Published on May 31, 2014
GEOStore: “New web marketing and distribution techniques for geolocated digital content” V. Sanjaime, A. del Rey (1) , L. Vicens, R. Olivella, A. Hernández (2) , G. Beltrán (3) (1) PRODEVELOP, S.L Pza. D. Juan de Villarrasa, 14, entlo pta. 5 46001 Valencia, email@example.com. (2) SIGTE, Facultat de Lletres, Universitat de Girona, Pl. Ferrater Mora, 1 17071 Girona, firstname.lastname@example.org (3) GEOTURISMO, Calle Archiduque Carlos, 6 pta 17 Valencia, email@example.com
GEOStore: “New web marketing and distribution techniques for geolocated digital content” ABSTRACT There are several problems in both performance and usability in the representation and provision of large volumes of geospatial data on the web. In reference to usability, users often encounter cases such as simultaneous display of a great deal of data that are stacked on the same geographical area, which makes it difficult to differentiate them and see the map underneath. In regard to performance, problems are found with the server, i.e., large amounts of data involve a great number of queries to databases and large volume of memory used per request; in reference to bandwidth, great amounts of data travelling over the internet involves delays in requests and high bandwidth consumption. As for clients, the problems have to do with the fact that current web browsers have trouble rendering large amounts of data. This article shows improvements in these areas via level of detail techniques and clustering and generation and precaching of tiles with vector data in a similar manner to what is done with the information in raster format. Likewise, ETL (Extract-Transform- Load) techniques are shown with those obtained from web data from a different source for integration into a single repository.
Keys word: geolocated digital contents, clustering, vector usability, ETL, interoperability. 1. INTRODUCTION The main technological objective of the GEOStore project is industrial investigation into new types of geolocated digital content such as 3D models and augmented reality and defining new bundling techniques and web distribution of these digital contents to facilitate new business models. To achieve this goal, secondary objectives are also being addressed to maximize interoperability with existing and future platforms, as are improvements in performance and usability over current processes that enable working with large volumes of data on the web and on mobile devices. It is anticipated, when the project is completed, that the results can be used to enhance technological development in growth sectors within the scopes of various digital contents in sectors such as education, geomarketing and urban management, among others, and especially tourism. Moreover, these results can be applied in all sectors that enhance development of geolocated digital content in the information society, in that the processes obtained will facilitate the creation of platforms and interoperability between them for the distribution of digital content, their marketing and sharing via social networks. The use of these techniques will strategically position the sectors applying them in the Web 2.0 market.
This article shows the results obtained thus far in terms of integration of existing geospatial data sources and vector performance and usability on the web. 2. INTEGRATION OF EXISTING GEOSPATIAL DATA SOURCES Based on identification of those data sources relevant to the project and their characterisation in terms of type of license and accessibility, the implementation of a demonstrator built on the ETL tool (“Extraction, Transform and Load”), GeoKettle, (http://www.spatialytics.org/projects/geokettle) has been undertaken for the importation and integration of geolocated data into a single spatial database: PostGIS (http://postgis.refractions.net), which will be the central GEOStore repository. To implement this demonstrator, three basic and generic sources of widely used and followed information such as Wikipedia, Flickr and OpenStreetMap were selected. In all cases, a crowdsourcing type of information was used, in which it is the users themselves who voluntarily maintain and add new information to the network. The three sources of information shared a common feature: the information that can be queried and, ultimately, downloaded is likely to be located at a specific spot on the earth's surface or, in other words, it is geolocated information. In contrast, there are three completely different sources of data or information in regard to the format and nature of the data they contain (text and graphs in the case of Wikipedia, photographs for Flickr, and geometry and attribute values in the case of OpenStreetMap). To overcome this difficulty, a GeoKettle workflow was designed. It was based on the use of APIs (Flickr), SQL scripts and statements to download information from the network, edit it and store it in the PostGIS database.
Fig. 1: General workflow (job) defined in Geokettle The entire process shown in the figure above is run simultaneously: thus we obtain the information we wish to store in Wikipedia, Flickr and OpenStreetMap. Downloading data from OpenStreetMap and Wikipedia was carried out directly from the network. Once downloaded, they were processed in GeoKettle before being imported to the central database using the various connectors to databases (MySQL and PostgreSQL).
