PS 280 13 mood disorders

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Information about PS 280 13 mood disorders
Education

Published on February 27, 2008

Author: Marco1

Source: authorstream.com

Slide2:  MOOD DISORDERS LECTURE OUTLINE Historical perspective Types of symptoms and diagnostic issues Unipolar disorders Bipolar disorders Etiology Treatments Slide3:  MOOD DISORDERS Historical perspective Galen – bodily fluids and temperament black bile and melancholia Endogenous vs. reactive depression Neurotic vs. psychotic depression Slide4:  MOOD DISORDERS Diagnostic issues DSM-IV lists 10 mood disorders Major depressive disorder Dysthymic disorder Bipolar I Bipolar II Cyclothymic disorder Rapid cycling depression/mania Seasonal affective disorder Mood disorder with postpartum onset Mood disorder due to general medical condition Substance-induced mood disorder Slide5:  MOOD DISORDERS Diagnostic issues a number of “specifiers” (e.g., severity, chronicity) are used in diagnosis Two broad categories – unipolar and bipolar Two important criteria in diagnosis – duration and severity Slide6:  MOOD DISORDERS Diagnostic issues – Types of symptoms mood and emotion cognitions behaviour and motivation physical the experience of depression Slide7:  MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar disorders – Major depression symptoms include feelings of sadness, loss of interest or inability to experience pleasure, unexplained weight loss, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, suicidal thoughts, agitation or slowing down typically lasts 6-9 months Slide8:  MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar disorders – Major depression estimates suggest about 5% of Canadians suffer from depression (1-year prevalence rate); 22% lifetime prevalence for major depression twice as common in women – biological differences, expression of symptoms, social acceptability, role strain and stress estimates are that half of people who recover from major depression will experience another episode; those with 2 or more episodes have 70-80% chance of having another episode Slide9:  MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar disorders – Major depression Problem of underdiagnosis no obvious marker for depression many symptoms do not obviously point to depression stigma associated with diagnosis of depression Slide10:  MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar disorders – Dysthymia many of the same symptoms as major depressive disorder, but less severe dysthymia persists for at least 2 years with only brief times mood returns to normal – chronic sadness Slide11:  MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar disorders – Mania flamboyance and expansiveness extreme or prolonged mania presumed to be psychotic state less severe episodes are called hypomanic some people experience mania as a “high” there can be unipolar mania Slide12:  MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar disorders – Bipolar I and II Bipolar I – one or more manic episodes and one or more depressive episodes Bipolar II – at least one hypomanic episode and one or more episodes of major depression Bipolar disorders less prevalent than unipolar, .8-1.6% of population age of onset in 20s Rapid cycling depression/mania – 4 or more episodes per year Slide13:  MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar disorders – Cyclothymia long-standing pattern of alternating mood episodes that do not meet criteria for major depression or mania criteria include duration of at least 2 years with recurrent periods of mild depression alternating with hypomania Slide14:  MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar disorders – Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) vulnerable to changes in sunlight, especially fall and spring prevalence rates of 4-6%, found more often in northern latitudes many SAD symptoms opposite of those found in major depression – increase in appetite, weight gain, more sleep Slide15:  MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar disorders – Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) hormone melatonin photoherapy Slide16:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Psychological models Psychodynamic – fixation at oral stage mourning and melancholia – introjection of lost loved one, anger turned inwards Depressive personality Attachment – Bowlby, anaclitic depression, introjective depression Slide17:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Psychological models Cognitive – Beck – negative cognitive triad negative schemata cognitive distortions – selective abstraction, arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization Slide18:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Psychological models Learned helplessness and causal attributions – Seligman Life stress – especially loss experiences Interpersonal effects – marital violence, expressed emotion (EE) 3 components of EE – criticism, hostility, overinvolvement Slide19:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Biological models Genetics – first degree relatives of people with unipolar disorder have 30-35% prevalence rate for depression; second degree relatives, 12-15% prevalence rate Twin study (McGuffin et al., 1991) – Concordance rates of 53% for MZ twins, 28% for DZ for unipolar disorder Slide20:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Biological models Twin study (Bertelsen et al., 1977) – Concordance rates of 67% for MZ twins, 20% for DZ for bipolar disorder Neurotransmitter deficiencies – catecholamines (NE and serotonin) Monoamine hypothesis – shortage of NE, dopamine, and serotonin Slide21:  MOOD DISORDERS Etiology – Biological models EEG findings – higher alpha readings in left front region Sleep disturbances – decrease in slow wave sleep and earlier onset of REM MRI and PET studies show increased ventricle size and decreased activity in left lateral prefrontal cortex Slide22:  MOOD DISORDERS Treatment – Psychological models Depression often improves without treatment Cognitive therapy Behavioural strategies Interpersonal therapy Slide23:  MOOD DISORDERS Treatment – Biological models Antidepressant therapy – MAOs, tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Mood stabilizers – lithium carbonate for bipolar Combining pharmacotherapy and psychological therapy ECT – a controversial treatment Slide24:  MOOD DISORDERS SUMMARY Mood disorders are very common mental disorders, yet they often go undetected and untreated There are gender differences in rates of diagnosed depression Slide25:  MOOD DISORDERS SUMMARY The 2 main types of mood disorder are unipolar and bipolar Within these 2 categories there are wide differences in severity and duration of symptoms Biopsychosocial model appears to give the best account of mood disorders Slide26:  MOOD DISORDERS SUMMARY but, not much on the social origins of depression Bipolar appears to have a stronger biological component than unipolar disorders There are effective psychological and biological treatments for the different mood disorders

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