Protein for Athletes

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Information about Protein for Athletes
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Published on September 6, 2007

Author: Altoro

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Protein Needs for Athletes:  Protein Needs for Athletes The Benefits of Plant-based proteins Protein Needs4,9:  Protein Needs4,9 RDAs: grams of protein/kg of body weight: Sedentary adult: .8-1.2 Infant: 1.5 Pregnant women: 1.1 Endurance athlete: 1.2-1.4 Strength athlete: 1.6-1.7 RDA for average adult: 8-11% of calories should come from protein; the average American consumes 15% calories from protein **To calculate your body weight in kilograms: divide your body weight in pounds by 2.2 Metabolism during exercise 9:  Metabolism during exercise 9 According to the US DRI committee, a higher RDA is not warranted for healthy adults doing resistance or endurance exercise Because Americans, on average, consume more protein than they actually need, any increased need for athletes is most likely already being met Those who exercise more need more calories; their absolute protein needs will be greater than less active people but will be met simply by consuming more calories Metabolism during exercise 9:  Metabolism during exercise 9 While muscle fibers are protein, dietary protein is not needed for muscle growth For both ENDURANCE and RESISTANCE TRAINING, glucose and fatty acids are the primary fuel sources (glucose= predominant fuel); protein is NOT Metabolism during exercise…excess protein? 9,10, 15:  Metabolism during exercise… excess protein? 9,10, 15 Excess protein= excess calories= adds weight as FAT, not muscle (slows down performance) Intakes andgt;15 % of calories or 2 grams protein/ kg of body weight= burned for energy converted to fat Used for primary and structural roles (not muscle mass) Metabolism during exercise…excess protein? 10:  Metabolism during exercise… excess protein? 10 Muscle mass: High protein diets have never been shown to be uniquely beneficial to athletes; muscle size is not determined by protein Muscle size is determined by: Training techniques Genetics Animal ProteinAdvantages: 14:  Animal Protein Advantages: 14 Complete protein source Higher BV, PER, andamp; NPE; tied with soy for PDCAAS: These numbers indicate that animal protein offers more nitrogen-retaining, anti-catabolic, and muscle building activity than plant-derived protein Examples: whey, eggs, meat, dairy, poultry Animal ProteinDisadvantages: 2,11,19,14,17,18:  Animal Protein Disadvantages: 2,11,19,14,17,18 1) Loss of bone calcium= osteoporosis; for every 10 g of excess protein intake, we lose 16 mg calcium (doubling protein intake increases calcium loss by 50%) A) sulfur-containing amino acids B) high phosphorous levels C) cross-cultural comparison Animal ProteinDisadvantages: 5,7,8,9,12:  Animal Protein Disadvantages: 5,7,8,9,12 2) Impairs Kidney function/ kidney stones 3) Increases risk for heart attack, strokes, cognitive impairment, mental diseases (dementia, Alzheimer’s) 4) Increases risk for cancer (breast, lung, colon, kidney, brain, prostate) 5) Dehydration (though this is true for excess plant protein as well) 6) Other disadvantages: shorter life, body odors Plant protein13,17,21:  Plant protein13,17,21 Myth: 'I can’t get enough protein as a vegetarian.' Fact: The American Dietetic Association (ADA) holds that a plant-based diet that includes a variety of healthy plant-based foods provides all the protein you need Protein needs may be higher for those who consume protein from sources that are less well digested (cereals and legumes); however, typical protein intakes of lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegans have been show to meet and exceed protein requirements Plant protein 9,16:  Plant protein 9,16 Dispelling other myths: Vegetarians do not need to combine foods at each meal to get 'complete' protein; new studies show that incomplete proteins (plant proteins) eaten as much as twenty-four hours apart combine in the body to provide all the essential amino acids; key=variety throughout the day Soy = complete protein Plant ProteinBenefits of plant proteins:1,14,21:  Plant Protein Benefits of plant proteins:1,14,21 