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Published on March 18, 2008

Author: Laurence

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American Neutrality:  American Neutrality Final Project Presentation AP US History May 26, 2005 Between 1607 and 2005, what was the greatest lesson from U.S. history that was learned? Why?:  Between 1607 and 2005, what was the greatest lesson from U.S. history that was learned? Why? Between 1918 and 1941, America employed several diplomatic and economic policies that established it as a neutral country amidst the world’s warring countries; however, because of the failure of such neutral policies, Americans learned their greatest lesson regarding the ineffectiveness of neutrality, as seen by their strategies and policies during World War II, and prevented further economic and diplomatic disasters. Diplomatic Policies Economic Policies World War II Policies Kellogg Briand Pact Treaty of Versailles in U.S Neutrality Acts Hawley- Smoot Tariff New Deal & Unemployment NATO Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine Diplomatic Policies:  Diplomatic Policies Kellogg-Briand Pact Ratification of Treaty of Versailles Neutrality Acts These policies that were employed after World War One attempted to establish America’s neutrality, yet they failed to do so and were ineffective. Eagle Kellogg-Briand Pact:  Kellogg-Briand Pact “‘If, after just having signed a peace treaty with twenty-six nations, we need fifteen new cruisers, how many would we have needed if we hadn’t just signed a peace treaty with twenty-six nations?” (Bailey, pg. 650) “It was not only delusive but dangerous, for it further lulled the public…into a false sense of security.” (Bailey, pg. 650) July 7, 1937: Americans fight in China in response to Japanese incursion; incident dismissed and not classified as war (Neutrality Acts) The Kellog-Briand Pact pursued American neutrality but was futile in its efforts as wars continued and Americans were not fully aware of these events. Ratification of Treaty of Versailles:  Ratification of Treaty of Versailles Not passed because established League of Nations which was viewed as continuous entanglement in foreign affairs “Widespread popular suspicions extended to literally paranoia in their fear of the international powers and entanglements that signing the treaty and taking related actions would lead to.” (Sieff) This isolationist decision caused failure of League of Nations. Without the U.S., League could only issue economic sanctions and formal statements of criticism. (Drew) The Lamb From the Slaughter Neutrality Acts:  Neutrality Acts Neutrality Act of 1937: U.S. citizens not travel on belligerent ships; difficult to enforce Neutrality Act of 1939: Cash and Carry- “This provision, it was believed, would prevent the United States from being drawn into war either by holding debt in some belligerent countries or by violating blockades while transporting supplies.” (“Neutrality Acts) “F.D.R.’S War Plans!”– Disregard for Neutrality Acts (Manly) “Neutrality Acts were the way to war.” (Shenker) The Neutrality Acts proved to be futile as they could not accomplish their goals and eventually came to be ignored. Seuss Economic Policies:  Economic Policies Hawley-Smoot Tariff New Deal & Unemployment The United States used economic policies to remain neutral and isolated, but these economic policies backfired and caused further damage. Lange Hawley-Smoot Tariff:  Hawley-Smoot Tariff Raises average duty from 38.5% to approx. 60%; economic isolationism that worsens Crash of 1929 (Bailey, pg. 767) “In the 1930s protectionist tariffs sent the world reeling backward, giving up perhaps thirty years’ worth of economic progress.” (Forbes) Worsens economy in other countries: Cuba economic crisis– cant sell sugar to America (Hawley-Smoot Tariff) Isolationist tariff causes dramatic setback in American and foreign economies. New Deal & Unemployment:  New Deal & Unemployment DeLong New Deal & Unemployment:  New Deal & Unemployment New Deal Policies focus on America and its problems first Not effective-- Unemployment actually solved by World War II Triple Taxes: from $1.6 billion collected in 1933 to $5.3 billion in 1940  less capital for businesses to make jobs and less money for individual expenses (Powell) Gupta Although the New Deal was an approach that tried to fix the economy by isolation, it was not successful in ending problems and actually created more. World War II Policies:  World War II Policies NATO Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine The United States learned that neutrality was ineffective because they began to intervene in foreign countries after World War II. Develop 700 North Atlantic Treaty Organization:  North Atlantic Treaty Organization April 1949: America binds itself to fighting for other countries Great public support for first U.S. peacetime alliance with Europe (Bailey, pg. 808) NATO results in lifting of Berlin blockade (Bailey, pg. 809) NATO was a successful organization that allowed the U.S. to eliminate international problems. ZA NATO Marshall Plan:  Marshall Plan $13.75 billion to 16 European countries between 1948 to 1952 (Darkwa) U.S. provide money to "to end hunger, poverty, despair and chaos“ in Europe (Darkwa) Helps repair West Germany: funds promote investments (Darkwa) Allowed for 24,000 Western Europeans to study how American business is run for 4-6 weeks, causing immediate increases in in W. European firms’ productivity (Weiss) The Marshall Plan was a way through which America supported other countries and effectively reduced the Soviet communist threat. Truman Doctrine:  Truman Doctrine March 1947: “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” –Truman (Bailey, pg. 797) $400 million to Greece and Turkey in aid Justifies U.S. action in Korea & Vietnam Through the Truman Doctrine, the United States was able to engage in other countries’ affairs and establish itself as a world mediator. Truman Doctrine, 1947 CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION The diplomatic and economic policies that America issued from 1918 to 1941 established it as a neutral country and resulted in several failures and internal problems. However, Americans learned their lesson regarding the ineffectiveness of neutrality, as seen by the strategies they employed after World War II. This idea can be seen through the: Failure of diplomatic policies after World War I Turmoil Caused by the country’s economic policies Success of American strategies after World War II BIBLIOGRAPHY:  BIBLIOGRAPHY Bailey, Thomas A. A Diplomatic History of the American People. