ProSIS - pro social information systems - Vidgen March 2013

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Business & Mgmt

Published on February 19, 2014

Author: rvidgen

Source: slideshare.net

IADIS   13  March  2013   Engaging with grand challenges: can prosocietal information systems (ProSIS) help change behaviours? Richard  Vidgen   Professor  of  Systems  Thinking   Hull  University  Business  School   Connected Thinking! Hull University Business School

Acknowledgements   •  This  work  is  being  conducted  with  researchers   from  the  Australian  School  of  Business,   University  of  New  South  Wales:   –  Patrick  Finnegan   –  Lesley  Land   –  Peter  SlaCery   Hull University Business School

Grand  challenges   •  Grand  Challenges  -­‐  such  as  the  eradicaGon  of   extreme  poverty,  combaGng  diseases,   ensuring  sustainability,  and  reducing  social   conflict    -­‐  are  problems  that  are:   I.  II.  III.  IV.  difficult  to  solve,   demand  significant  improvements  in  research,   require  great  advances  of  knowledge,   require  collaboraGve  efforts  from  many   disciplines  and  communiGes    (Winter  &  Butler,  2011)   Hull University Business School

Grand  challenges   With  thanks  to  Andy  Parkinson,  Hull  City  Council   Hull University Business School

Poverty   Carbon  emissions   Hull University Business School

United  Arab  Emirates   Hull University Business School

Obesity  causes  society-­‐wide  cost   burden   •  68  percent  of  adults  in  the  USA   are  overweight  or  obese1   –  more  than  one-­‐third  (35.7%)   are  obese   –  half  will  be  obese  by  2030   •  In  2008  the  medical  costs   associated  with  obesity  in  the  USA   were  esGmated  at  $147  billion   •  By  2050,  60%  of  adult  men,  50%   of  adult  women  and  about  25%  of   all  children  under  16  in  the  UK   could  be  obese2   1US  Center  for  Disease  Control  and  PrevenGon  (hCp://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html)   2Foresight,  Tackling  ObesiGes:  Future  Choices,  UK  Government  Office  for  Science  (2007)   Hull University Business School

Exercise   •  According  to  the  Lancet   –  Only  one  in  three   ciGzens  engage  in  the   minimum   recommended  level  of   exercise  per  week  in   the  UK  (63.3%  inacGve)   –  It  is  4  in  5  in  the   Netherlands  (18%   inacGve)   •  Impact  on  society   –  Health  system   –  ProducGvity   The  Lancet,  as  reported  in  the  Guardian  18th  July  2012   hCp://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jul/18/uk-­‐inacGve-­‐populaGon-­‐europe?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487   Hull University Business School

Has  IS  risen  to  the  challenge?   •  Rather  than  look  at  large,  significant,  and   complex  societal  problems,  InformaGon   Systems  (IS)  has  been  criGcized  for  seemingly   preferring  to  look  at  small  and  familiar  ones   (Winter  &  Butler,  2011)   •  This  may  be  due  to  a  focus  on  organizaGonal   concerns  to  the  neglect  of  societal  issues   (Galliers,  2003,  Hassan,  2006,  Markus,  1999)   Hull University Business School

Time  for  IS  to  step  up?   •  Orlikowski  &  Iacono  (2001)  argue  for  a  wider  view  of   ICT   –  “our  future  is  becoming  increasingly  dependent  on  a   mulGplicity  of  pervasive  and  invasive  technological   arGfacts.  As  IS  researchers  we  have  the  opportunity  and   responsibility  to  influence  what  future  is  enacted  with   those  technological  arGfacts”  (p.  133).   •  Desouza  et  al.  (2007)  say  “it  is  Gme  for  IS  scholars  to   be  fully  involved  in  solving  the  criGcal  problems  of   human  civilizaGon”  (p.  270).   Hull University Business School

Ten  Billion   “We  are  in  a  desperate  situa.on  and  I  don't  think  people   realise  that.  Many  think  we  will  find  a  clever  solu.on   some.me  in  the  future,  like  building  solar  shields  in  space  to   keep  our  planet  cool.  I  am  going  to  tell  the  audience  that   these  ideas  are  very  suspect.     Steven  EmmoC,  Professor  of  ComputaGon  at  the  University  of  Oxford  and  Head  of   Microsoq’s  ComputaGon  Science  Laboratory  in  Cambridge,  UK  (2012)   (McKie,  2012,  hCp://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/jul/15/overpopulaGon-­‐root-­‐planet-­‐problems-­‐emmoC)   Hull University Business School  

