Psych personality

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Information about Psych personality

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: professorjcc

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PsychologyPsychology Cynthia K. Shinabarger ReedCynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County CollegeTarrant County College With butchering by Instructor CarneyWith butchering by Instructor Carney 1

PersonalityPersonality 2

PersonalityPersonality  What is it?What is it?  How do you know if you have one?How do you know if you have one?  What do we mean when we say someone:What do we mean when we say someone:  Has a great personality.Has a great personality.  Has a horrible personality.Has a horrible personality.  Is there a different meaning based on gender?Is there a different meaning based on gender?  Can we change our personality?Can we change our personality?  If so how?If so how? 3

PersonalityPersonality  Relatively stable pattern of thinking,Relatively stable pattern of thinking, feeling, & behaving that distinguishesfeeling, & behaving that distinguishes one person from another.one person from another.  Same familySame family  Similar experiencesSimilar experiences  Very different personalitiesVery different personalities 4

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  Case studiesCase studies  InterviewsInterviews  Naturalistic observationsNaturalistic observations  Laboratory investigationsLaboratory investigations  Psychological testsPsychological tests 5

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  To be useful, a psychological test must haveTo be useful, a psychological test must have 3 characteristics:3 characteristics:  ReliabilityReliability  Dependable, accurate, reliable information.Dependable, accurate, reliable information.  ValidityValidity  Capable of being justified, defended, or supportedCapable of being justified, defended, or supported  StandardizationStandardization  No variationsNo variations 6

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  Self-report inventoriesSelf-report inventories  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality InventoryMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) & California Psychological Inventory(MMPI) & California Psychological Inventory (CPI).(CPI).  Best-known & widely used personality measuresBest-known & widely used personality measures  MMPI: Statements about self in form of yes-no/true-MMPI: Statements about self in form of yes-no/true- false answers.false answers.  1. I like mechanics magazines1. I like mechanics magazines 2. I have a good appetite2. I have a good appetite 3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian4. I think I would like the work of a librarian 7

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  MMPIMMPI  Diagnose psychological disorders.Diagnose psychological disorders.  CPICPI  Assess personality in the normalAssess personality in the normal population.population.  In class Projective testIn class Projective test 8

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  Projective testsProjective tests  AssumptionAssumption  People project their personality characteristics ontoPeople project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli.ambiguous stimuli. 9

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Rorschach TestRorschach Test  Inkblot testInkblot test  Swiss psychiatristSwiss psychiatrist Hermann RorschachHermann Rorschach  Determine personalityDetermine personality traitstraits  Interpret subject'sInterpret subject's responses to inkblotresponses to inkblot images.images. 10

It’s just a simple Rorschach test Mr.It’s just a simple Rorschach test Mr. Bromwell so just calm down & tell meBromwell so just calm down & tell me what each one suggests to you.what each one suggests to you. 11

12 Inkblot 1                                             Inkblot 2                                                                                                      Inkblot 3                                                Inkblot 4                                                                                                                Inkblot 5                                                                        What do the inkblots look likeWhat do the inkblots look like to you?to you?

BBlack & white card, often described as looking like a mask orlack & white card, often described as looking like a mask or the face of a fox or wolf.the face of a fox or wolf. Possible Sexual Imagery: Breasts, primarily the rounded areasPossible Sexual Imagery: Breasts, primarily the rounded areas at the top of the image.at the top of the image. 13

Black & red ink, often described as people dancing orBlack & red ink, often described as people dancing or touching hands with each other.touching hands with each other. Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organ at top center or, inPossible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organ at top center or, in some cases, a vagina (at the center near the bottom).some cases, a vagina (at the center near the bottom). 14

Black & red inkBlack & red ink Frequently visualized as 2 people facing each other orFrequently visualized as 2 people facing each other or sometimes a butterfly or moth.sometimes a butterfly or moth. Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organs and female breasts,Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organs and female breasts, right about where you would expect to find them.right about where you would expect to find them. 15

Barnum EffectBarnum Effect  P. T. BarnumP. T. Barnum  Reputation as aReputation as a mastermaster psychologicalpsychological manipulatormanipulator  MuseumMuseum promoterpromoter  Circus ownerCircus owner 16

