Published on March 3, 2014
A Study on Project crashing in (CPM&PERT) Mini Project Report in Quantitative techniques and Business decisions Submitted To JNTU, Kakinada In Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted By Koppula. Chandra sekher (Reg. No. 13491E0037). DEPARTMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution and Accredited by NBA (Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada and Approved by AICTE) Vengamukkapalem, Pondur Road ONGOLE –523 272. FEB-2014
INDEX S. No Contents Page No’s 01 Abstract 03 02 Key wards 04 03 Introduction 04 04 Definition 04 05 Need for the study 05 06 Scope of the study 05 07 Methodology 05 08 Objectives 05 09 Review of literature 06 10 History of pert 06 11 Terminology of pert 07 12 Advantages 07 13 Disadvantages 07 14 Example problem of project crashing 09 15 project crashing 12 16 More examples 14 17 Conclusion 16 References
Project crashing Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to present a new method to circumvent the limitations of current schedule compression methods which reduce schedule crashing to the traditional time-cost trade-off analysis, where only cost is considered. Design/methodology/approach – The schedule compression process is modeled as a multi-attributed decision making problem in which different factors contribute to priority setting for activity crashing. For this purpose, a modified format of the Multiple Binary Decision Method (MBDM) along with iterative crashing process is utilized. The method is implemented in MATLAB, with a dynamic link to MS-Project to facilitate the needed iterative rescheduling. To demonstrate the use of the developed method and to present its capabilities, a numerical example drawn from literature was analyzed. Findings – When considering cost only, the generated results were in good agreement with those generated using the harmony search (HS) method, particularly in capturing the project least-cost duration. However, when other factors in addition to cost were considered, as expected, different project least-cost and associated durations were obtained. Research limitations/implications – The developed method is not applicable, in its present formulation, to what is known as ―linear projects‖ such as construction of highways and pipeline infrastructure projects which exhibit high degree of repetitive construction. Originality/value – The novelty of the developed method lies in its capacity to allow for the consideration of a number of factors in addition to cost in performing schedule compression. Also through its allowance for possible variations in the relative importance of these factors at the individual activity level, it provides contractors with flexibility to consider a number of compression execution plans and identifies the most suitable plan. Accordingly, it enables the integration of contractors' judgment and experience in the crashing process and permits consideration of different project environments and constraints.
Resource: Osama Moselhi, Nazila Roofigari-Esfahan, (2013) "Project schedule compression: a multi-objective methodology", Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, Vol. 13 Iss: 4, pp.374 – 393 10.1108/CI-03-2011-0010 (Permanent URL) Key words: Construction scheduling, Multi-attributed analysis, Project management ,Schedule acceleration, Schedule compression. Introduction: Project management and program management are often used interchangeably. These are not interchangeable terms. A project is a onetime operation. A program may run forever. ―Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a specific (and usually) one-time objective, for example, construct a building or implement a major new computer system.‖1 This chapter will focus on project management and the tools that the operations manager needs in order to be a successful project manager. The first written account of project management comes from ―An Essay Upon Projects‖ written by Daniel DeFoe in 1697. This book on project management starts the discussion with ―The building of the Ark by Noah, so far as you will allow it a human work, was the first project I read of..‖ 2 DeFoe goes on to use the building of the Tower of Babel and describes the tower project as ―for indeed the true definition of a project, according to modern acceptation, is, as is said before, a vast undertaking, too big to be managed, and therefore likely enough to come to nothing.‖ DeFoe demonstrates a very good understanding of projects given the amount of information known at the time. The first ―modern‖ article about project management appeared in the Harvard Business Review in a 1959 article, ―The Project Manager.‖ The first government publication to guide project managers was published by the US Air Force in 1964, which parallels with the expansion of the US Space Program. Definition: Project Management is an industry unto itself, has its own published Body of Knowledge, and its own certifying body. Project Management is defined by the Project Management Institute as: ―Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project.‖3 Wikipedia defines a project as ―a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service that brings about beneficial change or added value. A project is a onetime operation with a defined beginning and a defined end. This chapter is designed to give the potential project manager the knowledge, skills and some of the tools necessary to successfully lead a project.
