems 50 remote sites IP-only backbone 350 Gigabytes/day across backbone NWNet founder, NOC Center of statewide K20 net Home of P/NW Gigapop, SNNAP Executive Summary:  Executive Summary Concern: we have to live with whatever’s invented here! Focus: recurring costs and network reliability. Hypothesis: dynamic authentication/authorization/ accounting/reservation is a bad idea within an enterprise. Good news: your most strategic asset is now dependent on those two NT boxes… the KDC and “DEN” DBMS. Goal: do diff-serv (including premium svc) without per-user auth and without per-pkt or per-flow lookups. Strategy: Per port subscription for premium svc, plus diff-serv based on application delay-sensitivity Bad Drivers:  Bad Drivers Things that drive costs up Accounting mechanisms, in general Per-user "anything" (authentication, authorization, ...) Keeping track of advance reservations Reservation preemption policies User-perceived price/performance mismatches Free-good syndrome Numeric multipliers (e.g. edge devices vs. core) Things that drive reliability down Additional (multiple/distributed) dependencies State changes (dynamic vs. static decisions) Complexity in general (modulo redundancy needs) QoS Axioms:  QoS Axioms QoS doesn't create bandwidth --it just determines who will get poor service at congestion points. The most important QoS question is: how many "busy" signals constitute success for your network? Given a busy signal, users will want to proceed anyway. Network Managers will not trust end systems. Biggest need is on WAN links, where it’s hardest to do! (scaling, settlements, signalling interoperability). Multiplexing priorities on a channel improves efficiency at the cost of certainty. Multiplexing 2 Classes of Traffic:  Multiplexing 2 Classes of Traffic Load Delay Low-Priority Hi-Priority 80% 100% QoS Conundrums:  QoS Conundrums Guaranteed reservation vs. Preemption Sender vs. Receiver control Simplex vs. Duplex channels Busy signals vs. getting through Per-flow state vs. scalability Differentiated-svcs vs. differentiated-pricing Multicast! QoS Policy Space:  QoS Policy Space Who can do what to whom at what times… Neither phones nor airlines provide right metaphor. Admission Control at congestion points Via privilege/price or via application’s need? Via trust or policing? Privilege/price maps to source/destination parameters: Physical port Node/device ID (Mac or IP address) User/Group ID Many delay-sensitive apps are full duplex, implying need for bidirectional reservations, thus complicating the privilege-based policy/security problem Ours is not a perfect world...:  Ours is not a perfect world... Having end-systems negotiate with net for reserved bandwidth is conceptually a Good Thing... BUT: end-to-end per-user QoS implies 4 bad things: Authenticated requests, and therefore dependency on KDC. Authorization database, and therefore dependency on DBMS. Lots of internal router state Staff to run the authorization DB and write/administer policies. So... Is it necessary to invent phone-system-like accounting machinery in order to have phone-system-like QoS ?? Would site be better with investment in reservation/ preemption mechanism or in additional capacity? More Questions...:  More Questions... What do users & app developers want? Need? Pricing objectives? (capital, use moderation) Who/what do you police (or invoice)? User satisfaction criteria? (delay, thruput, busys) Should the CEO’s email beat your DVC pkts? Does traffic shaping require user auth? Is premium svc possible without user auth? Does the 80/20 locality rule still hold? How smart must the edge switch be? Do we need diff serv on upstream traffic? Where does/will congestion occur? Is desktop traffic symmetric? Is Subnet Traffic Symmetric?:  Is Subnet Traffic Symmetric? Another view of subnet asymmetry:  Another view of subnet asymmetry QoS Support Costs:  QoS Support Costs Claim: Least cost: diff serv based only on app’s need Medium cost: add static per-port privilege Med-High cost: per-user per-session privilege Really high cost: per call/flow/whatever setup and accounting with advance reservations and preemption. Per-User Dynamic QoS Cost Elements Authentication infrastructure (Sunk cost) Policy: Create, document, deploy, explain, verify Handle complaints about policy Fraud (a consequence of managing scarcity) Hogging syndrome and/or cost avoidance Auth may not help (e.g. spoofing app need) Prior prevention or post audit? Intra-enterprise sol'n may differ from inter-enterprise QoS using both Need and Privilege:  QoS using both Need and Privilege Privilege: edge switch tags pkts based on port config Need: application/host sets TOS based on need: Need = mostly delay sensitivity? "L4" policy = port numbers? Could we globally associate a Tspec with port # ?? Maybe, but what about port-agile apps (e.g. FTP, H323) ? Hosts/apps can't be trusted, but they can ask... Policing provides carrot/stick for traffic shaping by ES Topological Model for Strawman:  Topological Model for Strawman Router Router Border Router Core Switch Closet Switch Closet Switch Building Switch Building Switch Gigapop Internet2 Desktop Desktop Strawman: Assumptions:  Strawman: Assumptions Internet connectivity for site: x Mbps "best effort” y % "better than best effort" or "premium” Users connected at Bronze: shared 10 HD (legacy) Silver: switched 10 HD Gold: switched 100 FD Platinum: switched 100 FD "Premium” Diff-serv only applies to gold & platinum Encourage use of rate-adaptive applications Do some ex-post-facto usage monitoring Strawman: General Approach:  Strawman: General Approach Diff-serv using both privilege and need No per-pkt or flow auth lookups, no reservations Privilege based on port, not user… but Could do per-user in context of “L2 session auth” 802.1p denotes Privilege/Price on ingress TOS denotes Application need Classification/policing in routers SBM = router/switch config Strawman: Responsibilities:  Strawman: Responsibilities Host/application: Traffic shaping enforced by policing in router Optionally setting TOS bits Can query router for liklihood of success (rsvp?) Edge switch, upstream If premium port, must restrict to one MAC address Tag all frames from premium ports Respect TOS bits for queuing? Interior switches, downstream Respect 802.1p priority bits set by router First interior router Inbound: queue using 802.1p and/or TOS bits; Police Tspec Outbound: set 802.1p frame priority based on above Outbound border router Set TOS based on incoming 802.1p and TOS bits Today’s nets: Not ready for QoS:  Today’s nets: Not ready for QoS CSMA/CD = Half-Duplex = Jitter Not to mention: desktop OS jitter But everybody's switching to switches Microsegmentation for performance and Security (anti-sniffing) Need full duplex; problematic for switched-10 Cat 3 wiring issue... 100T4 where were you? Vendors ready with WFQ, Priority, FIFO but not much evidence of RED or RIO LANs vs. MANs vs. WANs:  LANs vs. MANs vs. WANs LANs and WANs have some opposite characteristics: In LANs, cost argues for simpler edge devices e.g. UW has 30+ routers, 1000+ hubs/switches In LANs, edge connect speed may be > core links e.g. labs with Gigabit Enet connections MANs and community access links, are changing: Speeds of ADSL and cable modems will put pressure on ISP access port speeds.

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