The  need  for  behaviour  change   Radical  behaviour  change  is  what  is  really  needed.   Our  problems  are  not  just  those  concerned  with   carbon  emissions.  There  are  so  many  other  things  –   overfishing,  destroying  habitats  and  eradica.ng   species  –  that  we  need  to  change  …     …  Science  has  spent  far  too  long  hiding  behind   caveats.  We  have  to  come  off  the  shelf  although  I   suspect  it  may  be  too  late  now.  Indeed,  the  show  will   end  with  my  admiIng  to  the  audience  that  I  think  we   are  fucked.”   Steven  EmmoC,  Professor  of  ComputaGon  at  the  University  of  Oxford  and  Head  of   Microsoq’s  ComputaGon  Science  Laboratory  in  Cambridge,  UK  (2012)   (McKie,  2012,  hCp://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/jul/15/overpopulaGon-­‐root-­‐planet-­‐problems-­‐emmoC)   Hull University Business School  

Campaigns   •  "If  we  would  exercise  regularly,  eat  healthy,   control  our  weight,  sleep  enough,  manage   stress,  not  smoke  and  use  alcohol  only   moderately,   –  90%  of  type  II  diabetes   –  80%  of  heart  disease   –  70%  of  stroke    could  be  prevented.”   Public  health  promoGon  campaigns  won’t  be   effecGve  in  stopping  this  ‘tsunami’   Honka,  Kaipainen,  Hietala,  and  Saranummi  (2011)     Hull University Business School

Pro-­‐societal  behaviours   •  Pro-­‐social  (altruisGc)   –  e.g.,  charitable  giving,   philanthropy,  volunteering,   community  engagement,   acGvism   •  Pro-­‐self  behaviours   (egoisGcal)   –  e.g.,  taking  regular  exercise,   eaGng  a  healthy  diet,  drinking   responsibly,  managing  stress   Hull University Business School

Behaviour  change     •  "The  most  elemental  way  to  influence   someone's  behaviour  is  make  rewards   and  punishments  conGngent  on  the   enactment  of  the  behaviour"  (Nowak   et  al.,  2003,  p.384)     •  In  the  UK  there  has  been  considerable   debate  about   –  tackling  obesity  using  the  'carrot'  of   financial  payment  for  weight  loss   –  using  the  'sGck'  of  weight-­‐related   eligibility  for  operaGons  such  as  hip   replacement   Hull University Business School

hCp://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-­‐news/dr-­‐phillip-­‐lee-­‐conservaGve-­‐mp-­‐1458840   Hull University Business School

MoGvaGon   •  Intrinsic  versus  extrinsic  moGvaGon   •  Crowding-­‐out  of  “intrinsic  moGvaGon”  by  extrinsic   incenGves  has  been  observed  in  a  broad  variety  of   social  interacGons   –  paying  blood  donors  could  actually  reduce  supply   –  volunteers  may  work  less  when  paid   –  imposing  sGffer  penalGes  can     undermine  individuals’   “internal  jusGficaGon”  for  obeying   the  law,  e.g.,  late  fees     Hull University Business School

InformaGon  processing  model  of   behaviour  change   CommunicaGon   Persuasion   Competency   and  autonomy   Habit   Awareness   Avtude   change   Behaviour   change   Sustainable   change   Social  relatedness:  social  networks,  and  significant  others   Drawing  on:  Deci  &  Ryan,  2002;  McGuire  1972;  Fogg  (2003);  Limayem  et  al.,  2007;  Cialdini,  2009)   Hull University Business School

The  social  context  of  behaviour   change   •  Significant  others  are  those   that  have  influence  on  our   behaviours   –  e.g.,  parents,  guardians,   friends,  peers,  or  people   within  our  wider  social   network   •  We  have  free  will,  but   behaviour  takes  place   within,  and  has  an  impact   on,  social  networks   Which  person  is  best  placed  in  the   network  to  receive  new  informaGon   quickly?   Hull University Business School

ICT  and  behaviour  change   •  How  might  we  use  ICT  to  help   –  communicate  the  issues?   –  persuade  of  the  need  for  behaviour  change?   –  acquire  competency?   –  maintain  a  sense  of  autonomy?   –  make  the  behaviours  habitual?   –  draw  on  and  build  social  relatedness?     Hull University Business School

