Qatar austria book cd

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Information about Qatar austria book cd

Published on December 7, 2016

Author: DidierTouati

Source: slideshare.net

1. Qatar–AustriaEconomicBook

2. ‫وﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express our deep thanks and gratitude to all the Qatar Embassy in Austria for their support and dedication, especially to His Excellency, H. E. Ali Khalfan Al Mansouri, Ambassador of the State of Qatar in the Republic of Austria, and the Authorities’ Chairmen and all the contributors to this exceptional edition. We would like to express our deep gratitude to our editor-in- chief, Mr. Abdelouadoud El Omrani and all the editorial team for their valuable assistance, patience and efforts provided to make this Qatar – Austria Gateway 2017 possible. The Economic book is edited, designed and published by AL Safeer Group, a branch of AL Ahmadi Group of Companies (P.O.Box37977, Doha), Qatari enterprise in cooperation with GEOC Group International. We would also like to address special thank Mr. Souod Bin Mohamed Al Ahmadi, Al Safeer Group, Chairman, Ms. Ghada Barabeh, Mr. Eric Ohayon (Head of Project) for their contribution and participation in this unique project. We would like also to thank Mr. Abdulrahman AL Tamari, our designer in chief for his patience and efforts. We highly appreciate the support of the sponsors, without their involvement, this Book would not have been issued. We wish them involvement this Book would not have been success in their future projects and initiatives. for fire protection. Rudolf Hensel GmbH Germany Lauenburger Landstraße 11 21039 Börnsen Phone +49 40 721062-10 E-mail: info@rudolf-hensel.de www.rudolf-hensel.de AUDAX-Keck GmbH Germany Weiherstraße 10 75365 Calw Phone +49 7051 1625-0 E-mail: fire@audax.de www.renitherm.com AL GHORAIRI and Partners PO Box 3547 – Doha, Qatar Phone: +974 4432-4959, E-mail: ghorairi@qatar.net.qa Contact: R.Vijaya Kumar (Division Manager) Mobile: +971 5555 3486 Contact: How RENITHERM works: In case of fire, intumescent coatings expand to form a foam barrier which is 30–50 times thicker.

3. ‫ثاين‬ ‫آل‬ ‫خليفة‬ ‫بن‬ ‫حمد‬ ‫الشيخ‬ ‫السمو‬ ‫صاحب‬ ‫الوالد‬ ‫األمري‬ His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani The Father Emir

4. ‫ثاين‬ ‫آل‬ ‫خليفة‬ ‫بن‬ ‫حمد‬ ‫بن‬ ‫متيم‬ ‫الشيخ‬ ‫السمو‬ ‫صاحب‬ ‫حضرة‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫أمري‬ His Highness Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani Emir of the State of Qatar

5. QNB back cover QATAR AIRWAYS inside front cover AL GHORAIRI DOHAAnz_Renitherm inside back cover ASPIRE KATARA 9 PORR 21 QATAR AIRWAYS 24 TORCH DOHA 32 GEOC GROUP 46 WIENER Privatklinik 49 SAFEER GROUP 50 DOPPELMAYR GARAVENT 61 ˝IntheNameofAllah,theMostGracious andtheMostMerciful˝ AL SAFEER The Qatar Austria Gateway 2017 is published by the Qatar Embassy in the Republic of Austria in cooperation with the Al Safeer Company Qatar & GEOC Group International. AL Safeer Company, P.O.Box 37977, Doha – State of Qatar , Tel. +974 55 01 30 22 – email: eric.coo@alsafeergroup.org The views expressed in these articles are not necessarily those of the publishers who accept no responsibility for the accuracy of information therein,including errors, omissions or statements made in the publication. The publishers reject any claims arising out of any action which a company or individual may take on the basis of the information contained herein. Main Publisher: Al Safeer Qatar - Adverstising services : GEOC Group International, ATS Global, 3 Charlton Lodge, Temple Fortune Lane, London NWII7 TY, UK - email: eric.geoc@gmail.com Design & Conception by: Abdulrahman Tamari / Credit photos : QNA / Redaction: Abdelouadoud El Omrani -International Cultural Expert (Ar, Eng, Fr, It, Ger) Senior Adviser. Contents ‫املحتويات‬ Editorial H. E. Ali Khalfan AL-Mansouri Ambassador of the State of Qatar in the Republic of Austria 5 ‫المنصوري‬ ‫خلفان‬ ‫بن‬ ‫علي‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫السفير‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫افتتاحية‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫سفيردولة‬ Foreword H.E. Dr. Ibrahim Alibrahim Economic Adviser at the Amiri Diwan 7 ‫اإلبراهيم‬ ‫إبراهيم‬ ‫الدكتور‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫مقدمة‬ ‫األميري‬ ‫الديوان‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫المستشار‬ Historical and Geographical Background 11 ‫والجغرافيا‬ ‫التاريخ‬ :‫قطر‬ Qatar Population and Language 23 ‫قطر‬ ‫في‬ ‫واللغة‬ ‫السكان‬ Qatar Macroeconomic Outlook 25 ‫قطر‬ ‫في‬ ‫الكلي‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫حول‬ ‫عات‬ُ‫توق‬ Investing in Qatar 33 ‫قطر‬ ‫في‬ ‫االستثمار‬ Investment Incentives 45 ‫االستثمار‬ ‫حوافز‬ Qatar—Outlook at a Glance 47 ‫قطر‬ ‫في‬ ‫للتوقعات‬ ‫عامة‬ ‫نظرة‬ Outlook for 2016–2018 51 ٢٠١٨-٢٠١٦ ‫فترة‬ ‫توقعات‬ Prospects for energy and commodity markets 63 ‫والسلع‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫أسواق‬ ‫وآفاق‬ ‫توقعات‬ Performance in 2015 69 ٢٠١٥ ‫عام‬ ‫في‬ ‫األداء‬ Qatar eyes investment opportunities in Austria 85 ‫النمسا‬ ‫في‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ‫فرص‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تلتفت‬ ‫قطر‬ Relations between Austria and Qatar 87 ‫وقطر‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫بين‬ ‫العالقات‬ ‫تعزيز‬ ‫بهدف‬ ‫جديدة‬ ‫شراكة‬ Qatar Investment Authority 88 ‫لالستثمار‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫جهاز‬ Hospitality Market Insights 90 ‫والسياحة‬ ‫الضيافة‬ ‫سوق‬ ‫على‬ ‫إطاللة‬ Sports Infrastructure 91 ‫ة‬ّ‫الرياضي‬ ‫ة‬ّ‫التحتي‬ ‫البنية‬ Conclusion Qatar National Vision 2030 95 2030 ‫الوطنية‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫الخاتمة‬

