Published on March 7, 2014
Prunus africana: a reality check A B (Tony) Cunningham, Terry Sunderland & Robert Nkuinkeu Meeting at CIFOR, Yaounde, 6 March 2014
OVERVIEW • Introduc+on • Why is the P. africana case is globally signiﬁcant in terms of policy vs. prac+ce? • 6 “take home messages”; • Recommenda+ons for the future.
Prunus bark trade in global perspec+ve • More Prunus africana bark is wild harvested than any other tree species, followed by quillay (Quillaja saponaria, also Rosaceae) (Cunningham, in press); • Quillay is exported from Chile & wild populaDons have been devastated (872 t/bark exported = 60000 trees/yr (FAO, 2001; San MarDn & Briones, 1999); • All other large scale bark trade has shiSed to farmed trees (e.g; cinnamon, cork, waUle, cassia).
Prunus africana: valued but vulnerable • Considered the only African species in a genus of c.200 species (although Kalkman (1965) suggested that a separate species, Prunus crassifolia might occur in the Kivu region, DRC); • Gene+cally & chemically dis+nct popula+ons across Africa & Madagascar (Kadu et al., 2012; Martelli et al, 1986; Vicen+ et al., 2013); • Wild rela+ve of peaches, plums, almonds & apricots, listed as Vulnerable (IUCN), even in countries where no export trade occurs & CITES Appendix 2 listed; • Habitat loss due to clearing from farmland & future impacts predicted due to climate change (Mbatudde et al, 2012; Vicen+ et al., 2013).
Export trade: Prunus africana = established trade = emerging trade “frontier” = traditional medicine trade only
Why is the P. africana case globally signiﬁcant in terms of policy vs. prac+ce? NaDonal Management plan • The (Ingram et al, 2009) is now being seen as a model that should be applied on a global scale; • With CIFOR’s reputaDon, the report was a key to liSing the EU ban. • Disconnect between policy & what is really happening in the forest.
LESSON 1: INCREDIBLE SUPPORT & EFFORTS HAVE GONE INTO SUSTAINABLE WILD HARVEST ….but there are widespread concerns about the accuracy of some inventory, yield & quotas recommendations…..
PROGRESS SINCE 2011 • Mt. Cameroon as a model: major investment in management & monitoring plans; • SDmulated by the 2007 EU trade ban.
CASE STUDY: GOING DOWN MT CAMEROON (Ewusi, 2006 in Amougou et al., 2011) • Annual “sustainable” bark yields have varied enormously, even for the best studied locaDon (Mt Cameroon); • 4438 t/yr -‐> 330 t/yr -‐>178 t/yr -‐> 130 t/yr to MOCAP’s harvest of 57 tonnes from Block 1 in 2012.
ROTATION TIMES: 5 YRS? 7 YRS? 10YRS? IT ALL DEPENDS… • Current management on Mt. Cameroon is based on a 5 yr rotaDon (5 blocks) (Eben Ebai, 2011); • 7 year rotaDon recommended (Nkeng, 2009), with 9-‐10 yr rotaDon used for cork oak. (from Eben-Ebai, 2011)
LESSON 2: IS IT WORTH IT?
WHO BENEFITTED & BY HOW MUCH? WILD HARVEST Warehousing 3% Transport 4% Regeneration 7% Park mgmt. 20% VDF* 7% 16% Harvester 43% MOCAP *Village Development Fund Exporter pays 350 CFA/kg Harvester gets 150 CFA/kg • 2012 harvest (Block 1, Mt Cameroon NP) was 57 t fresh wt; • 57000 kg @150 CFA/kg = 8550000 CFA (approx $17,100); • 48 acDve harvesters; • Beneﬁt per person for the annual harvest = $356 (or ca. $1 per harvester per day).
COSTS OF MANAGED SUSTAINABLE HARVEST vs. BENEFITS • Cost of inventory about 15 million CFA ($30 000), more than two Dmes the $17 100 earned from bark harvest (& excludes addiDonal monitoring costs); • 100 000 people live around Mt Cameroon. 48 acDve harvesters. 20% of whom are not from Mt. Cameroon area; • Are the costs worth it for 0.0004% of the local populaDon?
LESSON 3: LOCAL LIVELIHOODS & PRUNUS INCOME NEED CONTEXT ….both place, time & other benefits from forests
HIGH VALUE, HIGH VOLUME, HIGH IMPACT Madagascar & Prunus africana: remote, small forests, local value-‐adding & high porDon of cash • income….. • Bioko & Cameroon in a very diﬀerent situaDon (diverse income sources, changing economic, global links & migrant remiUances).
MADAGASCAR Tsaratanàna ° Antsahabiraoka = Prunus africana ° Lakato Tampoketsan’Ankazobe Marovoay Import from Cameroon = bark processing factory Bark exploita+on has been taking place in Forest Reserves (e.g: Zahamena Special FR) un+l overexploita+on wiped out stocks…so they had to import from Cameroon.
OTHER LINKS TO LIVELIHOODS • Diverse products come from forests, not just Prunus bark; • Mt Cameroon: there are 48 acDve harvesters out of 100,000 people around the park; • PES opportuniDes & lessons from other countries.
LESSON 4: BARK HARVEST DOES HAVE AN IMPACT .
