Published on March 6, 2014
Mobile Computing: Protocols Used In Bluetooth Presented By: Ms. Sonali. Parab. MscIT Part 1, Semester 2. Incharge: Mr. Jadhav.
▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Overview of the content: Introduction. Technology Review. Specification of Bluetooth technology. Architecture of Bluetooth Protocol. Protocols in Bluetooth Stack. Advantages And Disadvantages Bluetooth. Future of Bluetooth Conclusion Bibliography
Introduction. ▪ Wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances. ▪ Personal Area Networks(PAN). ▪ Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994.
Introduction. ▪ Originally was a wire replacement technology. ▪ Applications: Mobile phones, Laptops, Bluetooth Headsets, Telehealth devices, etc.
Technology Review. ▪ Bluetooth uses radio technology called “Frequency Hopping spread Spectrum”. ▪ Supports data rate of I mb/s (originally). ▪ Managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). ▪ Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the standard is no longer maintained.
Specification of Bluetooth technology. ▪ Core Specification Deals with lower layers of architecture and describes how technology works. ▪ Profile Specification Focuses on how to build inter operating devices using the core technology.
Architecture of Bluetooth Protocol.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Radio: ▪ Is situated at the most bottom of all the layers. ▪ Used in the specification of the air interfaces like frequencies, modulation, transmit power ▪ Bluetooth radio is a transceiver which transmits and receives modulated electrical signals from peer Bluetooth devices
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Baseband: ▪ The Baseband and Link control layer enable the physical connection between any Bluetooth enabled products. ▪ This layer also controls the synchronisation and the frequency hopping sequence. ▪ The 2 different link types Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO) and Asynchronous Connectionless (ACL) are also managed by this layer.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Audio: ▪ Audio transmissions can be performed between one or more Bluetooth enabled units, using a number of different usage models. ▪ Audio data does not go through the L2CAP layer (see diagram 1) but directly between 2 Bluetooth units.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Host Controller Interface (HCI): : ▪ The Host Controller Interface provides an interface method for accessing the Bluetooth hardware capabilities. ▪ It contains a command interface, which acts between the Baseband controller and link manager and has access to hardware status. ▪ It contains the control and event registers.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Link Manager protocol (LMP): ▪ The Link Manager Protocol, is responsible for link set-up between Bluetooth enabled units. ▪ It handles the control and negotiation of packet sizes used when transmitting data. ▪ The Link Manager Protocol also handles management of power modes, power consumption, and state of a Bluetooth unit in a piconet. ▪ Finally, this layer handles generation, exchange and control of link and encryption keys for authentication and encryption
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Logical Link Control and Adaption Protocol (L2CAP): ▪ The Bluetooth logical link control and adaptation protocol is situated over the Baseband layer and beside the Link Manager Protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack. The L2CAP layer provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layers. ▪ The four main tasks for L2CAP are: ▪ Multiplexing - L2CAP must support protocol multiplexing since a number of protocols (e.g. SDP, RFCOMM and TCS Binary) can operate over L2CAP. ▪ Segmentation and Reassembly - Data packets exceeding the Maximum Transmission Unit, MTU, must be segmented before being transmitted. This and the reverse functionality, reassemble, is performed by L2CAP. ▪ Quality of Service - The establishment of an L2CAP connection allows the exchange of information regarding current Quality of Service for the connection between the two Bluetooth units. ▪ Groups - The L2CAP specification supports the mapping of groups on to a piconet.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Service Discovery Protocol (SDP): ▪ The Service Disocvery Protocol defines how a client's Bluetooth enabled application will discover available Bluetooth server' services and characteristics upon entering a Bluetooth server area. ▪ SDP also provides functionality for detecting when a service is no longer available.