Published on March 13, 2014
Psychology PowerPoint Presentation by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Butchered by Professor Carney
Motivation and Emotion
• How do you know if your Motivated? • How would others know you are motivated? What Is Motivation?
What Is Motivation? • Motivation • Physiological or psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, & persistence of behavior.
What Is Motivation? • The aspects of motivation are: • Arousal: • Factor or motivational state that prompts the behavior • Direction: • The goal(s) • Persistence • We do it no matter what • Poor performance one day • Lack of money • Short on time
What Is Motivation? • What activities are you motivated to do? • Consider this: • What you would most want if you were alone on a desert island? • You could have whatever you need. • For example if it is snowboarding • Mountain & snow would be provided.
Two Types Of Motivation • Intrinsic • Inner • Extrinsic • Exterior
Intrinsic Motivation • A desire to perform a behavior that originates within the individual. • Don't care if: • Paid • Admired • Rewarded • Artist • Sport • PC games
Extrinsic Motivation • A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment. • Child takes out the trash • Reward • Smile • Allowance • Avoid punishment • Low level job like working at McDonalds • Do it for the paycheck • Fulfill intrinsic motivation • Scuba diving
Motivation • Which of these two is the strongest? • Intrinsic or Extrinsic?
Answer: Intrinsic • You will do it no matter what • You will find a way to get the money • You will find the time
Theories of Motivation • Biological theories • Cognitive theories • Incentive theories
Biological Theories • Biological theories of motivation • Focus on the importance of biological or physiological processes that determine behavior. • Unlearned behaviors present from birth. • Eat when hungry • Theory applies better to animals than humans.
Biological Theories • Instincts are unlearned • Species-specific behaviors • More complex than reflexes • Triggered by environmental events • Releasing stimuli
Biological Theories • Drive • Internal motivational state created by a physiological need. • The Drive-Reduction Theory • Updated version of the Instinct Theory • Applies better to humans • Views motivated behavior as designed to reduce a physiological imbalance & return the organism to homeostasis.
Biological Theories • The Drive-Reduction Theory Cont. • The discomfort associated with physiological needs • Eat • Drink • Bathroom • Creates aroused psychological state that drives the person to reduce need. • Reduce hunger • Eat • Our desire to reduce the drive is what motivates us.
Biological Theories • Drive reduction signals that a particular need has been reduced & that behaviors designed to reduce other current drives can be engaged.
Biological Theories • Optimum-Level Theory • (Arousal Theory) • Body functions best at a specific level of arousal • Varies from one individual to another. • To reach this level, may seek added stimulation or arousal.
Biological Theories • Optimum-Level Theory • Humans driven to some behaviors because they feel good. • Some will explore just for the fun of it • Mountain climbing • Excitement stimulation from just conquering the mountain. • Don’t serve any obvious physiological need like eating or drinking.
Biological Theories • Optimum-Level Theory • Example • Curiosity • Monkeys press a lever to watch a toy train move. • Work on a complicated lock just to open it. • No other reward • Each individual has optimum level of this type of stimulation. • Too much stimulation • Tension • We look for ways to reduce stimulation & get rid of tension.
Biological Theories • Example • Live in country move to city • Predict difficulty adapting • Country low levels of stimulation • Difficulty adapting to high levels of city
Cognitive Theories • Focus on how we process & understand information. • According to cognitive-consistency theories • We are motivated to achieve a psychological state in which our beliefs & behaviors are consistent because inconsistency between beliefs & behaviors is unpleasant.
Cognitive Theories • Cognitive dissonance • Occurs when incompatible thought creates an aversive state that the organism is motivated to reduce. Dissonance is often strong when we believe something about ourselves and then do something against that belief. If I believe I am good but do something bad, then the discomfort I feel as a result is cognitive dissonance. • Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action. The discomfort often feels like a tension between the two opposing thoughts. To release the tension we can take one of three actions: • Change our behavior. • Justify our behavior by changing the conflicting cognition. • Justify our behavior by adding new cognitions. • Fix next few slides!!!