6. ‫السفير‬ ‫كلمة‬Editorial 5 ‫املنصوري‬ ‫خلفان‬ ‫بن‬ ‫علي‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫سفري‬ H. E. Ali Khalfan AL-Mansouri Ambassador of the State of Qatar in the Republic of Austria ‫مع‬ ‫لعالقتها‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫أهمية‬ ‫تولي‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫إن‬ ‫القول‬ ‫نافل‬ ‫من‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫مع‬ ‫تاريخية‬ ‫عالقات‬ ‫تربطها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫االحتادية‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫دفع‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫وهو‬ ،‫واهتماماته‬ ‫قضاياه‬ ‫يف‬ ‫والتحامها‬ ‫العربي‬ ‫األعوام‬ ‫مدار‬ ‫على‬ ‫الثنائية‬ ‫العالقات‬ ‫ترسيخ‬ ‫على‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫قطر‬ .‫وتدريجي‬ ‫ملموس‬ ‫نحو‬ ‫على‬ ‫تطورت‬ ‫التي‬ ،‫املاضية‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫على‬ ً‫ا‬‫إيجاب‬ ‫أثرت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫التطورات‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أقول‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ويشرفني‬ ‫بها‬ ‫قام‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الزيارة‬ ‫االحتادية‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫وجمهورية‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫بني‬ ‫ثاني‬ ‫آل‬ ‫خليفة‬ ‫بن‬ ‫حمد‬ / ‫الشيخ‬ ‫الوالد‬ ‫األمير‬ ‫السمو‬ ‫صاحب‬ ‫حضرة‬ ‫االزدواج‬ ‫منع‬ ‫اتفاقية‬ ‫توقيع‬ ‫شهد‬ ‫حيث‬ ،‫فيينا‬ ‫إلى‬ 2010 ‫ديسمبر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الدوحة‬ ‫من‬ ‫كل‬ ‫يف‬ ‫البلدين‬ ‫سفارتي‬ ‫افتتاح‬ ‫ّل‬‫ث‬‫مي‬ ‫كما‬ .‫الضريبي‬ ‫ونوعية‬ ‫حجم‬ ‫شهدها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الديناميكية‬ ‫مع‬ ً‫ا‬‫واضح‬ ً‫ا‬‫متاشي‬ ‫وفيينا‬ ‫توسيع‬ ‫على‬ ‫البلدين‬ ‫يف‬ ‫القيادة‬ ّ‫حث‬ ‫بفضل‬ ‫وذلك‬ ،‫العالقات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫واالستثمار‬ ‫والتجارة‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫املشترك‬ ‫التعاون‬ ‫آفاق‬ ‫وأعتقد‬ .‫خاص‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫االعمال‬ ‫قطاع‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫وعلى‬ ‫عام‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫سوف‬ ‫الصديقني‬ ‫بلدينا‬ ‫بني‬ ‫الهامة‬ ‫العالقات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫بأن‬ ً‫ا‬‫جازم‬ ‫اعتقادا‬ ‫كال‬ ‫لصالح‬ ،‫النهاية‬ ‫يف‬ ،‫تصب‬ ‫وسوف‬ ‫والتطور‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫يف‬ ‫تستمر‬ .‫القريب‬ ‫املستقبل‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اجلانبني‬ ‫بلغ‬ ‫البلدين‬ ‫بني‬ ‫التجاري‬ ‫التبادل‬ ‫حجم‬ ‫إجمالي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫القارئ‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫معلوم‬ ‫دون‬ ‫يزال‬ ‫ما‬ ‫احلجم‬ ‫وهذا‬ ،‫يورو‬ ‫مليون‬ 100 ‫4102حوالى‬ ‫العام‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اجلهود‬ ‫من‬ ‫املزيد‬ ‫بذل‬ ‫ضرورة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫يشير‬ ‫وهو‬ ،‫الطرفني‬ ‫طموحات‬ ‫عن‬ ‫االستثمارية‬ ‫الفرص‬ ‫من‬ ‫مزيد‬ ‫وفتح‬ ‫التجاري‬ ‫التبادل‬ ‫يف‬ ‫للتوسع‬ ‫والصناعة‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫غرف‬ ‫عبر‬ ‫الطرفني‬ ‫بني‬ ‫العالقات‬ ‫تعزيز‬ ‫طريق‬ .‫االعمال‬ ‫رجال‬ ‫زيارات‬ ‫وتبادل‬ ‫الراغبة‬ ‫النمساوية‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫إن‬ ‫الصدد‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يف‬ ‫القول‬ ‫ويجدر‬ ‫املستقبلية‬ ‫اآلفاق‬ ‫من‬ ‫فيد‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ميكنها‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫باالستثمار‬ ‫التنافسية‬ ‫االقتصادات‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫ضمن‬ ‫صنفة‬ُ‫م‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫فدولة‬ ‫الواعدة؛‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫إضافة‬ ،‫نوعها‬ ‫يف‬ ‫األفضل‬ ‫هي‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫ببيئة‬ ‫ومتتاز‬ ،‫العالم‬ ‫يف‬ .‫األوسط‬ ‫الشرق‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫يف‬ ً‫ا‬‫انفتاح‬ ‫الشبكات‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫امتالكها‬ ‫التدابير‬ ‫من‬ ‫املزيد‬ ‫التخاذ‬ ‫جاهدة‬ ‫تسعى‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ ‫التي‬ ،‫املبادرات‬ ‫طرح‬ ‫عبر‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫مناخ‬ ‫لتحسني‬ ‫واإلجراءات‬ ‫استثمارية‬ ‫بيئة‬ ‫وتوفير‬ ،‫الدوليني‬ ‫املستثمرين‬ ‫دعم‬ ‫على‬ ‫تركز‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫ر‬ّ‫ويوف‬ .‫لها‬ ً‫ا‬‫آمن‬ ً‫ا‬‫ومالذ‬ ‫االستثمارية‬ ‫املشاريع‬ ‫ملختلف‬ ‫جاذبة‬ ً‫ال‬‫مستق‬ ً‫ا‬‫قضائي‬ ً‫ا‬‫وإطار‬ ‫بالشفافية‬ ‫تتميز‬ ٍ‫أعمال‬ ‫بيئة‬ ‫للمال‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫املركز‬ ‫ويقوم‬ ،‫النزاعات‬ ‫تسوية‬ ‫اخلدمات‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫تقدمي‬ ‫على‬ ‫يحرص‬ ‫ومكاتب‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫ومقرات‬ ‫األجنبية‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫مبساعدة‬ ‫املالي‬ ‫الدعم‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫توفير‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ‫القابضة‬ ‫والشركات‬ ‫اإلدارة‬ .‫واملهني‬ Undoubtedly, the State of Qatar gives great importance to its relations with the Republic of Austria that has historic ties with the Arab world and has been involved and interested in its issues. This has led the State of Qatar to strengthen its bilateral relations all along the past years to develop them effectively and gradually. Iampleasedtoremindthatthemostimportantdevelopments that enriched positively the relations between Qatar and Austria started with the official visit to Vienna of His Highness Father of the Emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani in December 2010.AnAgreement of DoubleTaxation Avoidance was signed. A further step was accomplished with the opening of the Embassies of the two States in Doha and Vienna, witnessing the dynamics in the size and quality of these relations, and following the encouragement of both leaderships to enlarge the horizons of cooperation in the fields of economy, trade and investment, especially in the business sector. I firmly believe that these important relations between our two countries will continue to grow and develop and will finally bear fruits for our mutual interests in the near future. It is known that the trade volume between the two countries reached in 2014 around 100 million Euros, a figure below ourmutualexpectationsthatindicatestheneedforadditional efforts to enlarge our commercial exchanges and open new investment opportunities by strengthening bilateral relations through the chambers of commerce and industry and bilateral visits of businessmen and businesswomen. It is noteworthy in this regard that Austrian companies wishing to invest in Qatar may benefit from the promising potential of Qatar. In fact, Qatar is classified among the most competitive economies in the world, it has one of the best business environments in addition to open network in the Middle East. The State is continuously striving to improve the business environment by launching initiatives that support international investors and provide an attractive environment and a safe haven. Qatar Financial Center has created a business environment marked by transparency and an independent legal frame offering best services in arbitration. QFC supports foreign companies, their headquarters and holdings by providing efficient financial and professional assistance. The Ministry of Economic and Trade has a crucial role in simplifying procedures, laws and legislations related to investment in Qatar. The flexibility of Qatari laws allows foreign capitals to participate in business investments until 49% in all economic sectors.

