Published on June 8, 2007
Promoting Quality Universal Public Education Through Democratic and Strategic Planning in Naga City
“I have given proofs as one who most wants liberties for our country and I continue wanting them. But I put as a premise the education of the people so that through education and work, they might have a personality of their own and make themselves worthy of liberties. In my writings I have recommended study and civic virtues, without which redemption is impossible. --JOSE RIZAL(Manifiesto, 15 December 1896)
Objectives To further contribute to the promotion of quality universal public education in Naga City To build upon Naga’s assets and initiatives in democratizing educational planning and management in the public schools
The Philippine education context: • Out of 1000 Grade Six elementary graduate students, only 6 are prepared to enter high school • The Philippines is No. 41 in Science and No. 42 in Mathematics among 45 countries • 1 in every 8 schools has a teacher-to-pupil ratio of 1:50 and above • 1 in every 3 students does not have a single textbook
Situation in Naga before 2002 • Local School Board functioned merely as a local budgeting body, with minimal participation of stakeholders • Dedicating the Special Education Fund mainly in physical facilities • Average academic achievement level of students of 42%
Reasons for the decline in access and quality: Not enough investment of public resources 1) Inefficient allocation of resources 2) Over centralized decision making fails to capture local knowledge and needs
Strategies implemented by the City Lesson plans Brigada eskwela Adopt a School Workbooks Incentive to teaching performance Sanggawadan Teacher training Locally funded teachers INSPIRE CLICK strategy QUEEN Empowerment Fund Nutri-Dunong Surog Adal Project “Alliance for Learning” Construction and repair of school buildings Alternative learning System
SCORES 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 calauag carolina concepcion gde d. absede d. m. abella del rosario granview j. rizal j. b. meliton mabolo macmariano morada-ramos NCS I NCS II NAGA CITY pacol panicuason r. v. maramba sabang san isidro santa cruz tabuco tinago SCHOOL triangulo DIVISION ACHIEVEMENT TEST RESULTS villa corazon villa grande 2004 - 05 2003 - 04 2005 - 06
National Achievement Test 2005 ELEMENTARY (Grade VI) Division English Science Math Total Rank Iriga City 71.33% 64.56% 69.41% 68.43% 1 Naga City 62.15% 57.12% 61.01% 60.10% 2 Catanduanes 61.35% 56.97% 61.44% 59.92% 3 Camarines Norte 60.78% 55.75% 61.49% 59.34% 4 Sorsogon 58.19% 53.65% 55.30% 55.71% 5 Masbate 54.86% 50.08% 56.56% 53.83% 6 Tabaco City 56.34% 49.58% 50.62% 52.18% 7 Camarines Sur 51.80% 48.01% 51.43% 50.41% 8 Sorsogon City 52.18% 47.90% 50.01% 50.03% 9 Albay 51.71% 46.67% 49.66% 49.35% 10 Masbate City 52.39% 46.38% 47.77% 48.85% 11 Legaspi City 50.13% 45.68% 45.94% 47.25% 12 Ligao City 45.10% 40.83% 40.81% 42.25% 13 SECONDARY (4th Year) Division English Science Math Total Rank Naga City 60.61% 44.28% 58.79% 1 54.56% Catanduanes 55.63% 42.87% 59.70% 2 52.73% Sorsogon City 54.00% 48.31% 53.85% 3 52.05% Masbate 47.26% 34.85% 45.51% 4 42.54% Tabaco City 49.53% 32.06% 45.26% 5 42.28% Masbate City 47.82% 34.04% 43.81% 6 41.89% Sorsogon 45.12% 35.68% 44.80% 7 41.87% Camarines Norte 46.79% 33.63% 44.07% 8 41.50% Legaspi City 47.59% 34.20% 37.92% 9 39.90% Albay 44.69% 33.24% 41.50% 10 39.81% Iriga City 46.20% 31.17% 40.93% 11 39.43% Camarines Sur 42.82% 31.98% 40.11% 12 38.30% Ligao City 43.45% 29.61% 38.43% 13 37.16%
Findings: LSB OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS Use as leverage for community Use of SEF budget only for involvement in education issues operation and infrastructure LSB as a space for towards the Competing stakeholder improvement of the quality of interests fail to represent education as a collective collective concerns Participation of different Need of detailed, updated and stakeholders in strategic comprehensive data base planning and implementation Provisions for EF Monitoring Weak monitoring, evaluation Committee and feedback mechanisms Nonfunctional Monitoring Committee
Findings: School Management OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS Institutionalize channels for input Lack of input from teachers, (Annual Procurement Plan, students in allocation of funds teacher training, hiring) Inclusion of parent, teachers as Unclear rules and functions of means of capacity building and the School Governance Board accountability Low budget for teacher training Training at a local level. Inclusion of teachers, principals, parents to increase participation, quality and regularity. Zoning, disseminate information Oversized classrooms on quality of smaller schools
