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PSY 552 lecture 2

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Information about PSY 552 lecture 2
Education

Published on March 5, 2008

Author: Petronilla

Source: authorstream.com

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Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552):  Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552) History:  History 4th Century BC Hippocrates – Father of Medicine Studied lead poisoning among miners and metallurgists 1st Century BC Pliny, a Roman historian, wrote of the dangers of cinnabar History (cont):  History (cont) 2nd Century AD Galen wrote about various occupational diseases. 15th Century AD Ulrich Ellenborg published a treatise on toxic fumes and vapors and their control History (cont):  History (cont) 16th Century Phillipus Aureolous Theophratus Bombastus von Hohenheim (AKA Paracelsus 16th Century Agricola wrote De Re Metallica History (cont):  History (cont) 18th Century AD Ramazzini published De Morbis Artificum Diatriba England – an epidemiological study revealed a condition called Devonshire Colic History (cont):  History (cont) 18th Century AD Percival Pott – recognized 19th Century Industrial revolution Health & Morals of Apprentices Act Factory Acts in England Child labor laws in Massachusetts (1848) Federal Safety Appliance Act History (cont):  History (cont) 19th Century Germany created a social security system that included: British workers’ compensation act (1897) History (cont):  History (cont) 20th Century States in USA begin to implement workers’ compensation programs Federal workers’ compensation (1908) New Jersey, Wisconsin (1911) US Social Security Act (1935) History (cont):  History (cont) 20th Century Occupational Safety & Health Act (1970) Creates two new government agencies OSHA:  OSHA Focused primarily on acute and airborne safety hazards. In the mid 1980s back injuries accounted for 30% of workplace injuries In 1993, cumulative trauma disorders accounted for 62% of new workplace injuries. OSHA (cont):  OSHA (cont) Ergonomics became a focus in the 1990’s Has attempted several times to implement ergonomic standards. Recent standards implemented by President Clinton were repealed by President Bush. OSHA (cont):  OSHA (cont) OSHA’s new program (see http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/) relies on a 4-pronged approach: Guidelines Enforcement Outreach & assistance National Advisory Committee Individual states have ergonomic standards (e.g., CA, WA). NIOSH:  NIOSH Has published research based lifting guidelines, among other things, to reduce back injuries. The new limit is 51 lbs in the under the best conditions (1993). Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) Today:  Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) Today Are difficult to define Are affected by a variety of factors Mechanical Physiological Psychological Contextual Mechanical:  Mechanical Physiological :  Physiological Psychological:  Psychological Contextual:  Contextual Scope of MSDs:  Scope of MSDs Difficult to define the scope because: What is known Workers’ Compensation:  Workers’ Compensation Master-Servant Relationship Master-Stranger Relationship

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