7. 6 ‫االقت�صادي‬‫الكتاب‬| ‫النم�سا‬-‫قطر‬ ‫اإلجراءات‬ ‫تبسيط‬ ‫يف‬ ً‫ا‬‫محوري‬ ً‫ا‬‫دور‬ ‫والتجارة‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫وزارة‬ ‫وتلعب‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ .‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫باالستثمار‬ ‫املتعلقة‬ ‫والتشريعات‬ ‫والقوانني‬ ‫األجنبي‬ ‫املال‬ ‫لرأس‬ ‫تسمح‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫القوانني‬ ‫بها‬ ‫تتمتع‬ ‫التي‬ ‫املرونة‬ ‫بجميع‬ ‫املئة‬ ‫يف‬ 49 ‫مبعدل‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫رجال‬ ‫استثمارات‬ ‫يف‬ ‫باملساهمة‬ .‫االقتصادية‬ ‫القطاعات‬ ‫فأن‬ ،‫الضريبي‬ ‫االزدواج‬ ‫منع‬ ‫اتفاقية‬ ‫يف‬ ‫يشتركان‬ ‫البلدين‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ومبا‬ ‫يف‬ ،‫املائة‬ ‫يف‬ 100 ‫نسبة‬ ‫متلك‬ ‫فرصة‬ ‫النمساويني‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫رجال‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫ترحيل‬ ‫وإمكانية‬ ،‫والسياحة‬ ‫والتعليم‬ ‫والصحة‬ ‫الصناعة‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫ة‬َّ‫ألي‬ ‫يخضع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫الشخصي‬ ‫الدخل‬ ‫وأن‬ ،‫األرباح‬ ‫من‬ ‫املائة‬ ‫يف‬ 100 .‫املضافة‬ ‫القيمة‬ ‫ضريبة‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫تفرض‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كما‬ ،‫ضرائب‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫تنتهجها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫التنويع‬ ‫استراتيجية‬ ‫إن‬ ‫القطاعات‬ ‫دعم‬ ‫يف‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫ساهمت‬ ،‫طويلة‬ ‫سنوات‬ ‫التحول‬ ‫ظل‬ ‫ففي‬ .‫اخلاص‬ ‫القطاع‬ ‫مقدمتها‬ ‫ويف‬ ،‫احليوية‬ ‫االقتصادية‬ ‫اخلاص‬ ‫القطاع‬ ‫إسهام‬ ‫ارتفع‬ ‫القطري‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫يشهده‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫السريع‬ ‫الركيزة‬ ‫باعتباره‬ ،‫مطردة‬ ‫بصورة‬ ‫اإلجمالي‬ ‫احمللي‬ ‫الناجت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫تشهد‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫وأن‬ ،2030 ‫الوطنية‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫لتحقيق‬ ‫األساسية‬ ‫مليار‬ 200‫ـ‬‫ب‬ ‫اإلجمالية‬ ‫قيمتها‬ ‫ر‬َّ‫تقد‬ ،‫عمالقة‬ ‫مشروعات‬ ‫تنفيذ‬ ‫مما‬ ،‫املجاالت‬ ‫مختلف‬ ‫يف‬ ‫وساق‬ ‫قدم‬ ‫على‬ ‫فيها‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫ويسير‬ ،‫دوالر‬ ‫والتأسيس‬ ‫لالستثمار‬ ‫النمساوية‬ ‫للشركات‬ ً‫ا‬‫إضافي‬ ً‫ا‬‫حافز‬ ‫يقدم‬ .‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫ملزاولة‬ ‫منفتح‬ ‫كفضاء‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يكرس‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أملي‬ ،‫اخلتام‬ ‫ويف‬ ‫يف‬ ‫املبادالت‬ ‫حركية‬ ‫وتشجيع‬ ‫الثنائي‬ ‫التعاون‬ ‫ملفات‬ ‫كافة‬ ‫على‬ ‫االرتقاء‬ ‫اجل‬ ‫من‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ‫بانسيابية‬ ‫والدفع‬ ‫القطاعات‬ ‫مختلف‬ ‫أتطلع‬ ‫أنني‬ ‫كما‬ .‫أكبر‬ ‫زخما‬ ‫وإعطائها‬ ‫اجلانبني‬ ‫بني‬ ‫بالعالقات‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫لكبرى‬ ‫التنفيذيون‬ ‫والرؤساء‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫رجال‬ ‫ِم‬‫ه‬‫س‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫استكشاف‬ ‫يف‬ ‫النمساويني‬ ‫من‬ ‫زمالئهم‬ ‫مع‬ ‫جنب‬ ‫إلى‬ ً‫ا‬‫جنب‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫االرتقاء‬ ‫لكيفية‬ ‫املبدعة‬ ‫واألفكار‬ ‫اآلراء‬ ‫وتقدمي‬ ‫جديدة‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫وأشمل‬ ‫أرحب‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫إلى‬ ،‫البلدين‬ ‫بني‬ ‫املتميزة‬ ‫الشراكة‬ ‫بعالقة‬ ‫كما‬ .‫الطرفني‬ ‫على‬ ‫بخيرها‬ ‫تعود‬ ،‫البلدين‬ ‫يف‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ‫من‬ ‫عنه‬ ‫غنى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫توثيقية‬ ‫نافذة‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫أن‬ ً‫ا‬‫أيض‬ ‫أطمح‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ‫مناخ‬ ‫يجذبها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫والشركات‬ ‫األعمال‬ ‫لرجال‬ .‫املجال‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الدولة‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫من‬ ‫املمنوحة‬ ‫التسهيالت‬ ‫وجملة‬ ‫قطر‬ Considering the Agreement of Double Taxation Avoidance between Austria and Qatar, Austrian business owners may hold 100% of the capital in the fields of industry, healthcare, education and tourism, and may therefore export 100% of their profits. Personal incomes are not subject to any taxes in Qatar, and there is no Value Added Tax. The strategy of economic diversification implemented by the State of Qatar for years has largely participated in supporting vital economic sectors, especially in the private sector. In light of the rapid changes witnessed by Qatari economy, the participation of the private sector in GDP has grown continuously, since it is the main pillar to achieve Qatar National Vision 2030. Qatar has ongoing giant projects valued at around 200 billion dollars. Works are progressing actively, thus providing additional incentives to Austrian companies to invest and settle in Qatar. Finally, I wish that this publication would play its role as an open space for all bilateral cooperation files, by encouraging exchanges in all fields and boosting investments in order to improve the relations between the two countries. I also wish that Qatari businessmen and CEOs of large corporations would participate side by side with their Austrian counterparts in discovering new paths and presenting creative ideas for a better performance in the cooperation between Qatar and Austria, bearing fruitful results for both parties. It is also our ambition that this publication would constitute a documented window, useful for business entities and corporations that are attracted by investments in Qatar and by the sum of encouragements provided by the State in this field. ‫املنصوري‬‫خلفان‬‫بن‬‫علي‬‫سعادة‬ ‫النمسا‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫سفريدولة‬ H. E. Ali Khalfan AL-Mansouri Ambassador of the State of Qatar in the Republic of Austria

