Published on March 13, 2014
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 1 Psychology by Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed & butchered by Professor Carney
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 2 Reflect on your own Personal Beliefs Regarding Memory What does it mean to say you "remember" or "can't remember"? Where do memories go when you can‟t remember something? How do they reappear? Why is it that we have so few memories before about the age of 3 years?
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 3 Do we register every single thing we come into contact with? Memories like videos? If yes, then why can't we remember all of these things? Accurate reflections of reality? Reflect on your own Personal Beliefs regarding Memory Cont.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 4 Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book) Guidelines for legal system Memories of witnesses are flawed Marred by gaps or imagination Should not be relied upon in court Memories are record of people‟s experiences of events Not a video of those events
„People “remember” events that they have not in reality experienced & such recollections could – if heavily relied upon – lead to wrongful convictions.‟ Recommends Courts use memory experts to help juries to evaluate memory-based evidence where, for instance, given by a child or elderly person. Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 5 Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book)
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 6 “Older adults are more prone to false memories because of an overreliance on the gist of an event.” Witnesses‟ memories of events might be influenced by the way they were questioned Memory & the Law by British Psychological Society 2008 (book)
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 7 You Can‟t Trust A Witness‟s Memory, Experts Tell Courts 7/11/08, Cont. Memories dating from below age of 7 cannot be relied upon without independent evidence. Memories of specific events after the age of 10 can be Highly accurate Highly inaccurate Wholly false
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 8 Memory The ability to retain & retrieve what you have learned. Brain's capacity to remember One of the least understood areas of science. Memory is a process that occurs constantly & in varying stages.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 9 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus Hermann Ebbinghaus German Pioneering research on memory in 1879
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 10 Ebbinghaus Major Contributions Developed 1st scientific approach to the study of a higher psychological process (memory) 1st to use nonsense syllables in learning & memory research First to describe the “learning curve”
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 11 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus Devised nonsense syllables No meaning attached to them, to study how associations between stimuli are formed. Example: DAX, BOK & YAT Determined much of what we learn is forgotten shortly after a learning session.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 12 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus Serial learning (ordered recall) Learning in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in which it was presented. Cat, dog, mouse, elephant, hamster, frog
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 13 Paired-associate Learning Items to be recalled are learned in pairs. Cloud-pen Bag-blue Door-alley During recall, one member of the pair is presented & the other is to be recalled. Cloud? Pen
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 14 Paired-associate Learning View as representative of kind of learning people do every day. When learning a new word, you pair the word with the concept it represents. Word: Apple + Mental image (Concept)
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 15 Paired-associate Learning When learning paired associates we engage in 2 mental processes. 1. Learning response (cloud: response: pen) 2. Formation of a bond between the 2 words. Seems to produce a one-way association More likely to remember response word if given stimulus Harder time remembering stimulus if presented with the response word. Cloud-pen
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 16 Paired-associate Learning Pattern holds true when the response has never been used as a stimulus. If a particular word (e.g., cloud ) has been used both as a stimulus and as a response (e.g., cloud-pen & bag-cloud ), learner gets accustomed to using word in 2 ways. In later testing, the subject is likely to remember the word pair correctly when presented with either word. Conclusion Learners remember the word pair as a unit, not as a stimulus that simply leads to a response.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 17 Free Recall Material that has been learned may be repeated in any order. Free Recall test: http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch07/fr eerec.mhtml
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 18 Initial Studies Serial position effect Tendency for items at beginning & end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle. Important finding of Ebbinghaus‟s research is the curve of forgetting.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 19 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus Memory for learned material is best right after the learning session. As time passes, we forget more.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 20 Initial Studies Recognition test Participants pick out items to which they were previously exposed from a longer list that also contains unfamiliar items. Test my brain http://www.testmybrain.org/
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 21 Initial Studies Relearning test Test of retention Compares time or trials required to learn material a 2nd time with time or trials required to learn material the 1st time. Savings score The difference between the time or trials originally required to learn material and the time or trials required to relearn the material; also known as relearning score.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 23 Ebbinghaus Practical Application to Studying Make information meaningful to you Harder to memorize material that does not have significance or relevance to the learner. Learning curve Increasing amount of material to be learned usually dramatically increases time it takes to learn it.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 24 Ebbinghaus Practical Application to Studying Relearning is easier than initial learning It takes longer to forget material after each subsequent re-learning. Learning is more effective when it is spaced out over time rather than crammed into a single marathon study session. Forgetting happens most rapidly right after learning occurs & slows down over time
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 25 Models of Memory Compared to a computer
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 26 3 Stages of Memory 1. Input or encoding stage 2. Storage stage 3. Retrieval stage
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 27 Stages of Memory Encoding Getting information into your brain from your sensory receptors. Storing Retaining the information in your brain. Retrieval Getting information back out of your brain.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 28 1. Encoding stage Getting information into your brain Can occur through automatic processing. Effortless Read a word and you already know what it means. Effortful Processing Encoding that requires effort & conscious processing. Calculus homework Stuff information into your brain.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 29 1. Encoding stage Number of ways to encode (stuff information into your brain) Rehearsal Repeating the information. Visualizing Imagery Making a mental picture
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 30 1. Encoding stage Socks monster Encode Toilet Jargon Toes Believe Easier to remember You can form a mental picture of them. Abstract You can‟t form a mental image.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 31 1. Encoding stage Must organize information to make it easier for your memory to hang onto it. You can organize encoded information by chunking it. Chunking Organizing material into familiar manageable units. Business phone numbers 1-800-the-law2 Easier to remember than a string of numbers
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 32 1. Encoding stage Hierarchy Like an outline Organize Understand Recall information
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 33 Sensory information Received > coded > transformed into neural impulses That can be processed further or stored for later use.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 34 2. Storage Stage Encoded information must be stored in the memory system if we plan to retain it for any length of time or use it more than once.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 35 3. Retrieval Stage When we recall or bring a memory into consciousness, we have retrieved it.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 36
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 37 Models of Memory Eidetic Imagery Photographic memory Can look at a written page, person, slide, or drawing & then later mentally see that image. Appears to be rare Images last for up to 4 minutes Once image has faded the memory seems no better than others memories.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 38 Models of Memory Stages-of- Memory Model Also called traditional model Memory can be processed in different ways. There are 3 types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 39 Models of Memory Sensory memory Very brief Lasting 1/2 to 1 second Extensive memory for sensory events. Short-term memory (STM) Limited in capacity compared to sensory memory Lasts longer (10 to 20 seconds).