Cognitive Theories Cognitive dissonance • Participants to select a gift from 2 presented. • When 1 low in desirability • Easy choice • When both high in desirability • Choice more difficult
Cognitive Theories • Cognitive dissonance produces discomfort • Motivates us to reduce discomfort. • We seek to reduce the discomfort by creating cognitive consonance • State in which our cognitions are compatible with one another.
Cognitive Theories • Once a difficult decision has been made • People may wonder whether made right decision. • Postdecisional dissonance • Reduced by raising evaluation of chosen item • Decreasing evaluation of rejected item.
• After choice made chosen gift rated more positively. • Rejected gift rated more negatively.
Incentive Theories • Takes into account the factors that lure us into an aroused state • Food cooking • Not hungry until smelled the food • Sexy dress & tight jeans • Designed to put people in an aroused state • Incentive? • Motivated behavior pulled by the incentive or goal • Larger or more powerful the incentive, the stronger the pull. • More handsome and sexy dressed male • Stronger the pull to approach
Cognitive Theories • Maslow's theory • Motivational needs are arranged hierarchically from basic physiological needs to self-actualization.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s theory often characterized as a growth theory of motivation • People strive to satisfy successively higher needs. • Critics • Not everyone goes stage by stage • 3rd world countries • People have difficulty meeting basic need • May be able to satisfy higher needs such as belonging.
Incentive Theories • Motives and conflict • Existence of multiple motives often results in conflicts. • Purchasing a computer • The most common conflicts are: • approach-approach • avoidance-avoidance • approach-avoidance • multiple approach-avoidance
Theories of Motivation • Instinct Theory • Dog • Motivated by instinct • Fixed patterns of behavior • Drive-Reduction Theory • Reduce discomfort caused by unsatisfied drives • Eat and drink • Arousal Theory • Increase arousal if it feels good • Parachuting
Specific Motives Motivated behaviors • Primary drives • Physiologically based • Hunger • Sex • Achievement
Primary Drive: Hunger • 4 tasks 1. Detect need for food 1. Feel hungry 2. Initiate eating 1. Start 3. Monitor 1. Amount 2. Nourishment of the food eaten 4. Signal end to eating 1. Stop
Primary Drive: Hunger • Hunger & satiety (full) controlled by 2 centers in the hypothalamus. • Hunger center • Start • Lateral hypothalamus, LH • Satiety center • Stop • Ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH
Primary Drive: Hunger • What causes us to become hungry? • Sugar & fat •Sugar (glucose) & fat are your metabolisms energy sources
Primary Drive: Hunger • When glucose is high & the cells are able to use it, hunger is low. • As the blood sugar supply decreases, hunger increases. • Glucose low > hungry • Information sent to the hypothalamus
Primary Drive: Hunger • Amount of stored body fat also serves as a hunger signal. • When a person’s weight falls, fat is withdrawn from the fat cells & hunger signal is sent to the brain. • Low fat > hungry
Satiety • Satiety center, VMH • High glucose levels & full fat cells. • Pressure detectors in the stomach signal fullness. • Message sent to VMH stop eating
Hunger • New research indicates that all this is true yet it is more complicated than thought. • Example • Hormone in the small intestine is another stop- eating signal. • What other factors cause hunger?