8. ‫من‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫تمكنت‬ ‫عقدين‬ ‫من‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫في‬ ،‫اإلبراهيم‬ ‫إبراهيم‬ ‫دكتور‬ ‫تعددت‬،‫الدولية‬‫االستثمار‬‫أسواق‬‫في‬‫محترمة‬‫مكانة‬‫تحتل‬‫أن‬ ‫السيارات‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫غرار‬ ‫على‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫في‬ ‫استثماراتها‬ ‫وتنوعت‬ .‫ذلك‬ ‫وغير‬ ‫الرياضية‬ ‫النوادي‬ ‫وكبار‬ ‫والعقارات‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫وصناعات‬ ‫واستراتيجية‬ ‫محددة‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫بع‬ّ‫ت‬‫ي‬ ‫مدروس‬ ‫تمشي‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫واألرجح‬ ‫الصدد؟‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫في‬ ‫األوروبيين‬ ‫للقراء‬ ‫تقول‬ ‫ماذا‬ ...‫معينة‬ ً‫ال‬‫إجما‬ ‫ّل‬‫ث‬ ُ‫ت‬ ‫إليها‬ ‫تشيرون‬ ‫التي‬ ‫األجنبية‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ّ‫إن‬ ‫القول‬ ‫ميكن‬ ‫من‬ ‫ونسعى‬ ،»2030 ‫«رؤية‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫يف‬ ‫يرد‬ ّ‫عام‬ ‫لهدف‬ ‫استجابة‬ ‫للقطريني‬‫الكرمي‬‫العيش‬‫وتأمني‬،‫املستدامة‬‫التنمية‬‫ضمان‬‫إلى‬‫ورائها‬ ‫حساب‬ ‫على‬ ‫احلالية‬ ‫التنمية‬ ‫تكون‬ ّ‫ال‬‫أ‬ ‫يعني‬ ‫وهذا‬ ،‫جيل‬ ‫بعد‬ ً‫ال‬‫جي‬ ‫القاعدة‬ ‫تنمية‬ ‫نحو‬ ‫السابق‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ه‬ ّ‫التوج‬ ‫كان‬ ‫لقد‬ .‫القادمة‬ ‫األجيال‬ ‫فتطورت‬ ‫اآلن‬ ‫ا‬ّ‫أم‬ ،‫واحلجم‬ ‫الكم‬ ‫على‬ ‫التركيز‬ ‫أي‬ ،‫اإلنتاجية‬ ،‫االستثمارية‬ ‫احملفظة‬ ‫تنويع‬ ‫نحو‬ ‫باالجتاه‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ‫استراتيجية‬ ‫التركيز‬ ‫يجري‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بحيث‬ ‫جغرايف‬ ‫ع‬ّ‫تنو‬ :‫املفاهيم‬ ‫متعدد‬ ‫تنويع‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫بحيث‬ ‫ذاتها‬ ‫املشاريع‬ ‫وتنويع‬ ،‫واحد‬ ‫بلد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ‫على‬ ‫متانة‬ ‫وتزداد‬ ‫املخاطر‬ ّ‫تقل‬ ‫هكذا‬ .‫واملجاالت‬ ‫األنشطة‬ ‫مختلف‬ ‫تغطي‬ ‫ألهداف‬ ‫آخرين‬ ‫هدفني‬ ‫نضيف‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وميكن‬ .‫واستقرارها‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫املشاريع‬ ‫ودعم‬ ، ‫التكنولوجيا‬ ‫نقل‬ :‫هما‬ ‫االستراتيجية‬ ‫هذه‬ .‫الطبيعي‬ ‫الغاز‬ ‫وتصدير‬ ‫إنتاج‬ ‫وخاصة‬ ‫القائمة‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫تعمل‬ ،‫بالدها‬ ‫حدود‬ ‫خارج‬ ‫استثماراتها‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫باإلضافة‬ ،‫المباشرة‬ ‫وغير‬ ‫المباشرة‬ ‫الخارجية‬ ‫االستثمارات‬ ‫جلب‬ ‫على‬ ‫نقول‬ ‫ماذا‬ .‫االتجاه‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫في‬ ‫والتراتيب‬ ‫القوانين‬ ‫من‬ ‫رزمة‬ ‫وهناك‬ ‫؟‬ )‫وأشخاص‬ ‫(شركات‬ ‫األلمان‬ ‫للمستثمرين‬ ‫ناحية‬ ‫من‬ ‫سواء‬ ،‫ومختلفة‬ ‫متعددة‬ ‫مبراحل‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ّ‫مر‬ ‫اخلارجية‬ ‫لالستثمارات‬ ‫القطريني‬ ‫نظرة‬ ‫ناحية‬ ‫من‬ ‫أو‬ ‫القوانني‬ ‫يجري‬ ‫املراحل‬ ‫كل‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ّه‬‫ن‬‫أ‬ ‫واملالحظ‬ ،‫املباشرة‬ ‫وغير‬ ‫املباشرة‬ ‫والظروف‬ ‫السياقات‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫بأخرى‬ ‫أو‬ ‫بطريقة‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ‫تشجيع‬ ‫اآلن‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ا‬ًّ‫نسبي‬ ‫مرتفعة‬ ‫الضرائب‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫فبعد‬ .‫والدولية‬ ‫احمللية‬ ‫محدودة‬ ‫االستثمار‬ ‫مجاالت‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وبعد‬ ،‫باملئة‬ 10 ‫تتجاوز‬ ‫ال‬ ‫األجانب‬ ‫للمستثمرين‬ ‫يجوز‬ .‫تقريبا‬ ‫كلها‬ ‫مفتوحة‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫أصبحت‬ ‫القطاعات‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫حصص‬ ‫من‬ ‫باملئة‬ 49 ‫امتالك‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫يف‬ ‫باملئة‬ 100 ‫إلى‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫تصل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وميكن‬ ،‫االقتصادية‬ ‫فإن‬ ،‫لذلك‬ ‫باإلضافة‬ . . ‫املرتفعة‬ ‫االقتصادية‬ ‫املنفعة‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫املشاريع‬ ‫ويسمح‬ ‫التقيد‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫على‬ ‫ومبني‬ ‫منفتح‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫هو‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫النظام‬ ‫الريال‬ ‫ارتباط‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ .‫حرية‬ ‫بكل‬ ‫أرباحها‬ ‫بتحويل‬ ‫للشركات‬ .‫لالستثمارات‬ ‫ثباتا‬ ‫يعطي‬ ‫بالدوالر‬ ‫القطري‬ ‫اإلبراهيم‬ ‫إبراهيم‬ ‫الدكتور‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫األمريي‬ ‫الديوان‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫املستشار‬ H. E. Dr. Ibrahim Al Ibrahim Economic Adviser at the Amiri Diwan ‫مقدمة‬Foreword 7 Dr Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim, in less than two decades Qatar was able to access a respectable position in international investment markets; its investments are numerous and diversified in the automotive industry, real estate, sports clubs and others. It seems a rationale approach following a specific vision and a chosen strategy… What would you say to European readers in this regard? As a matter of fact, the foreign investments you refer to are altogether a response to a general goal stated in Qatar Vision 2030 through which we seek to ensure a sustainable development and to provide a decent living to Qatari citizens’ generation after the other. It means that the current developmentshouldnotbeattheexpenseofnextgenerations. Past trend was to raise the productive base, that is a focus on quantities and volumes, but currently the development strategy is oriented towards the diversification of the investment portfolio. It is a multifaceted diversification: geographic because we do not concentrate investments in a single region or country, and diversification of the nature of our projects to cover different activities and sectors. This is a way to contain risks while strengthening and stabilizing investments. We may add two other goals to the strategy: technology transfer, and support to existing Qatari projects, especially in the field of the production and expert of LNG. In addition to its own foreign investments worldwide, the State of Qatar works to attract direct and indirect foreign investments. There is a package of laws and regulations in this regards. What would you say to German investors (individuals or corporations)? Investments in Qatar have gone through many different stages, the laws changed as well as how Qataris look to Foreign Direct and Indirect Investments. It is noteworthy that in all these steps, investments have been encouraged in a way or another according to national and international environments. Taxes were relatively high while they stand around 10% now. Investments sectors were limited while they are completely opened now. Foreign investors may possess 49% of companies’ shares in all economic sectors, and such share raises until 100% in projects with high economic benefits. In addition, the economic regime is an open system built on deregulation and allowing the free transfer of benefits. The fact that the national currency (Qatari Riyal, QAR) is linked to the US Dollar provides stability to investments and protects them from sharp change fluctuations. Additionally, some projects are fully tax-free during five years, renewable in some economic sectors. There are no taxes on salaries and wages that usually impact heavily the budgets in other regions of the world. Qatar is well-known for its secure and peaceful society and the availability of goods, services, commercial malls, and entertainment offers.