Barnum EffectBarnum Effect  Tendency to accept generalized personalityTendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions ofdescriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself.oneself.  SmartSmart  CreativeCreative  FunnyFunny  PseudosciencesPseudosciences  Influence people because:Influence people because:  We want to accept positive descriptions of ourselves.We want to accept positive descriptions of ourselves. 17

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  Walter MischelWalter Mischel  Advised psychologistsAdvised psychologists Shift attention from search for traits toShift attention from search for traits to Study of how situations influenceStudy of how situations influence behaviors.behaviors.  Some characteristics consistent over time:Some characteristics consistent over time:  IntelligenceIntelligence  Emotional reactionsEmotional reactions  Physical appearancePhysical appearance 18

Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality  EpsteinEpstein  Behavior depends on the situationBehavior depends on the situation  Consistent behavioral tendencies acrossConsistent behavioral tendencies across situations.situations.  The situationThe situation  Influences the likelihood that a person willInfluences the likelihood that a person will exhibit a specific behavior.exhibit a specific behavior. 19

Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches  TraitsTraits  Terms that describe tendencies to respond inTerms that describe tendencies to respond in particular ways that account for differencesparticular ways that account for differences among people.among people.  Psychologist Gordon AllportPsychologist Gordon Allport  Composed a list of traitsComposed a list of traits  Building blocks of personality.Building blocks of personality. 20

Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches  Raymond CattellRaymond Cattell  Proposed 16 sourceProposed 16 source traits to describetraits to describe personalitypersonality  Make predictionsMake predictions of future behaviors.of future behaviors. 21

Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches  EysenckEysenck  Personality as consists of 3 basic traits:Personality as consists of 3 basic traits:  ExtraversionExtraversion  NeuroticismNeuroticism  PsychoticismPsychoticism  Extraversion has been associated with a number ofExtraversion has been associated with a number of differences in everyday behavior.differences in everyday behavior. 22

Big FiveBig Five  I see myself (or other person) as someone who...I see myself (or other person) as someone who... 1. ...Is talkative1. ...Is talkative  Myself:Myself: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree  Other:Other: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree  2. ...Tends to find fault with others2. ...Tends to find fault with others  Myself:Myself: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree  Other:Other: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree  3. ...Does a thorough job3. ...Does a thorough job  Myself:Myself: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree  Other:Other: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree 23

Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches  Growing consensus that personality traits can beGrowing consensus that personality traits can be reduced to 5 basic onesreduced to 5 basic ones  ““Big Five”Big Five”  Openness to experienceOpenness to experience 1)1) ConscientiousnessConscientiousness 2)2) ExtraversionExtraversion 3)3) AgreeablenessAgreeableness 4)4) NeuroticismNeuroticism 24

Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches  Big 5Big 5  All 5 traits are moderately & equally heritable.All 5 traits are moderately & equally heritable.  Personality traits have considerable long-termPersonality traits have considerable long-term stability.stability. 25

Big FiveBig Five 26

Biological Factors in PersonalityBiological Factors in Personality  The idea that physical & biological factors holdThe idea that physical & biological factors hold a key to personality has a long history.a key to personality has a long history.  TrephiningTrephining  Opening of a hole in the skullOpening of a hole in the skull  Leaving the membranes surrounding the brainLeaving the membranes surrounding the brain intactintact  Concept of modern trepanation movementConcept of modern trepanation movement  BrainbloodvolumeBrainbloodvolume (the amount of blood supplied to(the amount of blood supplied to the brain).the brain). 27

TrephiningTrephining 28

Biological Factors in PersonalityBiological Factors in Personality  TrepanationTrepanation  Supposedly allows greater flow of blood in theSupposedly allows greater flow of blood in the capillaries of the brain.capillaries of the brain.  Most researchers & physicians do not agree.Most researchers & physicians do not agree.  IllegalIllegal 29

