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Published on February 23, 2014

Author: tubaaah

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: HYPERTENSION PowerPoint Presentation: TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO HYPERTENSION SPEAKERS: TUBA KHAN (11803) SADAF HUSSAIN (11784) PowerPoint Presentation: HYPERTENSION DEFINITION: “The force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels.” hypertension is a common health problem with occasionally devastating outcomes; it typically remains asymptomatic until late in its course. Besides contributing to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents, hypertension can also cause cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure ( hypertensive heart disease ), aortic dissection, and renal failure. PowerPoint Presentation: a sustained diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg, or a sustained systolic pressure in excess of 140 mm Hg , constitutes hypertension; systolic blood pressure is more important than diastolic blood pressure in determining cardiovascular risk. Reduction of blood pressure dramatically reduces the incidence and death rates from IHD, heart failure, and stroke. REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE : REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE PowerPoint Presentation: KIDNEY The kidneys (primarily) and adrenals (secondarily) are central players in blood pressure regulation; they interact with each other to modify vessel tone and blood volume The kidney influences peripheral resistance and sodium homeostasis primarily through the ren -in- angiotensin system PowerPoint Presentation: TYPES AND CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION Presenters: Seemi Naz Umm-e- Aimen Muniba Ghulam PowerPoint Presentation: TYPES OF HYPERTENSION PRIMARY HYPERTENSION common form of hypertension, diagnosed in about 95% of cases SECONDARY HYPERTENSION results from an identifiable cause diagnosed in about 5 % of cases PowerPoint Presentation: OTHER TYPES OF HYPERTENSION Malignant Hypertension: Isolated Systolic Hypertension White Coat Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension PowerPoint Presentation: CAUSES OF PRIMARY HYPERTENSION Vit amin D deficiency High alcohol consumption Stress Aging Medicines such as birth control pills Genetics and a family history of hypertension. Chronic kidney disease Adrenal and thyroid problems or tumors Smoking Obesity Diabetes Sedentary lifestyle Lack of physical activity High levels of salt intake Insufficient calciu m, potassium, and magnesium consumption . PowerPoint Presentation: SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS - This is most apparent in younger persons with hypertension, who may exhibit tachycardia and an elevated cardiac output DEFECT IN NATRIURESIS – increase renal sodium excretion in response to elevations in arterial pressure and to a sodium or volume load. INTRACELLULAR SODIUM AND CALCIUM Intracellular Na+ is elevated in blood cells and other tissues in primary (essential) hypertension PRIMARY HYPERTENSION PowerPoint Presentation: RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM ACTIVITY PowerPoint Presentation: PATHOGENESIS OF HYPERTENSION SECONDARY HYPERTENSION Endocrine hypertension a) Pheochromocytoma- b) Hyperaldosteronism - c) Cushing’s syndrome- d) Gigantism or Acromegaly - Neurogenic hypertension a) Section of the baroreceptors nerves. b) Lesions in tractus solitarius . c) Increased intracranial pressure. PowerPoint Presentation: R ENAL DISEASE Stenosis renal arteries- narrowing of one b) Glomerulonephritis - Cardiovascular hypertension a ) Atherosclerosis b) Coarctation of aorta CAUSES OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION PowerPoint Presentation:  OTHER CAUSES OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION Hypercalcemia Acromegaly , Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Neurologic disorders. Medications most importantly C yclosporine and NSAIDs. FATIMA SIDDIQUI (11748):  FATIMA SIDDIQUI (11748) VASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN HYPERTENSION VASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN HYPERTENSION : VASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN HYPERTENSION In addition to accelerating atherogenesis, hypertension-associated degenerative changes in the walls of large and medium arteries can potentiate both aortic dissection and cerebrovascular hemorrhage. Hypertension is also associated with two forms of small blood vessel disease: hyaline arteriolosclerosis and hyper plastic arteriolosclerosis. Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis: : Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis: Morphology  : Hyaline Arteriosclerosis is characterized by deposition of an amorphous pink, hyaline material within the arteriolar wall, resulting in its narrowing. Clinical significance  :  benign hypertension and diabetes mellitus. :  Renal  glomerulus  and afferent arteriole with hyaline intimal thickening.  Arteriole with marked hyaline intimal thickening. Arteriole with marked hyaline intimal thickening. : Arteriole with marked hyaline intimal thickening . Arteriole with marked hyaline intimal thickening. Arteriole with marked hyaline intimal thickening. Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis: : Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis: Morphology  : concentric, onion skin thickening of walls of arterioles. Clinical significance   : associated with malignant or accelerated hypertension. Pathogenesis : vasoconstriction. PowerPoint Presentation: The renal artery at left has a concentric, onion-skin-like thickening. PowerPoint Presentation: Kidney in malignant hypertension. It is atrophic, has irregular small infarcts, and amore coarsely irregular cortical surface  . PULMONARY HYPERTENSION : PULMONARY HYPERTENSION UMM-E-SHAH IDREES (11804) Definition:: Definition: Pulmonary hypertension is a rare lung disorder characterized by increased pressure in the pulmonary artery. Normal: at rest : 14 mm Hg Pulmonary hypertension at rest : 25 mm Hg during exercise : 30 mm Hg PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION: PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION likely to begin with spasm of the muscle layer in pulmonary arteries patients are rather sensitive to substances that cause blood vessels to constrict Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension results directly from another medical problem PATHOLOGY: : PATHOLOGY: The changes involve large and small pulmonary blood vessels The major changes include:  atherosclerosis hypertrophy intimal fibrosis of small arteries plexogenic arteriopathy. PowerPoint Presentation: Etiology: Abnormally high BP in pulmonary arteries Increased pressure damages large and small pulmonary arteries Blood vessel walls thicken Cannot transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide normally Levels of oxygen in blood fall Constriction of pulmonary arteries Further increase in pressure in pulmonary circulation PATHOGENESIS: : PATHOGENESIS : Elevated pressure, through  endothelial cell dysfunction , produces structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Presenter: Rafia Memon: Presenter: Rafia Memon HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE: HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) stems from the increased demands placed on the heart by hypertension, which causes pressure overload and ventricular hypertrophy. Although most commonly seen in the left heart as the result of systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension can cause right-sided HHD, or  cor pulmonale . THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIAC DISEASES: THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIAC DISEASES Pathophysiology Impaired ability of the heart to contract or relax Compensatory mechanisms Tachycardia and increased contractility Increased preload Vasoconstriction Ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling ETIOLOGY: ETIOLOGY   Etiology MI Cardiomyopathies Ventricular hypertrophy Uncontrolled HTN Volume overload SYSTEMIC (LEFT-SIDED) HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE: SYSTEMIC (LEFT-SIDED) HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE Hypertension induces left ventricular pressure overload hypertrophy, As a result, the left ventricular wall thickening increases the weight of the heart disproportionately to the increase in overall cardiac size The thickness of the left ventricular wall may exceed 2.0 cm, As a result left atrial enlargement. PULMONARY (RIGHT-SIDED) HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE (COR PULMONALE) : PULMONARY (RIGHT-SIDED) HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE (COR PULMONALE) Normally, the pulmonary vasculature is the low pressure side of the circulation, the right ventricle has a thinner and more compliant wall than the left ventricle. The most frequent causes are disorders of the lungs, especially chronic respiratory diseases such as emphysema, or primary pulmonary hypertension

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