Proportional-Derivative-Integral (PID) Control

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Information about Proportional-Derivative-Integral (PID) Control

Published on September 23, 2007

Author: guest9006ab



A simple, widely used control method. This presentation will provide an introduction to PID controllers, including demonstrations, and practise tuning a controller for a simple system.

From the Un-Distinguished Lecture Series ( The talk was given Mar. 30, 2007.

Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller Presented by: Sancho McCann

Simple Control Loop Control Plant Feedback

Examples Control Plant Feedback Throttle Auto-engine Wheel speed Air temp Room temp Thermostat temp Steering direction Car Distance from path Voltage Electric motor Fan speed Fan speed CPU temp CPU temp sensor

Speed control: lookup table 10 kph 3% Throttle 20 kph 6% Throttle 40 kph 20% Throttle 80 kph 50% Throttle 140 kph 100% Throttle

What to do? Goal (set-point): 21 kph How much should you change your throttle?

What to do? Set-point: 80 kph How much should you change your throttle?

Proportional Controller • Far from set point? Change throttle more • Close to set point? Change throttle less quot;control = (setpoint # currentState) • pGain


Proportional-Derivative Control • Approaching set point quickly? Ease off throttle. pTerm = (setPoint quot; currState) • pGain dTerm = (prevState quot; currState) • dGain #control = pTerm + dTerm !


Problem with Derivative Term Enhances noise

Integral Term • Helps state average around the set point • Accumulate historic error • Allow this integral to inform the control decision


Extremes • What if – P term is too low? – P term is too high? – D term is too low? – D term is too high? – I term is too low? – I term is too high?

Tuning (one manual method) • Start with low pGain (< 1) • Set dGain ~ 100x pGain • Increase dGain until oscillation – Halve until no oscillation reduced • Increase pGain until oscillation – Halve that value • Set iGain very low and increase until a small overshoot is noticeable

Can be complex: Autopilot Heading Roll Aileron

#control presentations

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