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. RFCOMM: ▪ RFCOMM protocol is a serial port protocol. ▪ The protocol covers applications that make use of serial ports of the unit. ▪ RFCOMM emulates RS-232 control and data signals over the baseband. ▪ It also provides capabilities for the upper service levels such as OBEX, which uses a serial line as a transport mechanism.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Telephony control protocol: a. Telephony Control – Binary b.Telephony Control – AT Commands ▪Bit-oriented protocol, which defines the call control signalling for the establishment of speech and data calls between Bluetooth units. ▪Are supported for transmitting control signals for telephony control. ▪Provides functionality to exchange signalling information unrelated to ongoing calls. ▪ITU-T Recommended. ▪These use the serial port emulation, RFCOMM, for transmission.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Adopted protocols ▪ This section describes a number of protocols that are defined to be adopted to the Bluetooth protocol stack. ▪ Note some of these adaptations are at the moment incomplete. a. Point-to-Point Protocol - PPP – Designed to run over RFCOMM to accomplish point-to-point connections. – packet-oriented protocol and must therefore use its serial mechanisms to convert the packet data stream into a serial data streams.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Adopted protocols ▪ b. TCP/UDP/IP – Defined to operate in Bluetooth units allowing them to communicate with other units connected, for instance, to the Internet. – Bluetooth can acts like a bridge to internet – The TCP/IP/PPP protocol configuration is used for all Internet Bridge usage scenarios in Bluetooth 1.0 and for OBEX in future versions. – The UDP/IP/PPP configuration is available as transport for WAP.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Adopted protocols ▪ c. IrOBEX, shortly OBEX Protocol – Optional application layer protocol designed to enable units supporting infrared communication to exchange a wide variety of data and commands in a resource-sensitive standardized fashion. – Client-server model and is independent of the transport mechanism and transport API. – Defines a folder-listing object, which is used to browse the contents of folders on remote device. – RFCOMM is used as the main transport layer for OBEX.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Adopted protocols ▪ d. Wireless Application Protocol, WAP – wireless protocol specification that works across a variety of widearea wireless network technologies bringing the Internet to mobile devices. – Bluetooth can be used like other wireless networks with regard to WAP, it can be used to provide a bearer for transporting data between the WAP Client and its adjacent WAP Server. – Furthermore, Bluetooth’s ad hoc networking capability gives a WAP client unique possibilities regarding mobility compared with other WAP bearers.
Protocols Used In Bluetooth. Adopted protocols ▪ e. Content formats – Formats for transmitting vCard and vCalendar information are also defined in the Bluetooth specification. – The formats do not define transport mechanisms but the format in which electronic business cards and personal calendar entries and scheduling information are transported. – vCard and vCalendar is transferred by OBEX.
Advantages And Disadvantages Bluetooth. Disadvantages Advantages ▪ Short ranged. ▪ Eliminates wires. ▪ Facilities data communication. and ▪ Standardized protocols. ▪ Free of charge. ▪ Easy to use. voice ▪ Less secured ▪ Interference devices. with other
Future Of Bluetooth. ▪ Very good future ahead as it need basic needs of connectivity. ▪ Latest versions are improving both in securities and capabilities. ▪ New versions will meet high speed and large range. ▪ Many companies are developing Bluetooth applications in demand.
Conclusion ▪ A new global standard for voice and data. ▪ Eliminates cables. ▪ Low power, low range, low cost network device. ▪ Further improvements are planned to made in – Data Rate. – Power Reduction – Range
Bibliography ▪ http:// www.tech.plym.ac.uk/dcee/postgrad/reference/BlueTooth/page2.html#architecture ▪ http://www.althos.com/tutorial/Bluetooth-tutorial-protocol-layers.html ▪ http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/Bluetooth-Home.aspx ▪ www.palowireless.com/infotooth/tutorial.asp ▪ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth_protocols ▪ http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms890956.aspx ▪ http://www.thestudymaterial.com/presentation-seminar/electronicspresentation/51-bluetooth-technology.html?start=3 ▪ http://www.scribd.com/doc/135626916/Bluetooth-Protocol-Stack
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