MoGvaGonal  technology  design   ICT  artefacts  with  moGvaGonal  affordances   Mo@va@onal  technology   principles   Technology  applica@ons   Technology  acceptance   Ambient  informaGon   Enabling  technologies   Ubiquitous  devices   Context  awareness   ICT  as  social  actor   Persuasion  online   Social  media   Games  and  AI   Physio-­‐sensing   Neuro-­‐sensing   Hull University Business School

Affordances   •  "technologies  have  material  properGes,  but   those  material  properGes  afford  different   possibiliGes  for  acGon  based  on  the  contexts   in  which  they  are  used.  Although  the  material   properGes  of  a  technology  are  common  to   each  person  who  encounters  them,  the   affordances  of  that  arGfact  are  not"  (Leonardi,   2011  p.153,  from  Gibson,  1977).   Hull University Business School

Affordances   •  Affordances  are  the  opportuniGes  which   an  environment  provides  to  an  actor   within  it       Gibson  (1977)   Hull University Business School

Technology  acceptance   •  Well  studied  in  informaGon  systems   –  IntenGon  to  use  technology,  conGnuance   intenGon,  IS  saGsfacGon,  Web  quality,  etc.   •  Perceived  usefulness   •  Perceived  ease  of  use   •  Support   •  Trust   •  Social  influence   e.g.,  Davis,  1989;  DeLone  &  McLean,  1992;  BhaCacherjee,  2001;  Venkatesh  et  al.,  2003   Hull University Business School

ICT  as  social  actor   •  Users  treat  computers  and   media  as  if  they  were  humans  –   the  computer  as  social  actor   (CASA)   e.g.,  Nass  et  al.,  (1994);  Nass  et  a;.,  (1995);  Reeves  &  Nass  (1996)   Hull University Business School

Persuasion  online   •  Cialdini’s  (2005)  principles  of  persuasion   –  Scarcity   –  Reciprocity   –  Social  proof   –  Liking   –  Authority   –  Commitment  and  consistency   Hull University Business School

Scarcity  and  social  proof   scarcity   Social  proof   Hull University Business School

Liking   •  Someone  who  is   liked  by  their   target  audience   has  a  beCer   chance  of   persuading  them   Hull University Business School

Authority   •  Authority  figures  can  oqen  persuade  people  to  do   things  they  wouldn’t  do  otherwise   Hull University Business School

Ambient  informaGon   •  Ambient  informaGon   –  Non-­‐invasive,  passive  persuasion,  through   creaGng  awareness  of  informaGon  which  may   enable  avtude  or  behaviour  change   Hull University Business School

Social  media   •  Social  media   –  play  a  fundamental  role  as  a  medium  for  the  spread  of   informaGon,  ideas,  and  influence  among  the  members  of  a   social  network   Hull University Business School

Games  &   “gamificaGon”   •  Games  allow  persuasive  and  moGvaGonal   affordances,  for  example,  compeGGon,   entertainment  and  feedback     e.g.,  Huotari  &  Hamari  (2012)   Hull University Business School

Games  and  ImaginaGve  Play   •  ConstrucGng  ‘possible  worlds’   •  ‘Failing  for  free’   Hull University Business School

Enabling  Technologies   •  Ubiquitous  technologies   •  Context  awareness   •  Physio-­‐sensing  -­‐  heart  rate,  pupil  dilaGon,   stress  levels,  body  fat  levels     •  Neuro-­‐sensing  –  brain-­‐computer  interface     Hull University Business School

MoGvaGonal  technology  design   ICT  artefacts  with  moGvaGonal  affordances   Mo@va@onal  technology   principles   Technology  applica@ons   Technology  acceptance   Ambient  informaGon   Enabling  technologies   Ubiquitous  devices   Context  awareness   ICT  as  social  actor   Persuasion  online   Social  media   Games  and  AI   Physio-­‐sensing   Neuro-­‐sensing   Hull University Business School

InformaGon  processing  model  of   behaviour  change   CommunicaGon   Persuasion   Competency   and  autonomy   Habit   Awareness   Avtude   change   Behaviour   change   Sustainable   change   Social  relatedness:  social  networks,  and  significant  others   Hull University Business School