May reduce forms of certain cancer No cholesterol or saturated fat High in fiber, vitamins and minerals, complex carbohydrates, and antioxidants (reduce oxidative stress from exercising) Plant proteinBenefits of soy protein1,5,6,12,14,19:  Plant protein Benefits of soy protein1,5,6,12,14,19 Soy= complete protein PDCAAS: soy protein is identical to that of egg whites and casein; higher than proteins in beef and plant sources Lowers blood cholesterol levels Increases metabolism: helps bodybuilders shed body fat; helps build protein Isoflavonoids =antioxidant function =phytoestrogen function: prevents CVD and osteoporosis Benefits associated with other plant-based proteins Examples: tofu, tempeh, meat analogues, soy milk, soy flour, TVP 30 g/day recommended to reap these benefits Plant ProteinExamples of protein content:6:  Plant Protein Examples of protein content:6 1 cup kidney beans………………………………..15 g 1 cup lentils…………………………………………..18 g ½ cup tofu……………………………………………14 g 1 cup soymilk (Silk)………………………………..6 g 1 veggie hot dog (Yves Veggie Dogs)……… 16 g 1 veggie burger (Boca burger)….................13 g 2 T peanut butter……………………………………9 g ¼ cup walnuts…………………………….............4 g 1 slice whole wheat bread………………… ……..3 g 1 cup oatmeal…………………………………………6 g 1 cup cooked brown rice…………………………..9 g 1 cup quinoa………………………………………….21g Plant ProteinComparing values in all foods:15:  Plant Protein Comparing values in all foods:15 Meat, poultry and fish 7 grams per ounce Beans, dried peas, lentils 7 grams per 1/2 cup cooked One large egg 7 grams Milk 8 grams per cup Bread 4 grams per slice Cereal 4 grams per 1/2 cup Vegetables 2 grams per 1/2 cup Plant ProteinProtein checklist1:  Plant Protein Protein checklist1 Aim for: 5 or more servings of grain each day (1 serving= 1 slice bread; ½ cup cereal) ~3 g 3 or more servings of vegetables each day (1 serving= ½ cup cooked vegetables) ~2 g 2-3 servings of legumes (1 serving= ½ cup cooked beans, 10 oz. nuts, 1 cup soy milk) ~ 4-10 g Real Life Examples of Protein IntakeOlympic Athletes:3:  Real Life Examples of Protein Intake Olympic Athletes:3 Example: marathoner running between 80-150 miles/week; cyclist riding 400-600 miles/week Nutritional profile from 357 elite athletes: Their percentage of calories from carbs, fat, and protein closely resembles those of non-athletes (only major difference =total calories much greater) Protein: Males: 1.5-2.2 g/ kg of body weight (14-19% of calories) Females: 1.0-1.7 g/kg of body weight (12-15% of calories) Real Life Examples(personal friends- diet of mostly animal protein)::  Real Life Examples (personal friends- diet of mostly animal protein): Kent Schmor Ron Nirenberg Melina Bell (taken by: Kyle Cassidy) Real Life Examples of Protein Intake(personal friends- diet of mostly animal protein)::  Real Life Examples of Protein Intake (personal friends- diet of mostly animal protein): The diet (during training/competition): Between 2-4 g protein/kg body weight Between 30-50% protein/kg body weight Most protein from lean meat, eggs, casein, and whey protein (whey= most popular supplement) 6-7 small meals/day (solid meal= concentrated protein source + fibrous vegetable; liquid meal= shake w/whey protein Every fourth day, add more complex carbs (yams, oatmeal, brown rice, beans) Many abstained from red meat; no alcohol; no additives other than spices (no salt, sugar, dressings, soy sauce, etc.) Real Life Examples of Protein IntakeFamous Vegetarian Athletes:20:  Real Life Examples of Protein Intake Famous Vegetarian Athletes:20 ** Carl Lewis, 'Olympian of the Century,' Olympic medalist in track Ruth Heidrich, Ironman triathlete, age-group record holder ** Martina Navratilova, tennis champion Desmond Howard, Heisman trophy winner Stan Price, world-record holder in bench press Bill Walton, NBA Hall of Famer ** Dave Scott, six-time Ironman champion and first inductee into Ironman Hall of Fame Phoebe Mills, Olympic medal-winning gymnast ** Lucy Stephens, triathlete Billie Jean King, tennis champion Bill Manetti, powerlifting champion Bill Pearl, four-time Mr. Universe and bodybuilder Al Oerter, discus thrower and winner of four Olympic gold medals ** Keith Holmes, WBC World Middleweight Champion Robert Parish, one of the NBA’s '50 Greatest