Published on February 18, 2014
Publicistic Style In the English language Malaki Marina 3LM3
Functional Styles -Is a system of interrelated language means , which serves a definite aim in communication -The peculiar choice of language means is primarily dependent on the aim of communication, on the FUNCTION the style performs
Classification of Functional Styles by I.R.Galperin 1. The Publicistic Style 2. The Belles-Letters Style 3. The Newspapers Style 4. The Scientific Prose Style 5. The Style of Official Documents
General Aims • to influence the public opinion • to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct • to cause the audience to accept the expressed point of view.
Peculiarities of The Publicistic Style • coherent and logical syntactical structure • expanded system of connectives (hence, forward, inasmuch, thenceforth) • careful paragraphing • the use of words with the emotive meaning • stylistic devices are not fresh or genuine • brevity of expression
Subdivisions Oratorical Radio and Tv commentory Publicistic Style Essays Journalistic Articles
Oratorical , Tv and Radio - speeches on political and social problems -orations on solemn public occasions (public weddings, funerals, jubilees) -radio and TV commentaries -political speeches -speeches in courts of law
Typical Features • direct address to the audience by special formulas : Ladies and Gentlemen!; My Lords!; Mr. Chairman!; Honorable Members!; Highly esteemed members of the conference!; • or, in less formal situation, Dear Friends!
Typical Features • Calling upon the audience: Let us then, with courage and confidence, pursue our own federal and republican principles
Typical features • the use of the 1st person pronoun we; 2nd person pronoun you : We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness (Th. Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence).
Typical features • The use of contractions I’ll, won’t, haven’t, isn’t and others: We’re talking about healing our nation. We’re not talking about politics. We’re all here to do everything in our power to save lives; I’m here to thank you for hearing that call. Actually, I shouldn’t be thanking you, I should be thanking a Higher Power for giving you the call (George W. Bush).
Typical Features • Asking question to reach the contact: Sometimes it is said that man cannot be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Or have we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? (Th. Jefferson)
Essay Features: - brevity of expression • Personal approach to the subject • a rather expanded use of connectives • the abundant use of emotive words • the use of similes and sustained metaphors.
Shorter forms of Essays • on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects • no deep examination of the subject, only touches upon the surface • rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument
Longer Forms of Essays • reviews, memoirs, treatises • exhaustive studies rather than actual essays
Example: • Language most shows a man; speak, that I may see thee. It springs of the most retired and in most parts of us, and is the image of the parent of it, the mind. No glass renders a man’s form or likeness so true, as his speech, and, as we consider features and composition in a man, so words in language. Some men are tall and big, so some language is high and great. Then the words are chosen, the sound ample, the composition full, all grace, sinewy and strong. Some are little and dwarfs; so of speech, it is humble and low; the words are poor and flat; the members are periods thin and weak, without knitting or number. Ben Johnson
Oratories vs. Essays • - oratories: seek an immediate effect > use simple, straightforward devices to communicate the main point to the audience at once • - essays: seek a lasting effect > use complex, elaborate devices to develop a depth of meaning discernible on close reading or rereading only
Journalistic Articles • compositions of moderate length bringing attractive information with a commentary • - the use of stylistic devices varies depends on the character of the newspaper (tabloids x quality newspapers) or magazine (popular x scientific) and on the subject
Peculiarities • is defined by the character of newspaper, magazine, as well as subjects chosen • The rule of 5 Ws can be applied: Who? What? Where? When? Why? • Usually based on the following: proximity, prominence, timeliness, human interest, oddity, consequence.
Political Articles • - strong reliance on the extralinguistic context • - rare and bookish words • - neologisms • - epithets (e.g. Elizabeth I of England, ‘The Virgin Queen’)
Political Articles • - puns (e.g. ‘Pie in the sky is too colourless a phrase to describe his final speech. It was more like caviar in the stratosphere.’) • - alliteration (e.g. ‘the gap between promise and performance’) • - irony
Literary Articles • abstract words of logical meaning • original expressions • emotional language
Stylistic Devices • But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate; we cannot consecrate; we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be dedicated to the great task remaining before us; that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain ; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth (A. Lincoln).
Stylistic Devices • It is high time this people had recovered from the passions of war. It is high time that counsel were taken from statesmen, not demagogues: It is high time the people of the North and South understood each other and adopted means to inspire confidence in each other.
Stylistic Devices • For Burns exalted our race, he hallowed Scotland and the Scottish tongue. Before his time we had for a long period been scarcely recognized; we had been falling out of recollection of the world. From the time of the Union of the Crowns, and still more from the legislative union, Scotland had lapsed into obscurity. Except for an occasional riot, or a Jacobite rising, her existence was almost forgotten.
The technique of the three-part-list: X,Y and Z. signed, sealed and delivered Father, Son, and Holy Spirit Tom, Dick, and Harry the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth • this, that, and the other • • • •
Examples: • Governor Wallace: and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever. • Abraham Lincoln: Government of the people, by the people, for the people. • Winston Churchill: This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is perhaps the end of the beginning.
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