Psyc 1210 - Lec #8 - Theories of personality

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Information about Psyc 1210 - Lec #8 - Theories of personality
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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

Psyc 1210 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY II LECTURE 8 | MARCH 10, 2014 INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

OUTLINE 1. PERSONALITY 2. STEP INTO WELLNESS 1. INFORMED CONSENT - SURVEY - ACTIVITY 3. EXAM #2 1. 44 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 2. 2 SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (CHOICE OF 4)

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY ASSOCIATED READING: CHAPTER 14 1 - 3

LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF THIS UNIT, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. WHAT IS THE TRAIT-BASED APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY 2. WHAT ARE THE ‘BIG FIVE’ PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS AND WHAT METHODS CAN BE USED TO CAPTURE THESE DIMENSIONS? 3. WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS OF THE TRAIT-DIMENSION (E.G. ‘BIG FIVE’ ) THEORIES OF PERSONALITY? 4. WHAT ARE THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF GENETICS AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL FACTORS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONE’S PERSONALITY? 5. WHAT IS RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM? 6. WHAT ARE THREE LINES OF EVIDENCE THAT SUGGEST PARENTS HAVE A MINOR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN’S PERSONALITY? 7. WHAT ARE THE THREE ELEMENTS THAT MAKE UP THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY, ACCORDING TO FREUD? 8. WHAT ARE SIX COMMON DEFENCE MECHANISMS IN PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY? 9. WHAT ARE THE FIVE STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT, ACCORDING TO FREUD? 10.WHAT IS THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS? WHAT ARE ARCHETYPES? 11.WHAT ARE THREE MAJOR SHORTCOMINGS OF PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES? 12.WHAT ARE THE BASIC TENETS OF HUMANISM? 13.WHAT IS THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH TO PERSONALITY? 14.WHAT ARE THE MAJOR SHORTCOMINGS OF HUMANISTIC THEORIES OF PERSONALITY?1 - 4

HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE YOUR PERSONALITY? 1 - 5

Copyright © 2013 DEFINING PERSONALITY • PERSONALITY – A DISTINCTIVE AND RELATIVELY STABLE PATTERN OF BEHAVIOUR, THOUGHTS, MOTIVES, AND EMOTIONS THAT CHARACTERIZES AN INDIVIDUAL – PATTERN MAY CONSIST OF MANY DISTINCTIVE TRAITS – TRAIT: A CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INDIVIDUAL, DESCRIBING A HABITUAL WAY OF BEHAVING, THINKING, OR FEELING 14- 6

GENERATING TRAITS • ALLPORT – 4500 PERSONALITY-RELEVANT TRAITS IN THE DICTIONARY • CATELL (1957) – 16 PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS • 16 PERSONALITY FACTOR (16PF) QUESTIONNAIRE • BIG 5 (FISKE 1949; TUPES & CHRISTAL, 1961; NORMAN 1963; MCCRAE & COSTA, 2008) – OCEAN 1 - 7

Copyright © 2013 CORE PERSONALITY TRAITS • ALLPORT EVALUATED PERSONALITY TRAITS BASED ON THEIR INFLUENCE ON A PERSON’S LIFE – CENTRAL TRAITS: ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY THAT REFLECT A CHARACTERISTIC WAY OF BEHAVING, DEALING WITH OTHERS, AND REACTING TO NEW SITUATIONS – SECONDARY TRAITS: CHANGEABLE ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY • FACTOR ANALYSIS OFTEN USED TO IDENTIFY CLUSTERS OF BEHAVIOURS THAT ARE MEASURED BY A COMMON UNDERLYING FACTOR 14- 8

Copyright © 2013 THE BIG FIVE • MOST RESEARCHERS AGREE ON THE CENTRALITY OF FIVE CORE TRAITS IN PERSONALITY 1. OPENNESS TO NEW EXPERIENCE 2. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 3. EXTROVERSION 4. AGREEABLENESS 5. NEUROTICISM (NEGATIVE EMOTIONALITY) 14- 9

Copyright © 2013 MODERN STUDY OF PERSONALITY • MANY UNSCIENTIFIC TESTS OF PERSONALITY STILL EXIST (E.G., MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR) • LIMITATIONS – POOR TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY • 50% OF THOSE WHO TOOK THE MBTI 5 WEEKS LATER SCORED AS A DIFFERENT ‘TYPE’ – QUESTIONABLE VALIDITY AND SENSITIVITY 14- 10

Copyright © 2013 MODERN STUDY OF PERSONALITY • OBJECTIVE INVENTORIES – STANDARDIZED QUESTIONNAIRES REQUIRING WRITTEN RESPONSES – TYPICALLY INCLUDE SCALES ON WHICH PEOPLE ARE ASKED TO RATE THEMSELVES • E.G., MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI) • E.G., MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE (MPQ) 14- 11