Factors That Cause Hunger • Classical & operant conditioning • Food aversions • Time of day • Smells • Seeing food • Stress • Dinner bell
Anorexia Nervosa • Potentially life-threatening eating disorder • Primarily in adolescent & young adult females • Recently upsurge in middle age females • Intense fear of becoming fat • Distorted body image • Self-starvation
Anorexia Nervosa • Life is focused on food. • Meal • Breakfast • Tea & dry toast • Lunch • Salad no dressing • Dinner • Fruit salad, no sugar • Exercise • 4 hours a day • Want weight to be 0 • Do not want to not exist
Anorexia Nervosa • Overachievers • Good students • White middle class • Cooperative • Look good • Feel out of control in their lives • May have history of sexual abuse
Anorexia Nervosa • Highest mortality rate of any mental disorder • Starvation • Cardiac arrest • Suicide • Depression • Deplete seratonin • Reuptake inhibitors do not work • Seratonin controls • 1. Eating behavior • 2. Mood
Symptoms of Anorexia • Weight loss due to dieting. • Too much exercise. • Tiredness & low energy. • Muscle weakness. • Obsession with food, calories, recipes • Complaining of being "too fat", even when thin. • Cooking for others, but not eating themselves. • Guilt or shame about eating. • Depression, irritability, mood swings. • Signs of vomiting, laxative abuse, diet pills & irregular menstruation. • Excuses for not eating meals. • Unusual eating habits. • Noticeable discomfort around food. • Perfectionist attitude. • Wearing baggy clothes to hide weight loss. • Frequently checking weight on scale. • Fainting and dizziness. • Difficulty eating in public. • Feelings of self worth determined by what is or is not eaten. • Very secretive about eating patterns. • Pale complexion. • Headaches
Proanorexia Web Sites Blog Postings • skinnyl3gs 2008-07-03 04:53 am UTC (link) i am 5'11. i got down to 112 last november and although everyone else said i looked "gross", i plan to beat that lw • dancefloordead 2008-07-03 05:17 am UTC (link) I'm 5'10", and I'd love to be around 110-115 (25 lbs, bah). I saw photos once of a model who's my height and 106, but much as I'd love that, I don't know that I could quite manage it.
Proanorexia Web Sites Blog Postings • peace_love82 ( peace_love82) wrote in proanorexia, @ 2008-07-02 00:37:00 • i dont know what the f… is wrong with me. im such a failure to my self my body my family and my friends i work at tgifridays and when i started i was doing so good and i was skinniest i have ever been. that was back in march... now my thighs f…ing touch. im so disgusted with myself and how much of a disgrace i am..e i swear its from working there ive gained so much what do i do now.. :(
Anorexia Videos • Steve Wilkos Show
Bulimia Nervosa • An eating disorder • Characterized by binges of eating followed by self- induced vomiting. • Binges • 20-30 minutes • Whole pizza • Carton of ice cream • Box of • Doughnuts • Vomiting • May after every meal • Each morsel of food or water • Prevent absorption of needed vitamins & minerals • Problems with enamel on teeth, esophagus, skin ages.
Bulimia Nervosa • Exercise • 3 hours a day • Self-medicate • Speed • Enemas • Laxatives (whole box) • Diuretics
Dangers Associated with Bulimia • Foreign Objects: Objects used to induce purging. (rupture) • Teeth rotted away from stomach acid. • Acid / food damage to the esophagus. • Finger skin and nail damage from acid. • Red spots around the eyes. • When throwing up intense pressure in head - if pressure is too great burst some blood vessels in your eye. It's called a subconjunctival hemorrhage.
Specific Motives Obesity • America considered an overweight nation. • Why?
Genetics (100 lbs is 7.1 Stones)
Obesity • Dietary factors • Contribute to preventable illnesses & premature deaths in U.S. • Significant risk factor • Heart disease • High blood pressure • Diabetes • Cancer • Colon • Gallbladder • Prostate • Kidney
Obesity • BMI • Body mass index to indicate health status & disease risk • Numerical index calculated based on • Height • Weight • Obesity • Body weight of 20% or more in excess of BMI • Genetic factors play a key role in determining a person's weight.
Obesity • Heredity may influence what we weigh by affecting our basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum energy needed to keep an awake, resting body alive.
Specific Motives • Obesity due to • Biological factors • Social factors • Cultural factors • Economic factors • Women • Rates of obesity higher in lower socioeconomic classes
Obesity • Body does not treat all calories alike. • 1 gram of carbohydrates or protein contains 4 calories • 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories. • High-fat diets require fewer calories for digestion than high-carbohydrate diets. • Once the fat is deposited in the body, few calories are needed to maintain it, so it is difficult to remove.
Achievement • Consists of 3 components: a) behaviors that manipulate the environment in some manner, b) rules for performing those behaviors, and c) accepted performance standards against which people compete and compare their performance.