9. 8 ‫االقت�صادي‬‫الكتاب‬| ‫النم�سا‬-‫قطر‬ ‫الضريبة‬ ‫من‬ ‫متاما‬ ‫معفاة‬ ‫املشاريع‬ ‫بعض‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫سبق‬ ‫ما‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫نضيف‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫يف‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫سنوات‬ ‫خلمس‬ ‫متديدها‬ ‫ميكن‬ ‫سنوات‬ ‫خمس‬ ‫ملدة‬ ‫تثقل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫التي‬ ‫واألجور‬ ‫الرواتب‬ ‫على‬ ‫ضريبة‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫وال‬ ‫املجاالت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫وقطر‬ .‫العالم‬ ‫من‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫مناطق‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الشركات‬ ‫موازنات‬ .‫والترفيه‬ ‫التجارية‬ ‫واملراكز‬ ‫السلع‬ ‫وبتوافر‬ ‫اآلمن‬ ‫مبجتمعها‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫مجمعات‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اقتصادية‬ ‫مناطق‬ ‫بتطوير‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫تقوم‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالتوازي‬ ،‫البحرية‬ ‫الصناعات‬ ‫يف‬ ‫متخصصة‬ ‫وهي‬ ‫واإلنتاج‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫مناخ‬ ‫تيسر‬ ‫فيها‬ ،‫للخدمات‬ ‫لوجستية‬ ‫ومناطق‬ ،‫األجهزة‬ ‫ويف‬ ،‫الطيران‬ ‫ويف‬ ‫بأسعار‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫وكل‬ ،‫ال‬ّ‫للعم‬ ‫وسكن‬ ‫وساحات‬ ‫ومخازن‬ ‫معارض‬ ‫املناطق‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫للشركات‬ ‫وميكن‬ .‫رمزية‬ ‫تكن‬ ‫لم‬ ‫إن‬ ‫منخفضة‬ ‫ورش‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫وكذلك‬ ‫والتجفيف‬ ‫والتبريد‬ ‫للتجميد‬ ‫اللوجستية‬ ...‫لإلنتاج‬ ‫الضرورية‬ ‫والتجهيزات‬ ‫السيارات‬ ‫لصيانة‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫الرؤية‬ ‫هذه‬ ّ‫ن‬‫أ‬ ‫والالفت‬ .‫مرجعية‬ ‫وثيقة‬ 2030 ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫المجال‬ ‫في‬ ‫االستراتيجي‬ ‫التخطيط‬ ‫تشمل‬ ‫والبيئية‬ ‫االجتماعية‬ ‫المجاالت‬ ‫لتشمل‬ ‫تتعداه‬ ‫بل‬ ،‫فحسب‬ ‫0302؟‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫أهداف‬ ‫بأهم‬ ‫بإيجاز‬ ‫فنا‬ّ‫تعر‬ ‫هل‬ ...‫والثقافية‬ ‫املشروع‬ ‫ومن‬ .‫األخضر‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫عن‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اخلبراء‬ ‫يتحدث‬ ‫واملوارد‬ ‫البيئة‬ ‫حساب‬ ‫على‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫التنمية‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬ :‫نتساءل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫من‬ ‫استراتيجية‬ ‫أسئلة‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫كذلك‬ ‫طرحنا‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫الطبيعية؟‬ ‫من‬ ‫لتحقيقه؟‬ ‫السبل‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وما‬ ‫نريده؟‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫املجتمع‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ما‬ :‫قبيل‬ ‫الرؤية‬ ‫هذه‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫بالتنويه‬ ‫واجلدير‬ .»2030 ‫قطر‬ ‫«رؤية‬ ‫نشأت‬ ‫هنا‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الشعب‬ ‫تطلعات‬ ‫تعكس‬ ‫هي‬ ‫بل‬ ،‫احلاكم‬ ‫إرادة‬ ‫وليدة‬ ‫ليست‬ ‫البشرية‬ ‫التنمية‬ :‫هي‬ ‫ركائز‬ ‫أربعة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الرؤية‬ ‫وتستند‬ .‫قيادته‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تسعى‬ ‫والتي‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫وقوة‬ ‫والتعليم‬ ‫الصحة‬ ‫تشمل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫والتنمية‬ ،‫املستدامة‬ ‫التنمية‬ ‫مبتطلبات‬ ‫القيام‬ ‫على‬ ‫قادر‬ ‫إنسان‬ ‫الرعاية‬ ‫ن‬ّ‫يؤم‬ ‫عادل‬ ‫آمن‬ ‫مجتمع‬ ‫بناء‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫تهدف‬ ‫التي‬ ‫االجتماعية‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫يف‬ ‫األسرة‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ويقوي‬ ‫للجميع‬ ‫الفرص‬ ‫ويضمن‬ ‫للمحتاجني‬ ،‫واالجتماعي‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫بدورها‬ ‫لتقوم‬ ‫املرأة‬ ‫ن‬ ّ‫وميك‬ ‫املجتمع‬ ‫املنظمات‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بإيجابية‬ ‫يتفاعل‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫هو‬ ‫املنشود‬ ‫املجتمع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ ‫بالتنمية‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫رؤية‬ ‫ت‬ّ‫اهتم‬ ‫كما‬ .‫أعضائها‬ ‫ودول‬ ‫والعاملية‬ ‫اإلقليمية‬ ً‫ا‬‫عاملي‬ ‫ينافس‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يستطيع‬ ‫وواعد‬ ‫متنوع‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫بتطوير‬ ،‫االقتصادية‬ ‫والتنويع‬ ‫للموارد‬ ‫األمثل‬ ‫واالستغالل‬ ‫املتطورة‬ ‫اإلدارة‬ ‫بفضل‬ ‫فإن‬ .‫املعرفة‬ ‫على‬ ‫املبني‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫نحو‬ ‫واالجتاه‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫النمو‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫وأشارت‬ ‫للبيئة‬ ‫كبرى‬ ‫أهمية‬ ‫أعطت‬ ‫الوطنية‬ ‫الرؤية‬ ‫سترثها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫البيئة‬ ‫حساب‬ ‫على‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يجب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ .‫القادمة‬ ‫األجيال‬ ،‫النفط‬ ‫ريع‬ ‫على‬ ‫الزمن‬ ‫من‬ ‫لمدة‬ ‫خليجية‬ ‫بلدان‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫اعتمدت‬ ‫تعتمد‬‫حديثة‬‫اقتصادات‬‫لبناء‬‫جذرية‬‫تحوالت‬‫اآلن‬‫نشهد‬‫بينما‬ ‫ما‬ .‫النفط‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫ما‬ ‫لعصر‬ ‫جاهزة‬ ‫لتكون‬ ‫والخدمات‬ ‫اإلنتاج‬ ‫على‬ ‫سبيلها؟‬ ‫تعترض‬ ‫التي‬ ‫التحديات‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وما‬ ‫النجاحات‬ ‫هي‬ ‫متطورة‬ ‫بيئة‬ ‫خلق‬ ‫يف‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫دولة‬ ‫جناح‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫البداية‬ ‫يف‬ ‫نشير‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ميكن‬ ّ‫تظل‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫ومع‬ .‫االستخراج‬ ‫بعمليات‬ ‫االكتفاء‬ ‫وعدم‬ ‫والغاز‬ ‫للنفط‬ ‫ينطبق‬ ‫وهذا‬ ‫الكفاية‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫مبا‬ ‫سريعة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫ع‬ّ‫التنو‬ ‫عملية‬ .‫متفاوتة‬ ‫بدرجات‬ ‫اخلليج‬ ‫دول‬ ‫على‬ 8 In parallel, Qatar develops economic clusters in hubs that facilitate work and production environment. These clusters arespecializedinmarineindustries,aeronautics,appliances, and logistics services. There are showrooms, warehouses, yards and workers’ residences available for cost-effective prices, and sometimes just symbolic costs. Companies may use logistic areas to stock, freeze, refrigerate, and dry their products; and workshops are available also for the maintenance and repair of cars, appliances, and production equipment… Qatar Vision 2030 is a reference document. It is noteworthy that this document does not include only strategic planning in the economic field, but concerns as well the social, environmental and cultural areas… Would you introduce briefly the main goals of Qatar Vision 2030? International experts talk about the Green Economy. It is legitimate to ask: which development are we talking about if it is achieved at the expense of the environment and natural resources? In Qatar, we have also asked some strategic questions such as: which society do we want? How to achieve that? Qatar Vision 2030 is born from such answers. Let us note that this Vision did not come out of the Governments’ offices, it is rather the reflection of the nation’s ambitions in consistency with its leadership. Qatar Vision 2030 is built around four pillars: Human Development including healthcare, education and a workforce able to build a nation with capacities to respond to the requisites of sustainable development; Social Development aiming to a secure and fair community that ensures care for those who need it, provides opportunities for all, strengthens the role of family and community development and enables women to fulfill their economic and social role, it is also a society that interacts positively with regional and international organizations and countries; Economic Development is about the creation of a diversified and promising system that may compete internationally thanks to advanced management, best use of resources, economic diversification and knowledge-based economy. Finally, Qatar Vision allowed great importance to the environment considering that economic growth should not occur on behalf of the environment that will be inherited by future generations. Several Gulf countries relied for a period of time on oil income while we see today grassroots’ changes towards building modern economies relying on production and services to be able to survive in the after-oil era. What are the successes and the challenges in this area? We can register first that the State of Qatar has in fact succeeded to create an advanced environment for oil and gas, and did not focus its efforts only on extraction. Despite that, economic diversification is not agile enough, and this seems a general trend in all Gulf countries with varying degrees.

