Pulmonary edema

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Information about Pulmonary edema

Published on November 28, 2013

Author: reshmivunni

Source: slideshare.net


Pulmonary edema
Signs and symptoms


DEFINITION Pulmonary edema is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces surrounding the alveoli with the advancement of fluid accumulation in the alveolar spaces.

TYPES  Cardiogenic pulmonary edema  Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema  Neurogenic pulmonary edema

CAUSES CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA NONCARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA NEUROGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA • Hypertension • Left ventricular failure • cardiomyopathy • • • • • • • Aspiration of gastric contents Drugs eg. Narcotics Sepsis Pneumonia Smoke inhalation Malignancies Pancreatitis • Head injury

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Increase in the fluid filtration into the interstitial spaces of the lung Movement of the fluid from the interstitium in to the alveolar walls Damage of alveolar epithelium Accumulation of fluid in the alveoli

SIGNS AND SYPTOMS  Dyspnea  Tachycardia  Orthopnea  Hypertension  Thin and frothy sputum  On auscultation,  Rhonchi  Crackle sound  Right ventricular failure with the manifestation of hepatomegaly, jugular vein distension and peripheral edema

DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS Pulse oximetry <85%  ABG: PaO2 = 30-50mm of Hg  Chest X-ray shows areas of “white out” (fluid filled area) 

MANAGEMENT  Correction of hypoxemia  O2 therapy  Mechanical ventilation  Reducing preload  Upright position  Diuretics  Vasodilators  Reducing after load  Antihypertensive agents  Supporting perfusion  Ionotropic medications

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