Published on September 23, 2007
Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller Presented by: Sancho McCann
Simple Control Loop Control Plant Feedback
Examples Control Plant Feedback Throttle Auto-engine Wheel speed Air temp Room temp Thermostat temp Steering direction Car Distance from path Voltage Electric motor Fan speed Fan speed CPU temp CPU temp sensor
Speed control: lookup table 10 kph 3% Throttle 20 kph 6% Throttle 40 kph 20% Throttle 80 kph 50% Throttle 140 kph 100% Throttle
What to do? Goal (set-point): 21 kph How much should you change your throttle?
What to do? Set-point: 80 kph How much should you change your throttle?
Proportional Controller • Far from set point? Change throttle more • Close to set point? Change throttle less quot;control = (setpoint # currentState) • pGain
Proportional-Derivative Control • Approaching set point quickly? Ease off throttle. pTerm = (setPoint quot; currState) • pGain dTerm = (prevState quot; currState) • dGain #control = pTerm + dTerm !
Problem with Derivative Term Enhances noise
Integral Term • Helps state average around the set point • Accumulate historic error • Allow this integral to inform the control decision
Extremes • What if – P term is too low? – P term is too high? – D term is too low? – D term is too high? – I term is too low? – I term is too high?
Tuning (one manual method) • Start with low pGain (< 1) • Set dGain ~ 100x pGain • Increase dGain until oscillation – Halve until no oscillation reduced • Increase pGain until oscillation – Halve that value • Set iGain very low and increase until a small overshoot is noticeable
Can be complex: Autopilot Heading Roll Aileron
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