Biological Factors in PersonalityBiological Factors in Personality  1800’s Phrenology1800’s Phrenology  Analyzed bumps & indentations on skullAnalyzed bumps & indentations on skull  Attempted to link personality with features ofAttempted to link personality with features of the brain.the brain.  Bump indicated larger brain area dedicated toBump indicated larger brain area dedicated to trait.trait.  ExampleExample  Large bump in Combativeness area you will be moreLarge bump in Combativeness area you will be more violent.violent. 30

Biological Factors in PersonalityBiological Factors in Personality  Identical twins reared apartIdentical twins reared apart  Researchers identify the effects of heredityResearchers identify the effects of heredity independent of influence of environmentalindependent of influence of environmental factors.factors. 31

Biological Factors in PersonalityBiological Factors in Personality  Twin studies indicateTwin studies indicate  Heredity plays a role inHeredity plays a role in a wide range ofa wide range of personalitypersonality characteristicscharacteristics  Heritability estimatesHeritability estimates between 20 & 50%.between 20 & 50%. 32

Main Personality TheoristsMain Personality Theorists  Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud  PsychodynamicPsychodynamic  Carl JungCarl Jung  Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology  Carl RogersCarl Rogers  Humanistic PsychologyHumanistic Psychology  B.F. SkinnerB.F. Skinner  Social-Cognitive PerspectiveSocial-Cognitive Perspective 33

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The Psychodynamic PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective  Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud  Our behavior, feeling,Our behavior, feeling, & thinking is& thinking is determined by eventsdetermined by events that occurred earlierthat occurred earlier in our lives.in our lives. 35

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic  Freud described three levels of consciousness.Freud described three levels of consciousness. 1.1. ConsciousConscious Thoughts, wishes, & emotions you are aware of now.Thoughts, wishes, & emotions you are aware of now. 1.1. PreconsciousPreconscious The level just below consciousnessThe level just below consciousness DreamsDreams 1.1. UnconsciousUnconscious Thoughts, wishes, & feelings that exist beyond our awarenessThoughts, wishes, & feelings that exist beyond our awareness 36

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PsychodynamicPsychodynamic IDID  Collection ofCollection of unconscious urges &unconscious urges & desires thatdesires that continually seekcontinually seek expression.expression. 38

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic IDID  PrimitivePrimitive  Pleasure-seekingPleasure-seeking  Violent motivesViolent motives  FearsFears  Immoral urgesImmoral urges  Unacceptable sexual urgesUnacceptable sexual urges  Selfish needsSelfish needs  Irrational wishesIrrational wishes  Shameful experiencesShameful experiences  Aims to reduce tension when we don’t get what we wantAims to reduce tension when we don’t get what we want 39

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic IDID  Operates according to pleasure principleOperates according to pleasure principle  Seeks immediate gratification of wishes through theSeeks immediate gratification of wishes through the ego.ego.  2 ways to obtain gratification2 ways to obtain gratification  Wish fulfillmentWish fulfillment  FantasyFantasy  Reflex actionsReflex actions  Ex: CoughingEx: Coughing 40

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic EgoEgo  Mediates between environmental demandsMediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience, superego & instinctual(reality), conscience, superego & instinctual needs (Id).needs (Id).  Called the executiveCalled the executive  Operates according to the Reality Principle.Operates according to the Reality Principle.  Realistic plan for obtaining what the id wantsRealistic plan for obtaining what the id wants 41

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic SSuperegouperego  The social & parental standards theThe social & parental standards the individual has internalized, the conscienceindividual has internalized, the conscience & the ego ideal.& the ego ideal. 42

PsychodynamicPsychodynamic SSuperegouperego  MoralMoral  Voice that tells us whenVoice that tells us when we have violated society’swe have violated society’s rules.rules.  Operates according toOperates according to the ego idealthe ego ideal  Standards of what oneStandards of what one would like to be.would like to be. 43

The Psychodynamic PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective  Battle mostly unconsciousBattle mostly unconscious  When anxiety or guilt buildsWhen anxiety or guilt builds  Ego defends itself through unconscious efforts referred toEgo defends itself through unconscious efforts referred to as defense mechanismsas defense mechanisms that tend to deny or distort reality.that tend to deny or distort reality.  Effect of defense mechanisms is to reduceEffect of defense mechanisms is to reduce anxiety or guilt.anxiety or guilt. 44