D I S I N O F C I S C H O O LS C I O F N A G A VI O TY TY TEA C H ER S A N D EN R O LLM EN T SY 2006 -2007 N O .O F A VER A G E C LA S S ELEM EN TA R Y S C H O O L TEA C H ER S R A TIO S TU D EN TS SI ZE Triangul E. o S. 11 3 21 1: 9 2 29 B al atas E.S. 1 32 1: 2 3 32 Jose R i E. zal S. 11 3 78 1: 4 3 34 San I dro E. si S. 14 4 83 1: 5 3 35 C oncepci G rande E. on S. 35 1 217 1: 5 3 35 Sabang E. S. 40 1 410 1: 5 3 35 Tinago C entralSchool 25 8 82 1: 5 3 35 Pani cuason E. S. 11 3 92 1: 6 3 36 C arol na E. i S. 20 7 19 1: 6 3 36 M abol E. o S. 23 8 30 1: 6 3 36 Vi l C orazon E. la S. 6 2 22 1: 7 3 37 PacolE. S. 17 6 30 1: 7 3 37 D r.D .Abcede E. S. 22 8 38 1: 8 3 38 N aga C entralSchool1 74 2 822 1: 8 3 38 D on M .Abel a E. l S. 35 1 344 1: 8 3 38 Sta.C ruz E. S. 28 1 096 1: 9 3 39 N aga C entralSchool2 56 2 267 1: 0 4 40 Jul an B .M el ton E. i i S. 46 1 882 1: 1 4 41 Tabuco C entralS. 39 1 600 1: 1 4 41 C alauag E. S. 28 1 154 1: 1 4 41 R . M aram ba E. V. S. 19 7 85 1: 1 4 41 D elR osari E. o S. 8 3 31 1: 1 4 41 M ac M ari ano E. . S 23 9 66 1: 2 4 42 Vi l G rande E. la S. 6 2 62 1: 4 4 44 San R af aelE. S. 3 1 37 1: 6 4 46 M orada R am os E. S. 2 1 00 1: 0 5 50 Teodora M oscoso E. S. 2 1 00 1: 0 5 50 G ranvi E. ew S. 9 5 14 1: 7 5 57 A verage 22 847 1: 9 3 39 TO TA L 614 23, 14 7
NO. OF STUDENTS Tr ia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 n g Ba ulo C Jo lat sa on ce S e R s pc an iza i o Is l n G idro ra n Ti na Sa de go ba n Pa Ce g nt ni r a cu l a C son ar o Vi M l ina l la a C bol or o az D o r. D Pa n N . Ab co ag c l D a C ede on e M nt r . A al N S be a ta ll Ju ga C . C a lia e ru nnz SCHOOL T a B tr a bu . M l 2 co eli C to n en CITY OF NAGA 2006 - 2007 R C tr a .V a l l AVERAGE CLASS SIZE . M au a D ara g e m M l Ro ba ac s a Vi Ma ri o l la ria G no r M San an or Te a R de od da afa or R e l a am M os os G cos ra o nv ie w
Findings: School Management OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS Use of communication Hierarchical interaction strategies (feedback, between levels of channels, information authority constrains flow) participation and innovation Inclusion of teachers, Inequitable access and principals, parents to limited teacher training. increase participation, quality and regularity in teacher training, e.g. CSBTP
Findings: Parents & Students OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS Enhance participation in Lack of experience for school governance active engagement in (School Governance school governance and Board, Evaluation management Committee, Monitoring Committee and Multi- sector Hiring Committee) Queen Project, Brigada Low participation of Eskwela for parental parents in school involvement assingments (low literacy rates and/or time constraints)
Findings: Parents & Students OPPORTUNITIES CONSTRAINTS Representation in LSB, in Lack of student school management participation in LSB Sanggawadan, Out of school children Alternative Learning and youth System, SPED, Nutri- Dunong
Guiding Principles of Decentralized Education Planning Decentralization reforms have a positive influence on the efficiency and effectiveness of education service delivery: (a) enables the service provider (i.e. the school) to make use of information about local preferences, and
Guiding Principles… (b) increases the opportunity for the service receiver (i.e. the community) to hold the service provider accountable, (c) which in turn can improve teaching and learning.
School Based Management Approach
School Based Management Approach • a proposal to decentralize and debureaucratize school control and for shared decision-making in schools • embodies an integrative perspective for organizing change at the school level. • a practical approach, complete with identifiable milestones and operational guidelines to help various actors at the central, division, district and school levels tackle simultaneous activities on the ground.
SBM APPROACH: STRATEGIC PLANNING PARTNERSHIP funding ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SBM COMMUNICATION Adult literacy, School Based FLOW Out of school youth coordination Management VOLUNTEERISM mobilization
“Increased decision making autonomy for schools can increase efficiency by taking advantage of the superior knowledge that schools have of conditions, needs and preferences of families and students, and of their greater accountability to families.”