Players' Jack LaLanne, fitness legend and media star Edwin Moses, two-time Olympic Gold medalist in hurdles ** Sally Eastall, marathon runner ** = VEGAN Vegetarian Bodybuilders:  Vegetarian Bodybuilders Bill Pearl Robert Hazeley Robert Cheeke (vegetarian) (vegan) (vegan) Bill Pearl says…:  Bill Pearl says… Titles: Mr. California 1953 Mr. Southern California 1953 Mr. America 1953 Mr. Universe 1953 Mr. USA 1956 Mr. Universe 1961 Mr. Universe 1967 Mr. Universe 1971 'With each succeeding year the diet (lacto-ovo vegetarian), I've felt better. I'm more healthy, I can train with more energy, and I'm not as much of a 'hard guy' as I used to be. I've become more concerned with my fellow man and the other inhabitants I share the planet with. …I have now been vegetarian for almost 20 years. We have no fish, fowl, or red meat in our diet. Yet I can still carry the same amount of muscle as I did in winning my four Mr. Universe titles. People can't believe it. They think that to have big muscles you have to eat meat - it's a persistent and recurring myth. But take it from me, there's nothing magic about eating meat that's going to make you a champion bodybuilder. Anything you can find in a piece of meat, you can find in other foods as well.' Take home points (conclusion):  Take home points (conclusion) Protein needs for endurance athletes: 1.2-1.4 g/ kg body weight; for body building athletes: 1.6-1.7 g/kg body weight The average athlete gets more than enough protein to adequately train (for both endurance and body building competitions) Excess protein only adds excess calories (since the primary fuel of our bodies during activity is glucose and then fat) which adds FAT, hindering athletic performance Take home points (conclusion):  Take home points (conclusion) While animal protein is a complete protein that is easily absorbed by the body, it has been linked to numerous chronic diseases (osteoporosis, kidney problems, heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, and cancer) Plant-protein can aid in the prevention of many diseases, lower cholesterol, fight against cancer, relieve oxidative stress during exercise, and boost metabolism, enhancing one’s overall health and athletic performance Take home points (conclusion):  Take home points (conclusion) Soy is a complete source of protein that offers many advantages in health promotion While SERIOUS body builders have achieved optimal performance with the use of animal proteins, many vegetarian and vegan body builders have achieved similar success Plant protein provides all the essential amino acids to meet nutritional needs; the key to a healthy vegetarian diet is VARIETY Vegetarian diets have been shown to be preventive in the development of numerous chronic diseases and can enhance the performance of seriously competitive athletes (both endurance and body-building athletes) References::  References: Barnard, Neal D. and Jennifer Keller. Survivors Handbook. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. Breslau NA, Brinkley L, Hill KD, Pak CYC: Relationship of animal protein-rich diet to kidney stone formation and calcium metabolism J Clin Nutr Endocrinol 1988;66:140-6 Burke, Edmund R. 'What Olympic Athletes Eat.' Muscular Development Sports andamp; Fitness Magazine. October, 1999. Fielding, RA, J. Parkington J. 'What are the dietary protein requirements of physically active individulals? New evidence on the effects of exercise on protein utilization during post-exercise recovery.' Nutr Clin Care. 2002. Jul-Aug; 5(4):191-6. Goldfarb DS, Coe FL. Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis. Am Fam Physician 1999; 60:2269-76. Gregor, Michael. 'Plant-Based Sources for Key Nutrients.' http://www.veganMD.org 'How Can I Get Enough Protein? The Protein Myth.' The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. www.pcrm.org 'How Will a Vegetarian Diet Affect My Athletic Performance.' The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. www.pcrm.org Insel, P., Turner, R.E., and Ross, D. (2004). Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. Sudbury, MA. Kaufman, Traci L. 'Sports Nutrition.' DietSite.com, Inc. http://www.dietsite.com/dt/sportsnutrition/NutrientsAthletes/nutrients_2.asp Keon, Joseph. 