• Some theorists stress need to succeed • Some theorists stress need to avoid failure • 2 students earn As in the same course • 1. Pride that comes from mastering the material • 2. Avoid the shame associated with failing or making a lower grade. Achievement
The What and The Why of Emotion • Emotion • Physiological changes & conscious feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness, aroused by external and internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions. • Mood • Feelings associated with an emotion last for an extended period of time
The What and The Why of Emotion • Charles Darwin • Emotional expressions have a biological basis. • Emotions can increase survival • Anger • Providing a readiness for actions such as fighting predators that have helped us survive throughout our evolutionary history.
The Physiological Components of Emotion • The commonsense view of emotions states the sequence of events in emotional responding as: • stimulus • emotion • physiological changes
James-Lange Theory 1890’s • Physiological changes precede & cause emotions. • Sequence of events in emotional responding is: • Stimulus (Monster) • Physiological changes (heart pounding) • Emotion (fear)
Cannon-Bard Theory • Cannon-Bard Theory • Physiological arousal • Your body’s response to a stimulus • Occurs at the same time as the feeling of emotion • Physical response • Not cause of emotional feeling
Cannon-Bard Theory • Example • Monster chasing you • Heart starts pounding • Body tensing • Feel scared • All at the same time • Physical response not the cause of emotional feeling
Cannon-Bard Theory • Thalamus relays information simultaneously • Cortex (outer part of brain) • Sympathetic nervous system • Emotional feelings • Physiological changes • Occur at the same time
Schachter’s 2 Factor Theory (Cognitive Labeling) • 1. Must have a physical response • 2. Must be able to recognize and label the response
Emotions • Today we believe • Memory • Thoughts • Way we interpret situations • Play a part in how we interpret emotions
The Physiological Components of Emotion • Anger tends to be associated with cardiovascular changes.
The Physiological Components of Emotion • Physiological patterns in certain emotions • Embarrassment • Blushing • Communicates valuing positive regard of others. • Can occur when we are praised • Told that we appear to be blushing.
The Physiological Components of Emotion • Entire brain plays a role in emotion. • Right hemisphere • specialized in perceiving emotion from facial expressions. • Women more accurate than men or teens • Negative emotions such as fear or disgust • Left hemisphere • Positive emotions such as happiness • Increased activity
The Physiological Components of Emotion • Alexithymia • Inability to experience & express emotions • Lack self-awareness • Rarely cry • Described as colorless and bland • Unable to discriminate among emotions • Unaware of what others around them feel.
• Electronic device (lie detector) • Senses & records changes in physiology • Blood pressure • Heart rate • Respiration • Galvanic skin response • Caused by sweating & increased blood flow • Past: Individual might be able to modify these responses & affect test accuracy. • Present: Difficult to fool due to technological changes Polygraph
The Expressive Components of Emotions • Universal recognition of six basic emotions • Anger • Disgust • Fear • Happiness • Sadness • Surprise • Pride might be added to the list
Facial Feedback Hypothesis • Feedback from facial muscles affects our experience of emotion.
The Expressive Components of Emotions • Smiling is a social act; we rarely smile when we are alone. • It is such a prominent social signal that we can recognize a smile 300 feet away.
The Expressive Components of Emotions Duchenne smile • A real smile of enjoyment • Involves activation of muscles that are not activated during faked smiles.
• Communication that involves movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, use of personal space, and touching. • Tone of voice and posture can convey information that is different from what we verbalize. Nonverbal Communication
The Expressive Components of Emotions • Across ages, cultures women are more accurate in decoding emotion from nonverbal cues: • Face • Body • Voice • Women display more emotional awareness. • Is it because women's roles & occupations tend to require greater sensitivity to emotional expressions in others?
The Cognitive Components of Emotion • At approximately 3 years of age, the emotions a child experiences become highly differentiated.
The Cognitive Components of Emotion • EI or Emotional intelligence describes 4 qualities: a) the ability to perceive emotions in others b) the ability to facilitate thought c) understanding emotions d) managing emotions.
Section 1: Introduction Introduction What drives you to want to learn about psychology? Why did you choose your career? Your partner? Where you would
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