The Psychodynamic PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective  Psychosexual stagesPsychosexual stages  5 stages infancy to adulthood.5 stages infancy to adulthood.  Characterized by efforts to obtain pleasureCharacterized by efforts to obtain pleasure centered on one of several parts of the bodycentered on one of several parts of the body calledcalled erogenous zones..  Pleasure sensitive areasPleasure sensitive areas 45

The Psychodynamic PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective 46 AgeAge NameName Pleasure sourcePleasure source ConflictConflict 0-20-2 OralOral Mouth: sucking, biting,Mouth: sucking, biting, swallowingswallowing Weaning away fromWeaning away from mother's breastmother's breast 2-42-4 AnalAnal Anus: defecating orAnus: defecating or retaining faecesretaining faeces Toilet trainingToilet training 4-54-5 PhallicPhallic GenitalsGenitals Oedipus (boys), ElectraOedipus (boys), Electra (girls)(girls) 6-puberty6-puberty LatencyLatency Sexual urges sublimatedSexual urges sublimated into sports andinto sports and hobbies. Same-sexhobbies. Same-sex friends also helpfriends also help avoid sexualavoid sexual feelings.feelings. puberty onwardpuberty onward GenitalGenital Physical sexual changesPhysical sexual changes reawaken repressedreawaken repressed needs.needs. Direct sexual feelingsDirect sexual feelings towards others leadtowards others lead to sexualto sexual gratification.gratification. Social rulesSocial rules

The Psychodynamic PerspectiveThe Psychodynamic Perspective  Oral (0-18 months)Oral (0-18 months)  Anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)Anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)  Phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)Phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)  Latency (6 years - puberty)Latency (6 years - puberty)  Genital (puberty - adulthood)Genital (puberty - adulthood) 47

FixationFixation  A partial or complete halt at some point inA partial or complete halt at some point in the individual’s psychosexual development.the individual’s psychosexual development.  A person whose development is arrested willA person whose development is arrested will display behaviors as an adult that are associateddisplay behaviors as an adult that are associated with the time of life during which thewith the time of life during which the fixationfixation occurred.occurred. 48

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To FreudAccording To Freud  Oral (0-18 months)Oral (0-18 months)  MouthMouth  Too much gratificationToo much gratification  Overly OptimisticOverly Optimistic  DependentDependent  Too little gratificationToo little gratification  PessimsticPessimstic  HostileHostile  FixatedFixated  Lack of confidenceLack of confidence  GulableGulable  SarcasticSarcastic  ArgumentativeArgumentative 49

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)Anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)  Pleasure from the expulsion and retention of feces.Pleasure from the expulsion and retention of feces.  Too strictToo strict  ObstinateObstinate  StingyStingy  Too lenientToo lenient  MessyMessy  SloppySloppy  UnorganizedUnorganized 50

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)Phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)  Pleasure from fondling their genitals.Pleasure from fondling their genitals.  Oedipal complexOedipal complex (Boys)(Boys)  Greek mythGreek myth  Possessive love for mother & jealously towards fatherPossessive love for mother & jealously towards father 51

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Castration anxietyCastration anxiety  Boy fantasizes that the father’s retaliationBoy fantasizes that the father’s retaliation would involve injury to his genitalswould involve injury to his genitals  Reduce fearReduce fear  Boy represses sexual desire for his motherBoy represses sexual desire for his mother  Identify with fatherIdentify with father 52

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Electra complexElectra complex (Girls)(Girls)  Greek mythGreek myth  Possessive love for father & jealously towardsPossessive love for father & jealously towards mothermother  Penis envyPenis envy  Value & desireValue & desire  ResolutionResolution  Identifies with mother.Identifies with mother. 53

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Phallic stage fixationPhallic stage fixation  MenMen  VanityVanity  EgotismEgotism  Men boast of sexual prowessMen boast of sexual prowess  Treat women with contemptTreat women with contempt  WomenWomen  Flirtations & promiscuousFlirtations & promiscuous  BothBoth  Low self-esteem & feelings of worthlessnessLow self-esteem & feelings of worthlessness 54