10. 9 Qatar – Austria | Economic Book

11. 10 ‫االقت�صادي‬‫الكتاب‬| ‫النم�سا‬-‫قطر‬ ‫احتياجات‬ ‫تلبية‬ ‫على‬ ‫ا‬ً‫قادر‬ ‫قريب‬ ‫وقت‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫قطاع‬ ‫كان‬ ‫انخفاض‬ ‫منها‬ ‫القدرة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ّرت‬‫ث‬‫أ‬ ‫عوامل‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫لكن‬ ‫الدول‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫بالقصيرة‬ ‫ليست‬ ‫ملدة‬ ‫يستمر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يتوقع‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫والغاز‬ ‫النفط‬ ‫أسعار‬ ‫مرتفع‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫احلكومي‬ ‫اإلنفاق‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ .‫النحو‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫على‬ ‫تغطية‬ ‫على‬ ‫قادرة‬ ‫تعد‬ ‫لم‬ ‫الهيدروكربونية‬ ‫اإليرادات‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫لدرجة‬ ‫غرار‬ ‫على‬ ‫احللول‬ ‫عن‬ ‫وبحثت‬ ‫التحدي‬ ‫الدول‬ ‫واجهت‬ ‫وقد‬ .‫النفقات‬ ،‫املنتجات‬ ‫لبعض‬ ‫احلكومي‬ ‫الدعم‬ ‫وتخفيض‬ ‫التكاليف‬ ‫تخفيض‬ ‫لن‬ ‫ذلك‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫الواضح‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكن‬ .‫اخلاص‬ ‫القطاع‬ ‫مشاركة‬ ‫وحتفيز‬ ‫على‬ ‫املبنية‬ »‫الرفاه‬ ‫«دولة‬ ‫السابق‬ ‫يف‬ ‫جنحت‬ ‫وقد‬ ،ً‫ا‬‫كافي‬ ‫يكون‬ ‫وأدت‬ ،‫للجميع‬ ‫الثروة‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫مفاده‬ ‫واحلكومة‬ ‫الشعب‬ ‫بني‬ ‫ضمني‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫ألن‬ ‫الدول‬ ‫لهذه‬ ‫شرعية‬ ‫وأعطت‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫التحسن‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ذلك‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫غير‬ .‫والتشغيل‬ ‫والسكن‬ ‫والتعليم‬ ‫الصحة‬ ‫شمل‬ ‫النظام‬ ‫احلكومة‬ ‫بني‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫ألن‬ ‫احلالي‬ ‫السياق‬ ‫يف‬ ّ‫يستمر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ميكن‬ ‫وإلى‬ ‫واملكافأة‬ ‫واإلنتاج‬ ‫اجلهد‬ ‫بني‬ ‫الترابط‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫أدت‬ ‫والشعب‬ ‫الرقابة‬ ‫لضعف‬ ‫العامة‬ ‫املوازنات‬ ‫وتضخم‬ ،‫واإلسراف‬ ‫التبذير‬ ‫القطاع‬ ُ‫ينم‬ ‫لم‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫كل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالتزامن‬ .‫االنفاق‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫على‬ ‫الشعبية‬ .‫كاف‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫اخلاص‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ ‫النظام‬ ‫تغيير‬ ‫ضرورة‬ ‫يتبني‬ ،‫سبق‬ ‫ما‬ ‫كل‬ ‫على‬ ‫وبناء‬ ‫املسار‬ ‫يف‬ ‫والسير‬ ‫احلوافز‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫يضمن‬ ‫بحيث‬ ‫واالجتماعي‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫من‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫حتويل‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫يف‬ ‫مبا‬ ،‫املالئم‬ ‫االقتصادي‬ .‫املعريف‬ ‫االقتصاد‬ ‫باجتاه‬ ‫العمالة‬ ‫كثافة‬ ‫على‬ ‫املبني‬ ‫واملتوسطة‬ ‫الصغيرة‬ ‫بالشركات‬ ً‫ا‬‫أيض‬ ‫ون‬ّ‫مهتم‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫نحن‬ ‫املعترف‬ ‫جلودتها‬ ‫ا‬ً‫نظر‬ ‫املعرفة‬ ‫على‬ ‫املبنية‬ ‫تلك‬ ‫سيما‬ ‫وال‬ ‫أملانيا‬ ‫يف‬ ‫املجال‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫يف‬ ‫بلدينا‬ ‫بني‬ ‫التعاون‬ ‫تكثيف‬ ‫نرجو‬ ‫ّنا‬‫ن‬‫وإ‬ .‫ا‬ًّ‫عاملي‬ ‫بها‬ .‫ني‬َ‫للطرف‬ ‫مربحة‬ ‫بيئة‬ ‫وخلق‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫مشتركة‬ ‫استثمارات‬ ‫بتطوير‬ Until recent times, energy sector was able to satisfy the needs of these countries, but several factors had an impact on such capacity among which lower prices of oil and gas in international markets, a trend that seems to remain for a medium term. Government spending has raised sharply in turn and incomes cannot cover spending anymore. Our countries faced the challenge and looked for viable solutions such as reducing costs and State subsidies to some products, and encouraging the private sector. Despite that, it appeared that these choices weren’t enough. In the past, welfare state based on the implicit agreement between the State and the citizens was successful. It implied that national resources were distributed and produced an economic improvement in living conditions and gave a legitimacy to the State thanks to a welfare system that provided healthcare, education, housing and employment. It is evident that such scheme cannot continue in the current environment because said welfare State has led to a misbalance between the produced effort and the gained reward. As a result, there was a waste of resources and an excess of spending, budgets were inflated due to the lack of national monitoring of State expenses, in addition to the insufficiency or weakness of the private sector. In summing up, it was evident that there was an urgent necessity to change the economic and social system and to build incentives towards a healthy economic regime, including the change from a workforce-built economy towards a knowledge-based one. ‫اإلبراهيم‬ ‫إبراهيم‬ ‫الدكتور‬ ‫سعادة‬ ‫األمريي‬‫الديوان‬‫لدى‬‫االقتصادي‬‫املستشار‬ H.E. Dr. Ibrahim Alibrahim Economic Adviser at the Amiri Diwan

12. 11 Qatar – Austria | Economic Book Historical imprints through centuries The nature of the Qatari land and its geographical, historical, and social characteristics distinguish Qatar and make it one of the most important countries in the Arab World. Qatar’s long history, with evidence of early settlement in the Qatar peninsulathatcanbetracedasfarbackasthe7thMillennium B.C., as shown by numerous artifacts such as inscriptions, rock carvings, flint spearheads and samples of fine pottery discovered at various sites in the country. Archeological excavations have revealed that the Ubaid civilization, which flourished in southern Iraq and the northern parts of the Arabian Gulf, also reached the Qatar peninsula. In the 5th century B.C., the Greek geographer Ptolemy mentioned “qatara” in his map of Arabia in reference to al-Zubara, believed to be an ancient trading port in the Gulf region. “Qatara” is one of the possible origins of the name Qatar. Some sources believe that the source of the name of Qatar is the Arabic name for tar, a material derived from petroleum products, and refers to country’s wealth in oil and natural gas. But other sources say the name comes from “qatarat”, the Arabic name for raindrops, as the country was famous for frequent rainfalls. Some sources also believe the country’s name was taken from the name of the Qatari poet “Qatari Bin Fujaya”. The Qatar peninsula witnessed various cultures throughout human history, even during the early and late Stone Ages. Recently carried out archeological excavations at the edges of one of the islands in the western area of Qatar indicate the presence of human settlement in the area during prehistoric times. ‫العصور‬ ‫عرب‬ ‫التاريخية‬ ‫البصمات‬ ‫التاريخية‬ ‫و‬ ‫اجلغرافية‬ ‫خصائصها‬ ‫و‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫األرض‬ ‫طبيعة‬ ّ‫إن‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ساهمت‬ ‫حضارية‬ ‫ميزات‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫بلدا‬ ‫منها‬ ‫جعلت‬ ‫قد‬ ‫واالجتماعية‬ ‫فلقطر‬ ‫العربية؛‬ ‫الدولة‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫صفوف‬ ‫يف‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫بروز‬ ‫و‬ ‫كيانه‬ ‫بلورة‬ ‫األثرية‬ ‫واالكتشافات‬ ‫احلفريات‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫ّت‬‫ل‬‫د‬ ‫عريقة‬ ‫تاريخية‬ ‫خلفية‬ ‫مناطق‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫العثور‬ ‫مت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الفخارية‬ ‫األواني‬ ‫و‬ ‫النقوش‬ ‫و‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫األرض‬ ‫على‬ ‫حياة‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫على‬ ‫ّت‬‫ل‬‫د‬ ‫كما‬ .‫البالد‬ ‫من‬ ‫يف‬ ‫و‬ ،‫العراق‬ ‫جنوب‬ ‫يف‬ ‫العبيدية‬ ‫احلضارة‬ ‫قيام‬ ‫عند‬ ‫سنة‬ ‫آالف‬ ‫سبعة‬ ‫كالوديوس‬ ‫اليوناني‬ ‫املؤرخ‬ ‫أشار‬ ‫حيث‬ ،‫امليالد‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫اخلامس‬ ‫القرن‬ »‫«الزبارة‬ ‫بلدة‬ ‫إلى‬ »‫العربي‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫«خريطة‬ ‫خريطته‬ ‫يف‬ ‫بطليموس‬ .‫آنذاك‬ ‫املدن‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫من‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫قد‬ ‫و‬ »‫«قطارا‬ ‫باسم‬ ‫القطرية‬ ‫املنتجات‬ ‫من‬ ‫املشتقة‬ ‫القطران‬ ‫مادة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫تسمية‬ ‫أصل‬ ‫يعود‬ ‫تشير‬ ‫كما‬ .‫الطبيعي‬ ‫والغاز‬ ‫النفطية‬ ‫البالد‬ ‫لثروة‬ ‫إشارة‬ ،‫النفطية‬ ‫بكثرة‬ ‫مشهورة‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫البالد‬ ‫ألن‬ ،»‫املطر‬ ‫«قطر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫بن‬ ‫القطري‬ ‫الشاعر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫نسبة‬ ‫كذلك‬ ‫وقيل‬ .‫فيها‬ ‫األمطار‬ ‫نزول‬ »‫«قطرة‬ ‫كلمة‬ ‫من‬ ‫أتى‬ ‫قد‬ ‫االسم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫البعض‬ ‫يرى‬ ‫فيما‬ ،‫فجاءة‬ ‫كالوديوس‬ ‫اليوناني‬ ‫املؤرخ‬ ‫ترجمها‬ ‫والذي‬ ،)»Qatara«( ‫األجنبية‬ ‫حيث‬ ،»‫«الزبارة‬ ‫لبلدة‬ ‫مشيرا‬ ،‫للمنطقة‬ ‫خريطته‬ ‫يف‬ ‫بطليموس‬ .‫التسمية‬ ‫تلك‬ ‫مرة‬ ‫ألول‬ ‫استعملت‬ ّ‫مر‬ ‫على‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫وحضارات‬ ‫ثقافات‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫جزيرة‬ ‫ـه‬‫ـ‬‫ب‬‫ش‬ ‫شهدت‬ .‫واملتأخر‬ ‫األول‬ ‫احلجري‬ ‫العصر‬ ‫يف‬ ّ‫حتى‬ ،‫البشري‬ ‫التاريخ‬ ‫مراحل‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اجلزر‬ ‫إحدى‬ ‫أطراف‬ ‫عند‬ ً‫ا‬‫مؤخر‬ ‫ّت‬‫مت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫االكتشافات‬ ‫ّت‬‫ل‬‫ود‬ ‫أظهر‬ ‫ولقد‬ .‫التاريخ‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫عصور‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫ا‬ً‫بشري‬ ً‫ا‬‫وجود‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫غرب‬ ‫واجلغرافيا‬ ‫التاريخ‬ :‫قطر‬ Historical and Geographical Background

