Psychology Unit 2 History

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Information about Psychology Unit 2 History

Published on January 5, 2009

Author: derekspalla


Unit 2 - A History Of Psychology : Unit 2 - A History Of Psychology AP® Psychology From A Christian Worldview Week 2 January 12-16 Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1809-1894 : “Once expanded to the dimensions of a larger idea, [the mind] never returns to its original size.” Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1809-1894 Unit Topics : Unit Topics Psychology’s Beginnings Defining Psychology Christian Psychology Psychology’s Big Question Psychology’s Levels of Analysis Psychology’s Subfields Word Splash : Word Splash psychology behaviorism nature-nurture levels of analysis humanistic psychology biopsychosocial approach basic research applied research The Roots Of Psychology : The Roots Of Psychology Psychology is about asking and answering questions. Psychology developed from international roots. Philosophy Biology Developed into a science that aims to observe, describe, and explain how we think, feel, and act. Psychology Is Born : Psychology Is Born E.Q. “How did the science of psychology develop?” Timeline G.O. Psychology History : Timeline G.O. Psychology History All truth is God’s truth God creates mankind Beginning of time Before 300 B.C. Aristotle theorizes about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception and personality 300 B.C. – 1800s A.D. Lots of psychological history 1879 University of Leipzig Wilhelm Wundt First psychological lab 1859 Charles Darwin - proposed evolutionary psychology 1905 Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of learning 1900 Sigmund Freud Renowned personality theorist 1923 Jean Piaget, most influential observer of children 1890 William James publishes important psychology textbook Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. Illustrates psychology’s origins in many disciplines and countries. Wilhelm Wundt – established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Sigmund Freud – personality theorist and therapist. His controversial ideas have Influenced humanity’s self- understanding. Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. Mary Calkins – became a pioneering memory researcher and the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA). Margaret Floy Washburn – first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D., was an animal behavior researcher, and became the second female president of the APA. Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. Psychology is not easy to define. It began as the science of mental life. Until the 1920s this is how psychology was defined. Key word was introspection. 1920s – 1960s Introspection is dismissed. Psychology is redefined as “the scientific study of observable behavior.” Science is rooted in observation. Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. The Behaviorists: J.B. Watson – worked with Rosalie Rayner and championed psychology as the science of observable behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert.” B.F. Skinner – A leading behaviorist, who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior. Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. 1960s Humanistic psychology emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential. The importance of meeting our needs of love and acceptance. Psychology began to recapture its interest in mental processes, specifically in the areas of how the mind processes and retains information. The cognitive revolution Timeline G.O. cont. : Timeline G.O. cont. The Humanists: Carl Rogers – among the founders of humanistic psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research. Abraham Maslow – He is noted for his conceptualization of a "hierarchy of human needs", and is considered the father of humanistic psychology. Defining Psychology : Defining Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior is anything an organism does. Any action we can observe. Mental processes are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior. Sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. Key word is science. It is a way of asking and answering questions. Christian Psychology : Christian Psychology Søren Kierkegaard – could be called the father of Christian psychology. He promoted a critical introspection and theorized about the structure, activity, and development of the human self, based on his own self-awareness and reflection on human nature. Wrote: Sickness Unto Death: A Christian Psychological Exposition For Edification and Awakening. Christian Psychology cont. : Christian Psychology cont. Christian psychology refers to an approach to psychology that is still relatively new. The contemporary form is only about 23 years old. The term “psychology” is any body of knowledge that contributes to our understanding of human beings. Modern psychology is not value neutral. Christian psychology is the Christian version of the discipline; modern psychology is the mainstream secular version. Humanist assumptions are opposed to a Christian worldview. Psychology’s Big Question : Psychology’s Big Question E.Q. “What is psychology’s historic big issue?” The controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience. Nature vs. Nurture Do our human traits develop through experience, or do we come equipped with them? Psychology’s Big Question cont. : Psychology’s Big Question cont. The Answer: Nurture (experience) works on what nature (biology) endows. Our species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt. Every psychological event (thought, emotion) is simultaneously a biological event. Example: depression can be both a thought disorder (psychological/nurture) and a brain disorder (biological/nature). Psychology’s Levels of Analysis : Psychology’s Levels of Analysis E.Q. “What theoretical perspectives do psychologists take, and how does the biopsychosocial approach help integrate these perspectives?” There are three approaches: biological, psychological, and social-cultural. Everything is related to everything else. Each by itself is incomplete. Biopsychosocial Approach : Biopsychosocial Approach Biological influences: Natural adaptive physiology and behaviors Genetic predispositions responding to environment Brain mechanisms Hormonal influences Psychological influences: Learned fears and other learned expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Social-cultural influences: Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Peer and other group influences Compelling models (i.e. media) Behavior or Mental Processes Psychology’s Current Perspectives : Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective: Focus: Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes. Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences. Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. Psychology’s Current Perspectives cont. : Psychology’s Current Perspectives cont. Perspective: Focus: Behavioral How we learn observable responses. Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Christian Psychology What is Christian psychology? Defining Christian Psychology : Defining Christian Psychology Christian Psychology is: A developed account of human nature. What humans need to be complete. Various ways humans deviate from completeness. Various remedies that God has put in place for the “human condition.” All of these are explored by reference to the Bible and other parts of the Christian tradition. Ultimate Questions : Ultimate Questions Leo Tolstoy – (1828 – 1910) Russian novelist whose masterpieces include War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Tolstoy asked some questions of ultimate importance: Why should I live? Why should I do anything? Is there in life any purpose which the inevitable death that awaits me does not undo and destroy? As a science, psychology cannot answer questions of ultimate importance or ultimate origins. Expect psychology to help you understand why people think, feel, and act as they do. Psychology’s Subfields : Psychology’s Subfields E.Q. “What are psychology’s specialized subfields?” Basic Research – builds psychology’s knowledge base and includes: Biological psychologists who explore the links between the brain and the mind. Developmental psychologists that study our changing abilities from conception to death. Personality psychologists that investigate our persistent traits. Social psychologists exploring how we view and affect one another. Psychology’s Subfields cont. : Psychology’s Subfields cont. Applied Research – tackles practical problems and includes: Industrial and Organizational psychologists who use psychological concepts in the workplace to help train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems. Clinical Applications – devoted to such issues as how to have a happy marriage, how to overcome anxiety or depression and includes: Counseling psychologists help people cope with personal challenges including academic, vocational, and marital issues. Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders. How Psychology Relates : How Psychology Relates Psychology relates to many fields, ranging from mathematics to biology to sociology to philosophy. Psychology influences modern culture. Knowledge transforms us. Knowledge modifies attitudes, and attitudes modify behavior.

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