'Diet Prevents Osteoporosis.' Whole Health. 1997. http://www.gentlebirth.org/nwnm.org/Diet_Prevents_Osteoporosis.htm References Continued…:  References Continued… Knight EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Curhan GC. The Impact of Protein Intake on Renal Function Decline in Women with Normal Renal Function or Mild Renal Insufficiency Ann Int Med 2003;138:460-7. Mangels, A.R., Messina, V., and V. Melina. 'Vegetarian Diets.' American Dietetic Association 2003. http://www.eatright.org/Public/GovernmentAffairs/92_17084.cfm Misner, Bill. 'The Great Animal Versus Vegetable Protein Debate What Is The Best Protein For Muscle Growth?' E-Caps Inc. andamp; Hammer Nutrition Ltd. 2000. Online. http://www.afpafitness.com/articles/AnimalvsVegetable.htm 'Nutrition for Athletes. Protein.' Online. Health Goods. http://www.healthgoods.com/Education/Nutrition_Information/Nutrition_for_Athletes/protein.htm 'Powerful Proteins.' Online. AskDrSears.com. http://www.askdrsears.com/html/4/T044400.asp Position of the American Dietetic Association and the Canadian Dietetic Association: nutrition for physical fitness and athletic performance for adults. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:691. 'Protein Overload.' The McDougal Newsletter. Vol. 3, No 1. January 2004 http://www.nealhendrickson.com/mcdougall/040100puproteinoverload.htm 'Protein Quality.' Soy Online Service, page 73. http://www.soyonlineservice.co.nz/pt73.html 'Vegetarian and Vegan Famous Athletes.' www.veggie.org 'Vegetarian Diets: position of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada.' Dieticians of Canada. 02 June 2003. http://www.dietitians.ca/ Special thanks to Melina Bell, Vivian Camphor, Maria Popova, Bryan Corey, Kent Schmor, andamp; Ron Nirenberg for sharing information about their diets and training habits and for providing pictures of themselves Hockey Nutrition:  Hockey Nutrition Anaerobic vs Aerobic:  Anaerobic vs Aerobic Hockey is primarily an anaerobic sport, consisting of intense, short (30-45 second) shifts. See Figure 13.8 in text- ice hockey is 90:10 ATP-CP Lactate systems: Oxygen system Training programs focus on building power in muscles and explosive movements. Yet, a good aerobic base is needed for better efficiency in carrying oxygen, storing glycogen in muscles, and clearing the anaerobic system of waste. Pre-game Nutrition: What and When to Eat:  Pre-game Nutrition: What and When to Eat Focus on complex carbs: Bagels, whole grain breads and fruits like bananas and oranges (these foods digest slowly and provide long term energy) Large meal 5 hrs before competition and a small snack about 2-3 hrs before Slow Carbs: Oranges, peaches, grapefruit, ice cream, carrots, milk, fruit yogurt Fast Carbs: Bananas, chocolate, juice, cooked potato, white rice, white bread Eating too many fast carbs before a game can cause an insulin rush that actually lowers blood glucose beyond what is was before-bad to eat candy bars before a game Also, avoid excess fats-absorbed slowly and cause slower transportation of oxygen by RBCs Overall Daily Values For Hockey Players:  Overall Daily Values For Hockey Players http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/profile04.html Sources of Calories should be: Fat- 30% (Avoid saturated fats) Protein- 10-15% Carbohydrates- 55-60% Pre-game Nutrition-What to Drink and When:  Pre-game Nutrition-What to Drink and When Differing opinions about when is optimal to drink Try to give body a store of about 400-600 ml (14-20 fl. Oz.) before game to prevent against dehydration Good to have fruit juice or sports drink about 2 hrs before game (contribute carbs along with water). Carbs been shown to help with absorption of fluids. Also, replenishes electrolytes lost through sweating. Some European players drink warm tea. Avoid diuretics (caffeinated beverages and alcohol) and carbonated beverages (cause intestinal discomfort and lead to loss of water through feces) Players lose from 2-10lbs/game from water losses. Losing 2% of body fluids results in hampering player’s performance. Post-game Nutritionthe “Recovery Window”:  Post-game Nutrition the 'Recovery Window' First thirty-sixty minutes after intense exercise known as 'muscle recovery window' or 'glycogen window'. Muscles