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Latency (6 years - puberty)Latency (6 years - puberty)  Suppressed sexual interestsSuppressed sexual interests  Boys play with boysBoys play with boys  Girls play with girlsGirls play with girls  Genital (puberty - adulthood)Genital (puberty - adulthood)  Sexual interests are reawakenedSexual interests are reawakened  Postponed gratificationPostponed gratification  Sense of responsibilitySense of responsibility 55

Freudian SlipFreudian Slip  An accidental mistake, usually the use of theAn accidental mistake, usually the use of the wrong word in a sentence, thought to betraywrong word in a sentence, thought to betray somebody's subconscious preoccupations.somebody's subconscious preoccupations.  Calling your wife, “Mom”.Calling your wife, “Mom”. 56

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  Defense MechanismsDefense Mechanisms  Reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting or denyingReduce or redirect anxiety by distorting or denying realityreality  Form of denialForm of denial  Unconscious refusal to accept realityUnconscious refusal to accept reality  RepressionRepression  RegressionRegression  DisplacementDisplacement  RationalizationRationalization  SublimationSublimation  Reaction FormationReaction Formation  ProjectionProjection 57

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  RepressionRepression  Banishing anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings &Banishing anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings & memories right out of your consciousness.memories right out of your consciousness.  RegressionRegression  Retreating to an earlier stage of development.Retreating to an earlier stage of development.  TraumaTrauma  Reaction FormationReaction Formation  Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposite.Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposite.  Activists may be fighting against their strong impulsesActivists may be fighting against their strong impulses they want to deny.they want to deny. 58

How Personality DevelopsHow Personality Develops According To Freud Cont.According To Freud Cont.  ProjectionProjection  When people disguise their own threatening impulses byWhen people disguise their own threatening impulses by pinning them on other people.pinning them on other people.  Instead of saying I can’t stand her…she can’t stand me.Instead of saying I can’t stand her…she can’t stand me.  DisplacementDisplacement  When you take your anger or some other unacceptableWhen you take your anger or some other unacceptable feeling or impulse and divert it forms its source to somethingfeeling or impulse and divert it forms its source to something or someone else.or someone else.  Angry at boss, kick dogAngry at boss, kick dog  SublimationSublimation  Rechanneling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptableRechanneling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable stuff.stuff.  Angry workoutAngry workout 59

Carl Jung1875-1961Carl Jung1875-1961  Swiss psychologistSwiss psychologist  Mentor FreudMentor Freud  Founded AnalyticalFounded Analytical PsychologyPsychology  Rejected Freud'sRejected Freud's theorytheory  Rejected scientificRejected scientific approachapproach  Human soulHuman soul 60

Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology Cont.Cont.  Jung emphasized the will to liveJung emphasized the will to live  Analysis of current problemsAnalysis of current problems  FreudFreud  Analysis childhood problemsAnalysis childhood problems 61

Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology Cont.Cont.  Divided personalities into 2 typesDivided personalities into 2 types  IntrovertIntrovert  Inner thoughtsInner thoughts  Internal experienceInternal experience  ExtrovertExtrovert  External experienceExternal experience  In tune with people and things in the world aroundIn tune with people and things in the world around themthem 62

Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology Cont.Cont.  Developed a theory of the unconscious mindDeveloped a theory of the unconscious mind like Freud'slike Freud's  EgoEgo  Personal unconsciousPersonal unconscious  Collective unconsciousCollective unconscious 63

Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology Cont.Cont. 64

Analytical PsychologyAnalytical Psychology Cont.Cont.  EgoEgo  Conscious mindConscious mind  Personal unconsciousPersonal unconscious  Anything that is presently unconsciousAnything that is presently unconscious  Can be conscious laterCan be conscious later  Collective unconsciousCollective unconscious  Reservoir of knowledge born withReservoir of knowledge born with  Never be directly conscious about itNever be directly conscious about it  Determines how we react to situations, perceive things etc.Determines how we react to situations, perceive things etc.  Can only understand it indirectly, through our responses &Can only understand it indirectly, through our responses & experiences.experiences.  ArchetypesArchetypes  Inherited memory represented in the mind by a universalInherited memory represented in the mind by a universal symbol & observed in dreams & mythssymbol & observed in dreams & myths 65

