Psych neuroscience.ppt

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Information about Psych neuroscience.ppt

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: professorjcc

Source: slideshare.net

Chapter 2 Behavioral Neuroscience Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-1

Behavioral Neuroscience • Why study this in psychology? • How can it help us understand the goals of psychology? • Goals – Describe – Understand – Predict – Control or modify • Behaviors & thoughts

Biology and Behavior • Behavioral neuroscience – Studies • Relation between biological & psychological functions –Can help us understand • Nature of personality • Causes of abnormal behavior • Reaction to stress • Effectiveness of therapy Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-3

Historical View of the Brain • 1000 BC Egyptian Pharaohs mummification • Brain – Removed & discarded • Vital to afterlife – Heart • Left in body • Seen as containing perception, cognition & soul – Intestines, liver, lungs & stomach • Removed, wrapped & placed in canopic jars.

Historical View of the Brain • Many cultures similar views of heart • Brain interpreted in various ways – Aristotle cooling emotions of heart • Change began in 1500’s • Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 – Head seen as holding cognition – Ventricle system • Holes in the brain.

Ventricular System • Cavities or holes in brain holding cerebrospinal fluid

Mrs. Garrison’s Theory of Evolution

Evolutionary Psychology • Focuses on – Adapted benefits of selected behaviors • Women – Talk – Multi-task » Women larger area for communication • Men – Quiet – Singularly focused » Larger area of brain for sex

Evolutionary Psychology • Why doesn’t an organism ever achieve perfect adaption?

Evolutionary Psychology • Why doesn’t an organism ever achieve perfect adaption? –Each adaption has: • Costs? • Benefits? –Increased head size?

Evolution Evolution Does : • Works to improve reproduction success Evolution Doesn’t: • Work to improve a species • Have a conscious plan or purpose • Work to produce happiness or contentment

Evolutionary Psychology • Natural Selection & Adaptive Behavior – Natural selection • Evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive & reproduce – Survivors better adapted to world than nonsurvivors

Evolutionary Psychology  Emphasizes importance of  Adaptation  Reproduction  “Survival of the fittest”  In shaping behavior  Spatial skills in finding way home  Fit  Ability to  Bare offspring that survive long enough to bare offspring  Pass your genes to next generation

Biology and Behavior • Scientists who study this: – Represent several disciplines • Psychology (especially physiological psychologists) • Biology • Medicine • Others Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-14

Neuron

Neurons • Neurons –Cells that transmit information • Neurons are composed of: –Dendrites –Soma • Cell Body –Axon

Neuron Structure

Myelin Sheath • Myelin Sheath – Composed of glial cells • (Greek word for “glue”) – Coats axon of some neurons – White matter of brain – Functions: • • • • • • Speeds neurotransmission Insulates neurons from each other Makes neurotransmission more efficient Removes waste Occupies vacant space when neurons die Other purposes Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-18

• Myelin –Looks like string of sausages –Doesn’t cover entire length of axon –Nodes of Ranvier • Space between “sausages” • Nerve impulse jumps from 1 node of Ranvier to next • Transmission up to 100 x’s faster –Unmeylinated axons Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-19

Terminal Button 1. Synthesis of neurotransmitter (NT) 2. Storage & transport of NT within vesicles 3. NT Release 4. Activation of postsynaptic receptors 5. Termination of transmitter effect (e.g. reuptake)

Neurotransmitters • Dopamine – Controls arousal levels – Significant role in motor movement – Reward & punishment • Serotonin – Role in • • • • • • • Weight regulation Sleep Depression Suicide obsessive–compulsive disorder Aggression Wide range of other disorders & behavior problems. Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-21

Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine – Attention – Learning – Memory • Norepinephrine – Also a hormone – Physical & mental arousal – Heightens mood Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-22

Synapse • Synapse –Space between axon terminal & adjacent dendrite or cell body • Neurotransmitter (NT) –Molecules released from terminal button into synapse.

Neurons: Basic Cells of the Nervous System • Synapses – Cleared rapidly • So additional signals can be transmitted • Cleared in 1 of 2 ways, depending on neurotransmitter – 1. breakdown • Broken down & removed – 2. Reuptake • Recycled back into vesicles Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-26

SSRI Reuptake Inhibitor

SSRI Reuptake Inhibitor • SSRIs block reuptake of serotonin • Called selective – Primarily affect serotonin • Changes balance of serotonin

SSRI Reuptake Inhibitor • Generic names followed by brand names – Citalopram (Celexa) – Escitalopram (Lexapro) – Fluoxetine (Prozac, Prozac Weekly, Sarafem) – Paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva) – Sertraline (Zoloft) – Fluoxetine combined with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (Symbyax)

Psychoactive Drugs • Drugs work in synapse • Agonists enhance neurotransmitter function • Antagonists block neurotransmitter function

Psychoactive Drugs • Psychoactive drugs – Affect nervous system • Alter mood • Emotion • Thought – Act by: • Increasing or decreasing release of neurotransmitters • Stimulating or blocking receptor sites

Opiates

Opiates binding to opiate receptors • Increased dopamine release

Neurons: Basic Cells of the Nervous System  Presynaptic membrane  Side that sends message  Postsynaptic membrane  Receiving side of synapse Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-37

Neurons: Basic Cells of the Nervous System • When electrical signal reaches terminal buttons – Causes vesicles to release a chemical signal • Neurotransmitter into synapse • Contacts postsynaptic membrane (usually dendrite) of next neuron Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-38

Neurons: Basic Cells of the Nervous System • Excitation – More likely to transmit the message to subsequent neurons • Inhibition – Less likely to transmit the message to subsequent neurons Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-39

Neurons • Action Potential –Electrical impulse –Causes cells to fire • All or none firing –Like guns fire or don’t fire

Scanning electron microscope picture of a nerve ending broken open to reveal vesicles (orange & blue) containing neurotransmitters.

Neurons: Basic Cells of the Nervous System • Most drugs influence operation of neurotransmitter – 1. Agonists • Increase effectiveness – Or – 2. Antagonists • Reduce effectiveness Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-42

Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-43

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