can rebuild and reenergize 2-3 times faster in this time period. Leads to much less muscle soreness and higher energy the next day (important in back-to-back game situations) Road woes- easier to use carbohydrate-protein drink to refuel (lack of appetite, resources) Appropriate recovery divided into three areas: -replenishing fluids (and electrolytes) to prevent future cramping and dehydration. Drinking water and sports drinks. -replenishing muscle glycogen stores through eating carbs and drinking sports drinks -fixing muscle tissue damage by eating protein and drinking sports drinks that include protein Protein for Hockey Players:  Protein for Hockey Players Recent research has found that sports drinks with 4:1 (g) ratio of carbs:protein have beneficial effects in terms of glucose absorption. Protein, in this ratio with carbs, stimulates insulin to uptake glucose into cells beyond the level it normally would when consuming carbohydrates alone. Too much protein can slow re-hydration and glycogen replenishment. Protein is also needed to repair muscle tissue tears in third phase of recovery process. 1.5g protein/kg body weight is the normal overall requirement for professional hockey players (this is .68g/lb). It is recommended that 65-70% of this protein come from animal products. Average player in NHL: 198lbs x .68g/lb= 135 g protein/day The majority of players do use protein supplements Antioxidants:  Antioxidants Free radicals build up during exercise-responsible for muscle cell membrane damage and post workout soreness. Vitamins E and C, good antioxidants. Sports drinks containing these antioxidants along with the 4:1 carb:protein ratio showed a 36% decrease in muscle damage and large decrease in free radical formation in athletes who consumed them. Accelerade:  Accelerade Per 12 oz. Serving Accelerade Endurox R4 Calories 140 280 Total Carbohydrate 26g 53g Protein 6.5 g 14 g Vitamin E 200% RDA 1330% RDA Vitamin C 200% RDA 780% RDA Glutamine 972 mg 2560 mg Arginine 238 mg 1727 mg Branched Chain Amino Acids 2719 mg 1328mg Flavors Orange / Lemon Lime FruitPunch/Tang Sizes 28 Servings 14/28Servings Tips for Optimal Recovery After Working Out:  Tips for Optimal Recovery After Working Out Use high glycemic (fast carbs) to replenish muscle glycogen stores during 'recovery window' Use sports drinks which promote optimal glucose uptake (4:1 carb:protein ratio) Limit fat and protein intake-slows re-hydration and glycogen replenishment processes Include antioxidants in post workout diet to reduce muscle soreness. Bibliography:  Bibliography Boyd, Joel. 'Fuel Up for Injury Prevention.' Pacific Health Laboratories, Inc. Accessed 28 November 2004. Available from: http://69.94.64.50/poweringmuscles.com/article.php?article_id=28 Burke, Edmund. 'Hydration Needs For Youth Players.' Pacific Health Laboratories, Inc., 2003, accessed 28 November 2004. Available from: http://69.94.64.50/poweringmuscles.com/article.php?article_id=26 Goldberg, Paul. 'Hockey Conditioning'. Pacific Health Laboratories, Inc., 2003, accessed 28 November 2004. Available from: http://69.94.64.50/poweringmuscles.com/article.php?article_id=22 Goldberg, Paul. 'Nutrition, Recovery, and Performance. Pacific Health Laboratories, Inc., 2003, accessed 28 November 2004. Available from: http://69.94.64.50/poweringmuscles.com/article.php?article_id=25 'Hockey Nutrition: Pre-game Nutrition.' Sports Injuries Online, Inc., 2004, accessed 30 November 2004. Available from: http://www.hockeyinjuries.com/nutrition/nutrition.asp McCrossin, Jim. Interview by author, 29 November 2004, Philadelphia, PA. Email. Ropponen, Jukka. 'Eat Well-Perform Better'. Vaughn Custom Sports. Accessed 1 December 2004. Available from: http://www.vaughnhockey.com/goaltending_resources/nutrition_resource.htm Seifert, John. 'Bounce Back Faster After Hockey Games.' Pacific Health laboratories, Inc., 2003, accessed 28 November 2004. Available from: http://69.94.64.50/poweringmuscles.com/article.php?article_id=29 'U.S. Olympis Athlete Profiles: Male Ice Hockey Player'. Montana State University-Bozeman, 1998, accessed 30 November 2004. Available from: http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/profile04.html

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