The HeroThe Hero  The hero, who pursues a great quest to realize hisThe hero, who pursues a great quest to realize his destiny.destiny.  Represents the egoRepresents the ego  We tend to identify with the hero of the storyWe tend to identify with the hero of the story  Often engaged in fighting the shadowOften engaged in fighting the shadow  In form of dragons & other monsters.In form of dragons & other monsters.  Not intellectualNot intellectual  The hero is often out to rescue the maiden.The hero is often out to rescue the maiden.  She represents purity & innocenceShe represents purity & innocence 66

The Mother ArchetypeThe Mother Archetype  She wants to nurture & grow everything in sight.She wants to nurture & grow everything in sight.  Giver of life & sometimes the taker of life.Giver of life & sometimes the taker of life.  We are likely to project the archetype out into theWe are likely to project the archetype out into the world & onto a particular person, usually our ownworld & onto a particular person, usually our own mothers.mothers.  EveEve  MaryMary  ChurchChurch  ForestForest  OceanOcean 67

The FatherThe Father  Father, Protector, ProviderFather, Protector, Provider  Primarily an authority figure often inducingPrimarily an authority figure often inducing fear.fear. 68

The PersonaThe Persona  MaskMask  Represents your public image.Represents your public image.  "good impression" we all wish to present as"good impression" we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of us.we fill the roles society requires of us.  "false impression" we use to manipulate"false impression" we use to manipulate people's opinions & behaviors.people's opinions & behaviors.  Normal exceptNormal except  When we believe we really are what we pretendWhen we believe we really are what we pretend to be!to be! 69

ExerciseExercise  Class exercise on ShadowClass exercise on Shadow 70

The ShadowThe Shadow  "dark side" of the ego"dark side" of the ego  Amoral remnant of our instinctual animal past.Amoral remnant of our instinctual animal past.  Derived from pre-human, animal past, when our concernsDerived from pre-human, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival & reproductionwere limited to survival & reproduction  Symbols of the shadow includeSymbols of the shadow include  Snake (as in the garden of Eden)Snake (as in the garden of Eden)  DragonDragon  MonstersMonsters  DemonsDemons  Often guards entrance to a cave or a pool of water, which is theOften guards entrance to a cave or a pool of water, which is the collective unconscious.collective unconscious.  Next time you dream about wrestling with the devil, it may only beNext time you dream about wrestling with the devil, it may only be yourself you are wrestling with!yourself you are wrestling with! 71

TheThe TricksterTrickster  Rascal agent pushing us towards change.Rascal agent pushing us towards change.  Represented by a clown or a magician.Represented by a clown or a magician.  The trickster's role is to hamper the hero'sThe trickster's role is to hamper the hero's progress and to generally make trouble.progress and to generally make trouble. 72

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective  Behavior is distinctiveBehavior is distinctive  Experience differentExperience different historieshistories  ReinforcementReinforcement  PunishmentPunishment  Stimulus > responseStimulus > response determines our personalitydetermines our personality  BehaviorBehavior  Rewarded forRewarded for  Punished forPunished for  Increases or decreasesIncreases or decreases behaviorbehavior 73

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective  SkinnerSkinner  Focused attention on environmental factorsFocused attention on environmental factors  InitiateInitiate  Maintain behaviorsMaintain behaviors  Ultimately distinguish one person from another.Ultimately distinguish one person from another. 74

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective  Social learning theorySocial learning theory  Learning occurs throughLearning occurs through  WatchingWatching  ImitatingImitating  Behaviors of others.Behaviors of others.  ExpectancyExpectancy  1 of the most important elements of social1 of the most important elements of social learning theory.learning theory.  People differ in their tendencies to viewPeople differ in their tendencies to view themselves as capable of influencingthemselves as capable of influencing reinforcers or being subject to fate.reinforcers or being subject to fate. 75