“The continuous process of making present entrepreneurial decisions systematically, and with the greatest knowledge of their futurity; organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out those decisions; and measuring the results of these decisions against expectations through organized systematic feedback.” Source: Peter Drucker, 1974
Deterministic Strategic Planning: rational planning: • organic management • specialization of system tasks, • respects diversity and • strict and explicit local conditions chain of command • based on flexibility • strict formal rules and and adaptability procedures, • relies on participatory • does not suit the decision making and complexity and horizontal diversity of people communication. and communities
Deterministic Interactive Strategic Standardized Planning Works for: Planning Works for: • Space allocation • Instructional • Physical plant objectives construction • Curriculum review • Cost analysis and development • Enrollment forecast • Teacher performance review • Student Assessment • Quality Improvement • Equity and Equality
SBM in TEEP… • awakened and mobilized parents, communities, and local officials to invest time, energy and resources in the future of their children; and • produced leaders at all levels of the organization and across functions with the capacity to manage change, providing them a positive, nurturing and liberating environment that allowed for mistakes while innovations bloomed.
Three TEEP Divisions Made It To The Country’s “Top Ten” 75% Mastery Level 17 16 14 18 e.g. Biliran in 16 9 9 14 the top ten 12 6 5 divisions in 10 1 8 5 2004-05: from 3 4 4 3 6 1 1 44% in 2002-03, 4 SY 2004-2005 0 2 it rose to 72% in SY 2002-2003 0 T EEP ELS T EEP non-ELS AR M M A k la n + C agay an+ Ilo ilo + Pam panga+ NCR 2004-05
SCHOOL BASED MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM KENYA
Recommendations: • Decentralization of teachers hiring and firing procedures • Provide funds for school committees to hire locally an extra • Training of school committee on hiring and local monitoring of local teacher
EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: COMMUNICATION AND SOCIALIZATION
Recommendations • Formal Communication Budgeting Process • Logical and Motivated Sequence • Lateral Communication • Information and Sensitization Session • Train-the-Trainer Workshop
Dilemma: Hierarchical interaction between staff constrains participation and innovation Risks and Considerations: • Development of better communication requires specific mechanisms • To help ensure successful communication, guidelines are needed • Cultural and religious media can be very effective • Formal communication processes should be complemented by informal ones
Recommendation 1 Adopt a school-based management approach through new roles and functions of the School Governance Boards, particularly principals, teachers and parents.
Requirements a. freedom to develop and adopt teaching and learning strategies appropriate to their conditions; b. targeted focus on least learned skills, literacy and numeracy in the classroom; c. enhanced teacher effectiveness through training and regular sharing of pedagogical experiences d. instructional supervision of school heads made accountable for the performance of their schools; and e. strong district and division support.
Recommendation 2 Reinvigorate the roles and functions of the higher levels of authority (e.g. superintendents and supervisors) who will promote SBM, train and supervise SBM promoters, oversee quality of SBM conduct in schools, etc.
Recommendation 3 Create systems of continuous profiling, database development and uptake, research, monitoring, feedback and information flows within and between public schools, and between School Governance Boards, the District Division of DepEd, and the Local School Board.
Recommendation 4 Promote and develop culture of capacity- building in strategic planning and life-long learning among teachers, principals and superintendents, including an open culture of sharing, exchange, continuous learning and a reading culture among students and teachers.
Recommendation 5 Diversify sources of resource mobilization using strategic planning:
Requirements a. Tap private-public partnerships or resource mix, e.g. community schools, taxation policies, real estate contributions b. Expand the role of local volunteers from various sectors and organizations in supporting Alternative Learning Systems, QUEEN and other City-LSB Innovations c. Create learning-related School self-financing schemes and cost-recovery d. Develop home-based schooling and distance education.
Recommendation 6 Reallocate the Empowerment Fund based on identification of strategic needs and consideration of diversity and equity issues. Use combined clustering and targeting of schools, as well as clustering and targeting of recipients of subsidy programs within schools, to identify the most needy and to allocate resources more efficiently.
Keys to success of CCTPs: • Well-designed conditionality • good monitoring and evaluation system • sound targeting methodology • satisfactory supply and quality of schools
Recommendation 7 Combine various options/programs to address demand-side constraint among poor families, e.g. information dissemination, life skills, decision-making skills, parenting skills, monitoring, financial incentives, etc.
Recommendation 8 • Endeavour to us locally- generated funds to augment teachers’ salaries to at least above poverty level lines • Salaries of locally funded teachers must be comparable to regular teachers • Use SBM and strategic planning for community economic development for teachers and poor families
Risks and Mitigation Strategies of Decentralization
Risk and Mitigation Strategies… • Advantages – Inventiveness – Context driven • Risks – Central government abandoning its role – Privatization of education – Market efficiency – Susceptible to capture by local elites – Resistance from higher levels of authority
Risk and Mitigation Strategies… • Challenges – Transparency in the use of resources – Dissemination of regulations – Quality driven goals
Denying equal access to quality education is to deny a child’s right to his or her future…
...is to deny his or her right to be happy in the Maogmang Lugar! Salamat Po!
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