13. 12 ‫االقت�صادي‬‫الكتاب‬| ‫النم�سا‬-‫قطر‬ An archeological site that dates back to 6000 B.C. in the Shagra area in the country’s south eastern region reveals the major role played by the sea (the Gulf) in the life of people who lived there. Also excavation works carried out in theAl-Khor area, in the north eastern region, as well as in Beer Zikreet and Ras Abroog have led to the discovery of a colored pottery utensil, and stone tools such as flint scrapers and punchers. This indicates that Qatar had relations with the Ubaid civilization which flourished in Mesopotamia from 5000 – 4000 B.C. where some barter trade systems prevailed (consisting mainly of pottery and dried fish) between peoples living in Qatar and Mesopotamia. The Qatar Peninsula emerged as one of the richest places in the Gulf region with respect to trade during the second millennium B.C., the period which witnessed the spread of Bronze age civilizations in Mesopotamia and extended to population centers in the Indus Valley in India. Trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley passed through the Gulf and the western coast of Qatar which played a vital role in the transportation of commercial commodities by ship as revealed by the discovery of pieces of Greek pottery in the Ras Abroog area. This indicates that the Qatar Peninsula attracted seasonal settlers at that time. Then the Kasatio of the Zagros Mountains took over the rule of Babylon and their influence extended to the whole Gulf Region including a small island in the Al-Khor Gulf located north of Doha. Some pottery utensils found in the Al-Khor area illustrate the close relationship between Qatar and Babylon during the period known as the Kasatian era. Archeological evidence has been found indicating that also Greek-Roman trade between Europe and India passed through the Arabian Gulf around 140 B.C. like the trade of the Mesopotamian civilization before. Artifacts found in Qatar, especially in the Ras Abroog area, give evidence of a Greek- Roman influence in the Qatar Peninsula. The archaeological excavations revealed include a house, a stone landmark and a low mound consisting of a large quantity of fish bones. The Arabian Gulf region as a whole emerged as the most important trade center connecting East and West during the Sassanian Persian Empire in the third century C.E. Goods coming from the Orient such as different types of wood (sandal, teak and mahogany), copper and spices were objects of trade: there were shiploads of dyes, fabrics, pearls, dates, gold and silver. Qatar played a prominent role in this Sasanian era trade to which it contributed at least two goods: purple dyes and precious pearls. The coastline of Qatar made it a nautical point of contact for the neighboring urban areas and the presence of ports conducive to the pearl industry made it a beacon for the Gulf Region. Qatar played an important role in Islamic history as it formed the first naval fleet for the transport of armies during the Islamic conquests in southern Persia and the Sind region. The people of Qatar played a leading role in defending their adherence to Islam and maintaining loyalty to their belief. Islam spread across the whole of Arabia in the 7th century C.E. With the spread of Islam in the area, ‫شقرة‬ ‫ـة‬‫ـ‬‫ق‬‫منط‬ ‫يف‬ ‫امليالد‬ ‫ـل‬‫ـ‬‫ب‬‫ق‬ ‫السادس‬ ‫األلف‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫يعود‬ ‫أثري‬ ‫موقع‬ - ‫اخلليج‬ - ‫البحر‬ ‫لعبه‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الرئيسي‬ ‫ـدور‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫شرق‬ ‫جنوب‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ّت‬‫مت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫ـر‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ف‬‫احل‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫ت‬ّ‫د‬‫أ‬ ‫كذلك‬ .‫ـرة‬‫ق‬‫ش‬ ‫سكان‬ ‫ـاة‬‫ي‬‫ح‬ ‫يف‬ ،‫ابروق‬ ‫ورأس‬ ‫زكريت‬ ‫بير‬ ‫ويف‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫شرق‬ ‫شمال‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اخلور‬ ‫ـة‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ق‬‫منط‬ ‫وأدوات‬ ‫وصوان‬ ‫حجرية‬ ‫ومعدات‬ ‫ملونة‬ ‫فخارية‬ ‫آنية‬ ‫اكتشاف‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫على‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫أن‬ ّ‫تبي‬ ،‫ومثاقب‬ ‫كاشطات‬ ‫ـن‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫م‬ ‫تتألف‬ ‫حجرية‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫الرافدين‬ ‫بالد‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ازدهرت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫العبيديني‬ ‫بحضارة‬ ‫اتصال‬ ‫جتارية‬ ‫أنظمة‬ ‫قامت‬ ‫حيث‬ ،‫امليالد‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫والرابع‬ ‫اخلامس‬ ‫األلف‬ ‫األواني‬ ‫من‬ ً‫ا‬‫أساس‬ ‫املكونة‬ )‫املقايضة‬ ‫(جتارة‬ ‫ـع‬‫ـ‬‫ل‬‫الس‬ ‫لتبادل‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫يف‬ ‫السكانية‬ ‫التجمعات‬ ‫بني‬ ،‫املجفف‬ ‫والسمك‬ ‫الفخارية‬ .‫الرافدين‬ ‫بالد‬ ‫يف‬ ‫والعبيديني‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ثراء‬ ‫املناطق‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫من‬ ‫كواحدة‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫جزيرة‬ ‫شبه‬ ‫برزت‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫والثاني‬ ‫الثالث‬ ‫األلف‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫وذلك‬ ،‫التجارة‬ ‫ناحية‬ ‫من‬ ‫اخلليج‬ ‫البرونزي‬ ‫العصر‬ ‫حضارات‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫شهدت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الفترة‬ ‫وهي‬ ،‫امليالد‬ ‫اإلندوس‬ ‫وادي‬ ‫يف‬ ‫السكانية‬ ‫التجمعات‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الرافدين‬ ‫بالد‬ ‫من‬ ‫متر‬ ‫اإلندوس‬ ‫ووادي‬ ‫الرافدين‬ ‫بالد‬ ‫بني‬ ‫التجارة‬ ‫وكانت‬ .‫بالهند‬ ‫نقل‬ ‫يف‬ ً‫ا‬‫جوهري‬ ً‫ا‬‫دور‬ ‫لقطر‬ ‫الغربي‬ ‫الساحل‬ ‫لعب‬ ‫حيث‬ ،‫اخلليج‬ ‫عبر‬ ‫أجزاء‬ ‫اكتشاف‬ ‫من‬ ّ‫يتبي‬ ‫كما‬ ،‫السفن‬ ‫بواسطة‬ ‫التجارية‬ ‫السلع‬ ‫جزيرة‬ ‫شبه‬ ‫أن‬ ّ‫تدل‬ ،‫ابروق‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اليوناني‬ ‫الفخار‬ ‫من‬ ‫سيطر‬ ‫ثم‬ .‫العصر‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫موسميني‬ ‫مهاجرين‬ ‫اجتذبت‬ ‫قد‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫نفوذهم‬ ‫وامتد‬ ،‫ببابل‬ ‫األمور‬ ‫مقاليد‬ ‫على‬ ‫زاغروس‬ ‫جبال‬ ‫كاساتيو‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الصغيرة‬ ‫اجلزر‬ ‫إحدى‬ ‫ضمنها‬ ‫ومن‬ ،‫اخلليج‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫كامل‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫مت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫اخلزفية‬ ‫األواني‬ ‫وتدل‬ ،‫هذا‬ .‫الدوحة‬ ‫شمال‬ ‫اخلور‬ ‫خليج‬ ‫وبابل‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫بني‬ ‫الوثيقة‬ ‫الصالت‬ ‫على‬ ‫اخلور‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫العثور‬ .»‫الكاسيتيني‬ ‫«عصر‬ ‫يسمى‬ ‫ما‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫و‬ ،‫الفترة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫اخلليج‬‫عبر‬‫متر‬‫والهند‬‫أوروبا‬‫بني‬‫اإلغريقية-الرومانية‬‫التجارة‬‫كانت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫جدت‬ُ‫و‬ ‫التي‬ ‫األثرية‬ ‫الشواهد‬ ّ‫وتدل‬ .‫ق.م‬ ١٤٠ ‫سنة‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫العربي‬ ‫شبه‬ ‫يف‬ ‫وروماني‬ ‫ـريقي‬‫ـ‬‫غ‬‫إ‬ ‫نفوذ‬ ‫على‬ ،‫ابروق‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ـة‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬‫ص‬‫خا‬ ،‫قطر‬ ً‫ا‬‫معلم‬ ،‫سكنية‬ ً‫ا‬‫دار‬ :‫تشمل‬ ‫آثار‬ ‫وجدت‬ ‫حيث‬ ،‫القطرية‬ ‫اجلزيرة‬ ‫من‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫كميات‬ ‫على‬ ‫حتتوي‬ ‫منخفضة‬ ‫ورابية‬ ً‫ا‬‫تنور‬ ،ً‫ا‬‫حجري‬ .‫السمك‬ ‫عظام‬