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 40 Models of Memory The initial 10- to 20-second STM period often leads to a second phase, working memory, during which attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on the material at hand.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 41 “Famous neurological patient, H.M. has not formed an explicit long term memory since the day of an operation to remove his hippocampi in 1954, has intact working memory. If you were to meet him, we could interact with him & sustain a normal conversation about Eisenhower or that new gadget television until a door slammed or something distracted his attention; at that point, we would have to begin again.” http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/ working-memory2 Working Memory
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 42 Long-term Memory (LTM) is the memory stage that has a very large capacity & the capability to store information relatively permanently.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 43 Models of Memory The stages-of-memory model stresses the importance of rehearsal or practice in this transfer. Items that are rehearsed seem more likely to be transferred than unrehearsed items. Memories may not be retrievable from LTM because they have faded or because of interference by other memories.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 44 Models of Memory We use maintenance rehearsal when we want to save or maintain a memory for a short period. Participants who are instructed to remember a list use elaborative rehearsal, which adds meaning to material that we want to remember.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 45 Models of Memory Proactive interference occurs when old material interferes with the retrieval of material learned more recently. Retroactive interference occurs when recently learned material interferes with the retrieval of material learned earlier.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 46 Retroactive Interference May have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 47
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 48 Other Approaches To Memory Craik & Lockhart proposed that there is only 1 type of memory store and that its capacity is enormous, if not unlimited. Radical departure from the stages-of-memory model.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 49 Other Approaches To Memory The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is a condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory. Episodic memory is memory of one‟s personal experiences. Flashbulb memories are detailed memories of situations that are very arousing, surprising, or emotional. The study of flashbulb memories has provided information about episodic memory.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 50 Other Approaches To Memory A series of studies by S. Sternberg suggested that retrieval from STM is not instantaneous; we do have to scan our STM, locate an item, and process it. The process of scanning items in STM to retrieve a specific memory is rather straightforward, but retrieval of long-term memories is a different story.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 51 Other Approaches To Memory State-dependent learning Material learned in a particular physiological state is recalled best in the same physiological state. Lose keys when drunk Get drunk Find keys Concern that this my impact learning of ADHD children on meds
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 52 Other Approaches To Memory One of the most dramatic and significant controversies in recent years involves reports of the sudden recall of repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse. Psychotherapy Most common vehicle for retrieval of memories of childhood abuse Generally incest
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 53 Other Approaches To Memory Many therapists rely on memory-recovery techniques that they believe help their patients remember repressed memories of abuse. The theory that memories can be repressed is a cornerstone of the debate. Yet, after 70 years of looking, researchers have not found evidence that the process actually exists.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 54 Other Approaches To Memory It seems possible that we can lose contact with memories for long periods of time; however, repression is an overused explanation of such memory failures. The more likely explanations are normal forgetting, deliberate avoidance, and infantile amnesia, or the inability to form memories early in life.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 55 Techniques for Improving Memory Mnemonic devices Procedures for associating new information with previously stored memories. If you create and use mental pictures or images of the items you are studying, you will remember them better.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 56 Techniques for Improving Memory Since the time of the 1st experiment on grouping, psychologists have consistently found that we tend to group or chunk items when we recall them. Items that are not very meaningful or relevant to the learner are not learned as well or as easily as more meaningful or relevant items.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 57 Techniques for Improving Memory During Reading Predicting Predict what will happen next in reading material, etc. Ask questions based on titles to improve comprehension. Example Pink Collar Jobs What is a pink collar job? Do I know anyone that has a pink collar job?
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 58 Techniques for Improving Memory Create special codes to help learn material that lacks relevance. Code less relevant material in a meaningful form & then remember the coded items. Acronyms & acrostics are 2 popular coding techniques.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 59 Techniques for Improving Memory An acronym is a word formed by the initial letter(s) of the items to be remembered. Acrostic Verse or saying (often unusual or humorous) in which the first letter(s) of each word stands for a bit of information. Humor has a tendency to stick in people‟s mind
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 60 Acrostic Example Using the Word Peace People need love care and friendship. Every word that we let slip. All the prayers that come from our heart Could be the sign for peace to start Everyone must play their part .
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall 61 Recent Study “Neurobiologists uncover evidence of a 'memory code„” 2005, UC Irvine. "People tend to remember important experiences better than routine ones." Why? How can you form an impression that lasts? Silly Dress Funny http://www.physorg.com/news6332.html
Psychology class notes for Psychology of Memory. Created by a psychology instructor just for psychology students.
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