CONSISTENCY OF TRAITS • PERSONALITY PARADOX – TRAITS ARE NOT NECESSARILY STABLE AND TRAIT-TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR VARIES ACCORDING TO THE CONTEXT • E.G. HONESTY IS NOT UNIVERSALLY APPLIED ACROSS DIFFERENT SITUATIONS (CORRELATION = 0.3) (MISCHEL, 1968) • WHY ARE PEOPLE SO INCONSISTENT? – POWER OF THE SITUATION • DEMANDS OF THE SITUATION ENFORCE PARTICULAR BEHAVIOURS INDEPENDENT OF PERSONALITY – SOCIAL ROLES OVERWHELM INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (ZOMBARDO) 1 - 12

CONSISTENCY OF TRAITS • POWER OF THE SITUATION – SITUATION  BEHAVIOUR INDEPENDENT OF ONE’S PERSONALITY • OVERSIMPLIFICATION • MODERATING VARIABLES – ‘POWER’ OF THE SITUATION • IN ‘WEAK’ SITUATIONS, PERSONALITY TRAITS SHAPE BEHAVIOUR TO A GREATER EXTENT – LEVEL OF SELF-MONITORING (SNYDER, 1974) • HIGH / LOW SELF-MONITORING • ASSESS DEGREE OF SENSITIVITY TO SITUATION AND LIKELIHOOD OF A PERSON TO ADJUST THEIR BEHAVIOUR TO FIT THE DEMANDS OF THE SITUATION 1 - 13

GENETIC INFLUENCE ON PERSONALITY 1 - 14

Copyright © 2013 GENETIC INFLUENCES ON PERSONALITY • WHAT ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY MAY HAVE AN INHERITED COMPONENT? • TEMPERAMENTS – PHYSIOLOGICAL DISPOSITIONS TO RESPOND TO THE ENVIRONMENT IN CERTAIN WAYS – PRESENT IN INFANCY AND IN MANY NONHUMAN SPECIES AND ASSUMED TO BE INNATE – INCLUDE REACTIVITY, SOOTHABILITY, IMPULSIVITY, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EMOTIONALITY 14- 15

MEASURING THE GENETIC INFLUENCE ON PERSONALITY HERITABILITY: – H = VG / VT – VG = VARIANCE ATTRIBUTED TO GENETIC DIFFERENCES – VT = TOTAL VARIANCE – A STATISTICAL ESTIMATE OF THE PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL VARIANCE IN SOME TRAIT THAT IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO GENETIC DIFFERENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITHIN A GROUP – EXPRESSED AS PROPORTION WITH MAXIMUM VALUE OF 1.0 – HIGH HERITABILITY MEANS GREATER GENETIC CONTRIBUTION TO TRAIT 3-16

MEASURING THE GENETIC INFLUENCE ON PERSONALITY TWIN STUDIES • SIMILAR PERSONALITIES • MONOZYGOTIC > DIZYGOTIC > NON-TWIN SIBLINGS • MONOZYGOTIC TWINS SHOW HIGH HERITABILITY OF ‘BIG 5’ PERSONALITY TRAITS (40-60% CORRELATION) 3-17

STUDYING TRAITS IN NON- HUMAN SPECIES • DO DOGS HAVE PERSONALITIES? – INFER FROM DIVERSITY OF RESPONSE BEHAVIOURS TO PARTICULAR SITUATIONS, INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DOGS, AND OWNERS’ SUBJECTIVE APPRAISALS – EVOLUTIONARY ARGUMENT FOR DIVERSITY OF PERSONALITY • IT IS ADAPTIVE FOR A SPECIES TO CONTAIN INDIVIDUALS WHO VARY IN THEIR TEMPERAMENTS AND WAYS OF RESPONDING TO AN EVER CHANGING ENVIRONMENT (FAIRBANKS, 2001) – GOSLING ET AL., (2003) • GOOD CORRELATION BETWEEN OWNER’S APPRAISAL OF PERSONALITY OF THEIR DOG AND APPRAISAL BY INDEPENDENT OBSERVERS IN A PARK- SETTING 1 - 18

PHYSIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY • HANS EYSENCK’S THEORY OF INTROVERSION/EXTRAVERSION – DIFFER IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI – INTROVERTS SHOW STRONGER PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI THAN EXTRAVERTS 1 - 19 Image credit: http://hilaryforkner.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/zop.gif

PHYSIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY • SENSATION-SEEKING (ZUCKERMANN, 1987, 1990, 1994) – CORRELATED WITH UNDER-RESPONSIVE NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEM (DOPAMINE AND NOREPINEPHRINE) – SENSATION-SEEKING TO INCREASE FIRING WITHIN THIS SYSTEM, – CORRELATED WITH EXTRAVERSION • INHIBITED TEMPERAMENT (FOX ET AL., 2005) – CORRELATED WITH OVERSENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI – ANATOMICAL CORRELATE: AMYGDALA – SCHWARTZ ET AL., 2003 • INFANTS CLASSIFIED AS HAVING INHIBITED TEMPERAMENT SHOWED INCREASED ACTIVATION OF THE AMYGDALA WHILE VIEWING UNFAMILIAR FACES COMPARED TO UNINHIBITED INFANTS 1 - 20

END OF LECTURE 1 - 21

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