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. This book gave a synopsis of several of America’s diplomatic policies, like the Treaty of Versailles and the Marshall Plan. It also included information on the Truman Doctrine, Hawley-Smoot tariff, and NATO Bailey, Thomas A., and Cohen, Lizabeth, and Kennedy, David M. The American Pageant. New York, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. This book gave general information regarding NATO, the Truman Doctrine, Treaty of Versailles, the Marshall Plan, and the Kellog-Briand Pact. Darkwa, D.A. “HIPC and Marshall Plan in Perspective.” Africa News Services. 27 Nov. 2001: 1. This article provided insight into the amount of aid the U.S. provided through the Marshall Plan. DeLong, Bradford J. Economic Policy and Prosperity. Jan 1997. University Of California Berkeley. 20 May 2005. < http://econ161.berkeley.edu/TCEH/Slouch_policy6.html> This website provided information regarding unemployment during the Great Depression and the graph of unemployment. Develop 700. 22 Nov. 2004. University of Auckland Library. 21 May 2005. < http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/dev_stud/course-pages/DEVELOP700.htm> This site provided the political cartoon of the Marshall Plan. Drew, Stephen. “Why did the League of Nations Fail to Maintain Peace after World War I?” The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Britain. 2003: 1. This article from an encyclopedia discussed the failure of the League of Nations as a result of the United States refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. Slide17:  Eagle, Brooklyn. “Seein’ Things.” 1919. Online Image. After the War. 23 May 2005. <http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/war/pics/ww1/league72.jpg> This website provided the vulture image of the Senate and the League of Nations. Fleming, Thomas. “The Big Leak.” American Heritage 38.8 (1987): 64 – 71. This journal article discussed American neutrality in the 1930’s. Forbes, Timothy C. “Can History Save us From a Depression?” American Heritage 39.1 (1988): 74 – 79. This journal article refers to the problems the Hawley-Smoot Tariff created. Gupta, Pranav, and Lee, Jonathan. Problems of the Great Depression. 7 Mar. 1996. The Great Depression and the New Deal. 20 May 2005. <http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/depression/> This website gave general problems during the Great Depression and provided the photograph of unemployed men. Hawley-Smoot Tariff. 2002. U-S-History.com. 21 May 2005. < http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1519.html> This website provided the specific effects the Hawley-Smoot Tariff had on other economies. Lange, Dorothea. “Migrant Mother.” No date. Online image. Conscientious: May 2004 Archives. 23 May 2004. < http://www.jmcolberg.com/weblog/archives/2004_05.html> This website provided the Great Depression picture of the mother and her children. Manly, Chesly "F.D.R.’s War Plans." Chicago Daily Tribune 4 Dec. 1941: 1. This article from the newspaper talked about F.D.R.’s intent to go to war despite the Neutrality Acts. “Neutrality Acts.” The Reader’s Companion to American History. 1991 ed. This source provided detailed information regarding each of the Neutrality Acts of the 1930’s. Slide18:  “North Atlantic Treat Organization.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003 ed. The encyclopedia provided details about the origins and later impacts of NATO. Powell, Jim. FDR’s Folly. New York: Crown Forum, 2003. This book provided details regarding the impact of the New Deal policies. Seuss, Dr. “The Old Man of the Sea.” 28 Sept. 1941. Online Image. September 1941. 23 May 2005. < http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/sep41.htm> This website provided the political cartoon of the Neutrality Acts. Shenker, Israel. "The Sage of Topeka." American Heritage 21.3 (1970): 92 - 96. This journal article gave information regarding the perception of the Neutrality Acts during the 1930’s. Sieff, Martin. “Treaty Defeat Repeats History.” United Press International. 14 Oct. 1999: 1. This article gave insight into the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles in the Senate and the American’s people sentiment regarding the issue. “The Lamb from the Slaughter.” No date. Online Image. U.S. Senate. 23 May 2005. < http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/A_Bitter_Rejection.htm> This site gave the image of the bandaged Treaty of Versailles in the Senate. “The Truman Doctrine.” The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of North American History. 2003 ed. This source discussed the effects and uses of the Truman Doctrine after it was issued. Truman Doctrine, 1947. 15 May 2004. ClassBrain. 20 May 2005. < http://www.classbrain.com/artteenst/pu> This website provided the image of President Truman. Weiss, Charles Jr. “Eurasia Letter: A Marshall Plan We Can Afford.” Foreign Policy. 1997: 1. This article talked about the effects the Marshall Plan had on European individuals and firms. ZA NATO. 2003. ZA NATO. 21 May 2005. <http://www.zanato.com/pics/nato-flags.jpg> This website provided the image of the NATO flag.

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