Fig.2. Workflow for download of georeferenced articles from Wikipedia Fig.3. Workflow for download of georeferenced articles from OpenStreetMap In the case of Flickr, its API was used (http://www.flickr.com/services/api/) in REST format (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer) for geolocated data download. Flickr limits the maximum download of elements per request to prevent
massive downloads. For this reason, it was necessary to automate the generation of requests (in URL formats) to invoke the API without exceeding the download maximum. The automation process was rendered by defining a recursive script in python. After downloading the data in XML format, it was parsed and imported to the central database from GeoKettle. Fig.4. Work flow for downloading georeferenced data from Flickr 3. VECTOR PERFORMANCE AND USABILITY IN THE WEB A state of the art for OGC/ISO standards has been rendered for access to vector data, which reflects the main techniques and standard format and storage protocol systems and transmission vector GIS information as well as its capabilities in regard to representative (3D support, augmented reality, etc.) and functional capacity (editing, transactions, payment details, etc.).
Moreover, various research activities have been conducted to achieve an increase in reading capacity of vector data using and improving OGC standards and the study of the existence and use of APIs in open source software based on OSM to download and create points of interest from the Internet for web clients and mobile platforms (“Wikipedia sites”). In reference to research techniques for improving performance and usability of web and mobile customers, a line of research has been opened for creating components based on multilevel visualization techniques and space partitioning techniques via: • Geographic tiling • Grouping based on levels of detail Tiling allows splitting geographic information based on its location into a hierarchical tree shaped structure. The hierarchical structure levels refer to the visualization levels defined in the display. Each level has a spatial segregation that quadruples that of the highest level. This model is well established in web servers that offer raster cartography via WMS-C, TMS and other protocols. In this case, attributes and vector element geometry of the layer of information points are stored in each tile of each level.
Fig. 5. Distribution of geographic elements in the tile structure by level of visualization Furthermore, grouping of information by levels of detail makes it possible to agglutinate nearby isolated information; thus, the number of elements represented on the map at a zoom level is reduced, thereby increasing the legibility of the map since it is not saturated with information. Fig. 6. Synthesis model of geographic elements by level of visualization This model combines tiling of information by levels and the clustering of information makes it possible to provide the tiles with vector information that the web browser will specify sequentially through small GeoJSON format files that have information from a defined geographical area. The components created enable an increase in performance and usability when displaying and interacting with information thereby solving the problem browsers have when painting large amount of these elements.
Fig. 7. Combined tiling and clustering model of geographic information ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The GEOSTORE project was started in 2011 and has been developed over the past two years by the Prodevelop S.L. and Geoturismo S.L. companies and the Servicio de SIG y Teledetección of the Universidad de Girona with funding from the Plan Avanza (Digital Content) from the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. Fig. 8: Project logo and of entities that have funded it Work is currently being done to show the final project demonstrator: the online geolocated multimedia products store. The portal was developed using Drupal 7 and the e-commerce module. The store will be able to store and make available to users a large quantity of geolocated spatial information. The information is displayed to the user
through listings or on a map, with the aid of its geographical location. In addition, the store will permit any person or entity to add their geographical elements. Presently, there is an alpha version that can be queried on the internet at the following web address: http://geostore.prodevelop.es Fig. 9: Appearance of the alpha version of the online GEOStore. FIGURES - Fig. 1: General workflow (job) defined in Geokettle - Fig.2. Workflow for download of georeferenced articles from Wikipedia - Fig.3. Workflow for download of georeferenced articles from OpenStreetMap - Fig.4. Work flow for downloading georeferenced data from Flickr - Fig.5. Distribution of geographic elements in the tile structure by level of visualization - Fig.6. Synthesis model of geographic elements by level of visualization
- Fig.7. Combined tiling and clustering model of geographic information - Fig.8: Logo of the project and of entities that have funded it - Fig.9: Appearance of the alpha version of the online GEOStore.
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