14. 13 Qatar – Austria | Economic Book the Prophet Mohammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent his first envoy, Abu al-Ala’ al-Hadhrami, to Al Munthir Ibn Sawi Altimimi, ruler of Bahrain (the coastal area extending from Kuwait in the north to Qatar in the south including Al Ihsa and Bahrain Island), in 628 C.E.calling him to Islam. The ruler responded and declared his embrace of Islam, followed by the entire population of Qatar which was mainly Arab and included some Persians living among them. Through this, the Islamic era started in Qatar. In this early period of Islamic history, Qatar was famous for textiles and well-known garments and loincloths. During the Umayyad and Abbasid rules in Damascus and Bagdad respectively, Qatar experienced further development in trade. Yaqut al-Hamawi, a renowned Arab geographer and historian, considered Qatar a center for camel and horse breeding. During the period of the Abbasid ascent in Bagdad, the pearl industry experienced considerable development in the Bahrain region, including Qatar. In this period there was an increase in the demand for pearls from the East all the way to China. British Influence on Qatar Britain’s relations with the Gulf region, including Qatar, started in 1635 with the establishment of the Basra commercial station, which was owned by the East India Company. Initially the purpose of these relations with the Gulf was the exploration of trade in Arabia but over time these purely commercial activities developed into a kind of official political relationship. Eventually, the British Empire tightened its control over the Gulf area under the pretext of protecting its naval lines in the Gulf and its roads to India. On September 12, 1868 the first official relations between Qatar and Britain were established in the form of an agreement with Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani. This served as British recognition of a ruler representing Qatar. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani, the founder of independent Qatar (1868 – 1913), assumed power after his father. The Al Thani family has been ruling Qatar for over one and a half century. The name Al Thani is derived from that of the family’s ancestor Thani bin Mohammed, father of Mohammed bin Thani. ‫يربط‬ ‫جتاري‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫كأهم‬ ‫بأكملها‬ ‫العربي‬ ‫اخلليج‬ ‫منطقة‬ ‫وبرزت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الساسانية‬ ‫الفارسية‬ ‫االمبراطورية‬ ‫عهد‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫والغرب‬ ‫الشرق‬ ‫من‬‫تأتي‬‫التي‬‫السلع‬‫مقايضة‬‫يتم‬‫كان‬‫حيث‬،‫امليالدي‬‫الثالث‬‫القرن‬ )‫(الصندل-التيك-الساج-املهقوني‬ ‫األخشاب‬ ‫من‬ ‫كأنواع‬ ،‫الشرق‬ ،‫املنسوجات‬ ،‫األصباغ‬ ‫من‬ ‫السفن‬ ‫بحموالت‬ ،‫والتوابل‬ ‫والنحاس‬ ‫يف‬ ً‫ا‬‫بارز‬ ً‫ا‬‫دور‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫لعبت‬ ‫وقد‬ .‫والفضة‬ ‫والذهب‬ ،‫التمور‬ ،‫الآللئ‬ ‫األقل‬ ‫على‬ ‫تساهم‬ ‫وكانت‬ ،‫الساسانية‬ ‫التجارية‬ ‫احلركة‬ ‫هذه‬ .‫الثمينة‬ ‫والآللئ‬ ‫اإلرجوانية‬ ‫األصباغ‬ ‫وهما‬ ،‫السلع‬ ‫من‬ ‫باثنتني‬ ‫بحري‬ ‫اتصال‬ ‫نقطة‬ ‫منها‬ ‫جعل‬ ‫لقطر‬ ‫الساحلي‬ ‫الشريط‬ ‫امتداد‬ ‫لصيد‬ ‫املواتية‬ ‫املوانئ‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ .‫املجاورة‬ ‫العمران‬ ‫بأماكن‬ ‫هاما‬ ‫دورا‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫لعبت‬ ‫فقد‬ ،‫اخلليج‬ ‫ملنطقة‬ ‫منارة‬ ‫منها‬ ‫جعل‬ ‫اللؤلؤ‬ ‫اجليوش‬ ‫لنقل‬ ‫بحري‬ ‫أسطول‬ ‫أول‬ ‫وشكلت‬ ،‫اإلسالمية‬ ‫احلضارة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫كان‬ ‫و‬ .‫السند‬ ‫و‬ ‫فارس‬ ‫جنوبي‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اإلسالمية‬ ‫الفتوحات‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫اإلسالمي‬ ‫الديني‬ ‫انتمائهم‬ ‫عن‬ ‫دفاعهم‬ ‫يف‬ ‫قيادي‬ ‫دور‬ ‫للقطريني‬ ‫جزيرة‬ ‫كامل‬ ‫اإلسالم‬ ‫اكتسح‬ .‫العقائدية‬ ‫لوالءاتهم‬ ‫اخالصهم‬ ‫و‬ ‫املنطقة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اإلسالم‬ ‫وبانتشار‬ .‫امليالدي‬ ‫السابع‬ ‫القرن‬ ‫يف‬ ‫العرب‬ ‫العالء‬ ‫وهو‬ ،‫له‬ ‫مبعوث‬ ‫أول‬ ] ‫وسلم‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫اهلل‬ ‫[صلى‬ ‫الرسول‬ ‫أرسل‬ ً‫ال‬‫شما‬ ‫الكويت‬ ‫من‬ ‫املمتد‬ ‫(الساحل‬ ‫البحرين‬ ‫حاكم‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫احلضرمي‬ ‫بن‬ ‫املنذر‬ )‫البحرين‬ ‫وجزر‬ ‫األحساء‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫يف‬ ‫مبا‬ ً‫ا‬‫جنوب‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫وحتى‬ ‫فاستجاب‬ ‫اإلسالم‬ ‫إ

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