Pro-­‐societal  behaviour  change  is  a   complex  issue   Problems  and   “soluGons”   Stakeholders   Unintended   consequences   Inter-­‐ connectedness   Technologies   Ethical  and  legal   implicaGons   Socio-­‐poliGcal-­‐ economic  factors   Hull University Business School

Interconnectedness   •  “Many  climate  change  goals  would  also  help  prevent  obesity,   such  as  measures  to  reduce  traffic  congesGon,  increase   cycling  or  design  sustainable  communiGes.  Tackling  them   together  would  enhance  the  effecGveness  of  acGon.  There  are   also  synergies  with  other  policy  goals  such  as  increasing  social   inclusion  and  narrowing  health  inequaliGes  since  obesity’s   impact  is  greatest  on  the  poorest.”   Foresight,  Tackling  ObesiGes:  Future  Choices,  UK   Government  Office  for  Science  (2007)   Hull University Business School

Interconnectedness   •  “Many  climate  change  goals  would  also  help  prevent  obesity,   such  as  measures  to  reduce  traffic  congesGon,  increase   cycling  or  design  sustainable  communiGes.  Tackling  them   together  would  enhance  the  effecGveness  of  acGon.  There  are   also  synergies  with  other  policy  goals  such  as  increasing  social   inclusion  and  narrowing  health  inequaliGes  since  obesity’s   impact  is  greatest  on  the  poorest.”   Foresight,  Tackling  ObesiGes:  Future  Choices,  UK   Government  Office  for  Science  (2007)   Hull University Business School

A  whole  systems  approach   •  “This  will  require  a  broad  set  of   integrated  policies  including   both  populaGon  and  targeted   measures  and  must  necessarily   include  acGon  not  only  by   government,  both  central  and   local,  but  also  acGon  by  industry,   communiGes,  families  and   society  as  a  whole”   Foresight,  Tackling  ObesiGes:  Future  Choices,  UK  Government  Office  for   Science  (2007)   Hull University Business School

Pro-­‐societal  informaGon  systems   (ProSIS)   Outcomes  –  measureable   changes  in  society   Pro-­‐societal  behavior   change   MoGvaGonal   technology  design   Outcomes  –  measureable  changes  in   individual  behaviors   Complex  context  of   change   Hull University Business School

How  can  we  research  grand  challenges   in  IS?   MulG-­‐disciplinary  teams,  e.g.,   • Health   • Computer  Science   • Social  Policy   • MarkeGng   • InformaGon  Systems   Case  studies   Theory  building   IntervenGon(s)   How  do  we  know  if  a   treatment  works?   EvaluaGon   Hull University Business School

EvaluaGon  -­‐  RCTs   •  How  do  we  know  if  a  policy  or  intervenGon  is   working?   –  Randomised  Controlled  Trials  (RCTs)   –  Used  in  medicine,  development,  social  policy   –  Rapidly  becoming  the  “gold  standard”  in   evaluaGon   “No  causaGon  without  manipulaGon”   Hull University Business School

RCTs   Haynes  et  al.,  2012.  “Test,  Learn,  Adapt:  Developing  Public  Policy   with  RCTs”.  UK  Cabinet  Office.   Hull University Business School

Haynes  et  al.,  2012.  “Test,  Learn,  Adapt:  Developing  Public  Policy   with  RCTs”.  UK  Cabinet  Office.   Hull University Business School

OpportuniGes  for  IS  researchers   •  RCTs  are  being  used  to  improve  business   performance,  oqen  in  an  IS  sevng:   –  Amazon  and  eBay  test  what  works  for  driving   purchases   –  Wikipedia  compared  donaGon  adverts  with  and   without  a  picture  of  founder  Jimmy  Wales   –  Neylix  trialled  a  new  service  with  four  variants   and  four  groups  of  20,000  subscribers   –  Delta  airlines  used  RCTs  to  improve  web  site   design  in  the  flight  booking  process   Haynes  et  al.,  2012.  “Test,  Learn,  Adapt:  Developing  Public  Policy   with  RCTs”.  UK  Cabinet  Office.   Hull University Business School

Why  ProSIS?   An  IS-­‐centric   shared  frame  of   reference  for   tackling  grand   challenges   Hull University Business School

IADIS   13  March  2013   Thank you Questions? Richard  Vidgen   Professor  of  Systems  Thinking   Hull  University  Business  School   Connected Thinking! Hull University Business School

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