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective  Internal-External (I-E) ScaleInternal-External (I-E) Scale  Measure individuals’Measure individuals’ locus of controllocus of control  InternalInternal  ExternalExternal  Related to a variety of outcomesRelated to a variety of outcomes  AcademicAcademic  Health behaviorsHealth behaviors  Job successJob success  Which will get you promoted faster?Which will get you promoted faster? 76

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective  MenMen  Blame external factors for failureBlame external factors for failure  Internal factors for successInternal factors for success  WomenWomen  Attribute success to external factorsAttribute success to external factors  Blame internal factors for failureBlame internal factors for failure  ExampleExample  Men get a raise because they deserve it.Men get a raise because they deserve it.  Women get a raise because they are lucky.Women get a raise because they are lucky. 77

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective BanduraBandura  Albert BanduraAlbert Bandura  Known for research on observational learning &Known for research on observational learning & aggressionaggression  Individuals affected by environmentIndividuals affected by environment  Can influence environmentCan influence environment  Cognitive factors can influence person'sCognitive factors can influence person's behavior & environment.behavior & environment. 78

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective BanduraBandura  ReciprocalReciprocal DeterminismDeterminism  PersonPerson  EnvironmentEnvironment  BehaviorBehavior  Influence oneInfluence one anotheranother 79

The Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe Social-Cognitive Perspective BanduraBandura  Self-efficacySelf-efficacy  Person’s beliefs about his skills & ability to performPerson’s beliefs about his skills & ability to perform certain behaviors.certain behaviors.  If I lose a job I can easily find another one.If I lose a job I can easily find another one.  I will never find another job I like if I lose this one.I will never find another job I like if I lose this one.  Unlike a trait, self-efficacy is specific to theUnlike a trait, self-efficacy is specific to the situation and can change over time.situation and can change over time.  ExampleExample  Over timeOver time  In the future may be able to feel confident in ability to find a newIn the future may be able to feel confident in ability to find a new job.job.  SituationSituation  May be confident in ability to perform a job but not in finding aMay be confident in ability to perform a job but not in finding a new one.new one. 80

The Humanistic PerspectiveThe Humanistic Perspective RogersRogers  Carl Rogers (notCarl Rogers (not Mr. RodgersMr. Rodgers  FocusFocus  PresentPresent  Healthy personalityHealthy personality 81

Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 82

Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Self-actualizationSelf-actualization  Ultimate psychological needUltimate psychological need  Fulfill your potentialFulfill your potential  To reach self-actualization you mustTo reach self-actualization you must  Be genuineBe genuine  Be empathicBe empathic  Have unconditional positive regard for others.Have unconditional positive regard for others. 83

The Humanistic PerspectiveThe Humanistic Perspective  Carl Rogers & Maslow’s beliefCarl Rogers & Maslow’s belief  People are innately goodPeople are innately good  Directed toward:Directed toward:  GrowthGrowth  DevelopmentDevelopment  Personal fulfillmentPersonal fulfillment  As we develop, our concept of self emerges.As we develop, our concept of self emerges.  Self is our sense of “I” or “me”Self is our sense of “I” or “me”  Generally conscious & accessibleGenerally conscious & accessible 84

The Humanistic PerspectiveThe Humanistic Perspective  The self-concept is our perception of our abilities,The self-concept is our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics.behaviors, and characteristics.  Rogers believed that we act in accordance with ourRogers believed that we act in accordance with our self-concept.self-concept.  Maslow and Rogers agreed that people have aMaslow and Rogers agreed that people have a strong need to be loved, to experience affection.strong need to be loved, to experience affection. 85

The Humanistic PerspectiveThe Humanistic Perspective RogersRogers  Unconditional positive regardUnconditional positive regard  Accepted for selfAccepted for self  Conditional regardConditional regard  What others would like the person to be.What others would like the person to be.  People pleasersPeople pleasers 86

The Humanistic PerspectiveThe Humanistic Perspective RogersRogers  Real selfReal self  Self as it really isSelf as it really is  Product of our experiences.Product of our experiences.  Ideal selfIdeal self  Self we would like to be.Self we would like to be.  Maladjustment resultsMaladjustment results  When there is a discrepancy between real self &When there is a discrepancy between real self & ideal self.ideal self. 87

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