BARK REMOVAL IS A SHOCK… from which some trees do not recover
HIGH VALUE, WEAK TENURE=OVERHARVEST • Demographic structure of natural stands shows very low representation of mature trees with dbh > 30cm, but very high exploitation rate reaching 80% of total individuals in some areas (ICRAF/IRAD/ Univ of Dschang, 2008); • Overexploitation rate is more than 90% in all studied villages: almost all individual with dbh >20 were totally debarked from buttresses to branches (ICRAF/IRAD/ Univ of Dschang, 2008); • 60% of trees overexploited (Nkeng, 2009).
PRUNUS AFRICANA IS AN ECOLOGICAL KEYSTONE SPECIES • P. africana bark is not just “under-‐exploited” trees for commercial trade; • Keystone species for colobus monkeys & some endemic birds; • Not just about “saving Prunus”. Fashing, P J. 2004. Mortality trends in the African cherry (Prunus africana) and the implications for colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biological Conservation 120:449-459
LESSON 5: PAU’s FACE MANY CHALLENGES . ”Prunus Allocation Units (PAUs) have been participatively defined and developed with input from stakeholders” (Ingram et al, 2009)……yet “elite capture” & an exporter monopoly are still major factors, so “participatory” is questionable.
WHAT ABOUT ADAMOUA? (from Ingram et al, 2009) • Current inventory, management & monitoring in Mt. Cameroon PAU are an inspiring model….but what about PAU’s that are more remote?
RESOURCE RICH FRONTIER? • Traders from Bamenda employed local people to strip Prunus africana trees on Tchabal Mbabo since c.2001; • In Nigeria (2003), Chapman (2004) reported extensive debarking & camps in the forest for bark exploitation - total stripping of trees, compromising transboundary conservation plans; Ref: Chapman, 2004 • 5 PAU’s in Adamoua: what is the impact of current harvest?
COMMERCIAL HARVEST & COLLATERAL DAMAGE? • “Collateral damage” (“ladder trees” & lianas)….naDonally, 1000 tonne quota=c.180 000 Prunus trees/yr); • Does the cumng of c.150000 small trees & c.300000 lianas per yr have an impact?
LESSON 6: CULTIVATION IS A MORE VIABLE OPTION . …connecting farmers Prunus Growers Associations (PAG’s) to the export market will catalyze planting & bark Production….
CULTIVATION Traceability 16% Harvester 84% • Even at the current low price, culDvaDon is a beUer opDon (money, labour); • Current GiZ/PSMNR-‐SW funded inventory of P.africana on farms is very Dmely; *Village Development Fund Exporter price = 350 CFA/kg Farmer gets 294 CFA/kg • So is the forthcomingGiZ/ PSMNR-‐SW project on economics & beneﬁt sharing.
DOES IT PAY TO PLANT? • While not as profitable as Eucalyptus, an alternative enterprise, farmers want to grow P. africana; • Reasons: it is compatible with many crops and has multiple uses – bark sales, medicine, tools, poles, seed sales & mulch; • Cameroon: thousands of farmers have planted Prunus. Market demand is high, as herbal treatments of BPH are popular & demand grows & emerging Asian market. Cunningham, A.B., Ayuk, E., Franzel, S., Duguma, B. & Asanga, C. 2002. An economic evaluation of medicinal tree cultivation: Prunus africana in Cameroon. People and Plants working paper 10. UNESCO.
TRANSPARENCY ON THE VALUE CHAIN IS CRUCIAL • We are sDll cross-‐checking price data, but preliminary ﬁgures are that the: • 150 CFA/kg represents 4% of the price paid to Cameroonian exporters (3550 CFA/kg (or 6 Euro/ kg); • If the above ﬁgures are correct, then the FOB value of the current 1000 tonne quota would represent a proﬁt of about Euro 6 million/yr.
NEED TO PHASE OUT COMMERCIAL BARK HARVEST IN THE LONG TERM • Economic & ecological sustainability reasons; • Licensed harvest of seed & wildings from wild populaDons is an incenDve to maintain mother trees; • Also contributes seed from a geneDcally diverse, local P. africana populaDon
CITES, CULTIVATION & TRADE • Local farmers have been cultivating P. africana since the 1970’s but are discouraged by lack of markets; • Need CITES to recognize that “conservation through cultivation” can & should happen (as with orchids & crocodiles); • Current on-farm inventories (GiZ/PSMNR-‐SW) very Dmely; • Cultivation can bring higher income to more people, with less effort, that trying to sustain wild harvest;
GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR BUILDING ON PAST CULTIVATION STUDIES • Long history of ICRAF work on P. africana & lessons from Allanblackia & links to industry; • New research on ICRAF’s old P. africana trials (known age, chemical content).
NEED TO UNDERSTAND & DEAL WITH BARRIERS TO TRADE IN CULTIVATED BARK • Diverse vested interests in maintaining & controlling wild harvest; • Encouraging a shiS to culDvaDon may need policy reform (“ﬁrst generaDon seedlings on farm are wild”); • OpportuniDes to learn from policy outcomes in other countries (e.g: sandalwood).
NOT ADVISABLE TO REPLICATE THE 2009 MODEL • Weaknesses in the current model need to be recognized, whether sampling (AdapDve Cluster Sampling (ACS) (Morrison et al (2008) or related to governance; • ReplicaDon, parDcularly where governance is weak may export a problem, not a soluDon. Ref: Morrison, L. W., Smith, D. R., Young, C. C., & Nichols, D. W. (2008). Evaluating sampling designs by computer simulation: a case study with the Missouri bladderpod. Population ecology, 50(4), 417-425.
THANK YOU “if it’s not sustainable, it’s not development” (UNDP)
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