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psycho

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Information about psycho
Science-Technology

Published on December 11, 2008

Author: aSGuest6280

Source: authorstream.com

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Psychology 384 Human Factors Laboratory : Psychology 384 Human Factors Laboratory The Psychopathology of Everyday Things Today’s sources: Don Norman : Today’s sources: Don Norman Things That Make Us Smart Turn Signals are the Facial Expressions of Automobiles The Design of Everyday Things (formerly: The Psychology of Everyday Things) The Psychopathology of Everyday Things : The Psychopathology of Everyday Things Why are some common things so hard to use? Doors Stoves Faucets Light switches Refrigerators (you name it!) How to open a door : How to open a door Operating a door : Operating a door ??? : ??? PUSH Affordances: : Affordances: Norman: the perceived and actual properties of things in the environment that determine just how those things might be used by a human being Affordances provide clues for forming mental models. Key to bad design: : Key to bad design: Look for a sign! ATTENTION : ATTENTION The light level in this room is controlled by pushing the numbered buttons. Number 1 = 100% (Brightest) Number 2 = 75% Number 3 = 50% Number 4 = 25% (Dimmest) Number 5 = 0% (Off) DO NOT USE “ON”/”OFF” BUTTON DO NOT USE ANY OTHER BUTTON WITHOUT INSTRUCTIONS The Design Follies prize: : The Design Follies prize: Welcome to the Del Mar Post Office vending machine. I refund a maximum of $3.25 change with your purchase. Think before depositing a bill larger than $5. (This kind of situation, from which there is no recovery, has been called a dead end or “deadly embrace”) Human factors in the cockpit : Human factors in the cockpit $$$ Complex, high-tech setting The consequences of errors can be disastrous Human factors in the cockpit : Human factors in the cockpit Some sources of errors and disasters: Social interaction among the flight crew Automatic controls Badly designed controls Information overload Why things don’t work : Why things don’t work Designer User System Why things don’t work : Why things don’t work Designers fail to take users’ perspective Form is rewarded over function User studies take time and resources Good design is iterative: Observe Design Why things work as well as they do: : Why things work as well as they do: The principle of MAPPING: Natural vs. arbitrary mappings Example: Shape coding : Example: Shape coding Seat adjustment control for a Mercedes Benz (A natural mapping) Stove burner controls : Stove burner controls Stove burner controls : Stove burner controls Stove burner controls : Stove burner controls Stove burner controls : Stove burner controls Why things work as well as they do: : Why things work as well as they do: The principle of MAPPING: Natural vs. arbitrary mappings The principle of FEEDBACK Why things work as well as they do: : Why things work as well as they do: The principle of MAPPING: Natural vs. arbitrary mappings The principle of FEEDBACK FORCING FUNCTIONS (Designing for error) Forcing functions help prevent errors : Forcing functions help prevent errors A refrigerator’s helpful diagram: : A refrigerator’s helpful diagram: Normal settings C and 5 Colder fresh food C and 6-7 1. Set both controls Coldest fresh food B and 8-9 2. Allow 24 hours Colder freezer D and 7-8 to stabilize Warmer fresh food C and 4-1 Off (fresh fd & frz) 0 A B C D E 7 6 5 4 3 Freezer Fresh food A mental model: : A mental model: Freezer Freezer control Cooling unit Cold air Fresh food control Fresh food Cooling unit Cold air The real model: : The real model: Thermostat Control A Freezer Valve Cold air Cooling unit Fresh food Control B User-centered system design: Some principles (from Norman) : User-centered system design: Some principles (from Norman) Represent the required knowledge in the world (not in the head) Provide appropriate feedback Use the power of natural and artificial constraints: physical, logical, semantic, cultural Test with real users (not w/ designers - they know too much!) Intuitive design has all the virtues of theft over honest toil. : Intuitive design has all the virtues of theft over honest toil. - Alan Newell, quoting Bertrand Russell Roles of cognitive psychologists in industry: : Roles of cognitive psychologists in industry: 1. Collecting data (observations & experiments) 2. Designing things 3. Giving advice What HCI psychologists do: : What HCI psychologists do: Design help systems, documentation, dialogs, and screen representations Act as advocates for users and ideas Predict the success or failure of designs Observe users and suggest changes Compare alternatives Advise marketing and engineering folk Help make design tradeoffs Tradeoffs are made between: : Tradeoffs are made between: powerful, complicated systems vs. less powerful but easy to learn systems time vs. money speed vs. functionality or resolution changing one part of the interface may make an enormous difference in usability (for better or worse) What HCI psychologists do:(cont.) : What HCI psychologists do:(cont.) Test new products w/ focus groups Study effects of technology on individuals and organizations Develop and prototype new ideas Research new uses of technology - visualize the future

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