Thus far we have emphasized that projects are a onetime operation. Programs on the other hand are not onetime operations. Programs may go on forever and some government programs seem to go on forever even after the program has outlived its intentional purpose. A program could conceivably have thousands of projects under the program. Need for the Study: A project must have a plan in order to be successful. A survey of professional engineers showed that the lack of a project plan was the second most common reason for project failures. The only factor more prevalent than a lack of planning was simply not following basic management principles by focusing on the systems vice the plan and the goals of the project. A good plan will help prevent having a constraint in the areas of personnel and resources after the project is started. The first document that drives the project planning is the statement of work. This document describes the goals of the project, the timeframe for completing the project, and the work to be performed. A poorly written statement of work will lead to project frustration and maybe even the inability to complete the project on time and within budget. A good statement of work will help the project leader to identify the manpower requirements, help establish a valid budget, and show the relationship between the activities in the project. In addition, the statement of work should specify the completion date of the project. Without this completion date, one of the critical aspects of a project is missing. The statement of work enables the project leader to analyze exactly what is being asked for and determine the real resources requirements and develop a valid timeline for completion of the project. Scope of the Study: Determining the implied and specified tasks enables the project leader to determine what the US Military calls a ―troop to task analysis.‖ This analysis is necessary for the project leader to select the proper skills and personnel for the team as well as determining the right number of members to have on the team. Too many team members may lead to project failures and too few project team members may lead to project delays and not meeting the project deadlines. By carefully analyzing the statement of work, the project leader can develop a work breakdown structure that details exactly what each team member will do and may be able to break the project into modules to assist in scheduling and completing the project on time. Objectives: To know Construction scheduling, To Study Multi-attributed analysis, To Evaluate Project management, To know that Schedule compression. Methodology: o This data collected from electronic sources collected from the electronic sources i.e., from the Google and the related websites and also Class subject materials.
o o http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17094145 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Program_Evaluation_and_Review_Technique Review of literature: History of pert. Terminology. Implementation. Advantages. Disadvantages. The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a statistical tool, used in project management, that is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. First developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s, it is commonly used in conjunction with the critical path method (CPM). History Program Evaluation and Review Technique The Navy's Special Projects Office, charged with developing the Polaris-Submarine weapon system and the Fleet Ballistic Missile capability, has developed a statistical technique for measuring and forecasting progress in research and development programs. This Program Evaluation and Review Technique (codenamed PERT) is applied as a decision-making tool designed to save time in achieving end-objectives, and is of particular interest to those engaged in research and development programs for which time is a critical factor. The new technique takes recognition of three factors that influence successful achievement of research and development program objectives: time, resources, and technical performance specifications. PERT employs time as the variable that reflects planned resource-applications and performance specifications. With units of time as a common denominator, PERT quantifies knowledge about the uncertainties involved in developmental programs requiring effort at the edge of, or beyond, current knowledge of the subject - effort for which little or no previous experience exists. Through an electronic computer, the PERT technique processes data representing the major, finite accomplishments (events) essential to achieve end-objectives; the inter-dependence of those events; and estimates of time and range of time necessary to complete each activity between two successive events. Such time expectations include estimates of "most likely time", "optimistic time", and "pessimistic time" for each activity. The technique is a management control tool that sizes up the outlook for meeting objectives on time; highlights danger signals requiring management decisions; reveals and defines both criticalness and slack in the flow plan or the network of sequential activities that must be performed to meet objectives; compares current expectations with scheduled completion dates and computes the probability for meeting scheduled dates; and simulates the effects of options for decision before decision. The concept of PERT was developed by an operations research team staffed with representatives from the Operations Research Department of Booz, Allen and Hamilton; the Evaluation Office of the Lockheed Missile Systems Division; and the Program Evaluation Branch, Special Projects Office, of the Department of the Navy.
— Willard Frazer (Head, Program Evaluation Branch, Special Projects Office, U. S. Navy), The American Statistician, April 1959. Terminology PERT event: a point that marks the start or completion of one or more activities. It consumes no time and uses no resources. When it marks the completion of one or more activities, it is not "reached" (does not occur) until all of the activities leading to that event have been completed. Predecessor event: an event that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. An event can have multiple predecessor events and can be the predecessor of multiple events. Successor event: an event that immediately follows some other event without any other intervening events. An event can have multiple successor events and can be the successor of multiple events. PERT activity: the actual performance of a task which consumes time and requires resources (such as labor, materials, space, machinery). It can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be performed until the predecessor event has occurred. PERT sub-activity: a PERT activity can be further decomposed into a set of sub-activities. For example and activity A1 can be decomposed into A1.1, A1.2 and A1.3 for example. Sub-activities have all the properties of activities; in particular a sub-activity has predecessor or successor events just like an activity. A sub-activity can be decomposed again into finer-grained sub-activities. optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected Pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes). Most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal. expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, accounting for the fact that things don't always proceed as normal (the implication being that the expected time is the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions over an extended period of time). TE = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6 Float or slack is a measure of the excess time and resources available to complete a task. It is the amount of time that a project task can be delayed without causing a delay in any subsequent tasks (free float) or the whole project (total float). Positive slack would indicate ahead of schedule; negative slack would indicate behind schedule; and zero slack would indicate on schedule. Critical path: the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. It determines the total calendar time required for the project; and, therefore, any time delays along the critical path will delay the reaching of the terminal event by at least the same amount. Critical activity: An activity that has total float equal to zero. An activity with zero float is not necessarily on the critical path since its path may not be the longest. Lead time: the time by which a predecessor event must be completed in order to allow sufficient time for the activities that must elapse before a specific PERT event reaches completion. Lag time: the earliest time by which a successor event can follow a specific PERT event. fast tracking: performing more critical activities in parallel crashing critical path: Shortening duration of critical activities
Advantages PERT chart explicitly defines and makes visible dependencies (precedence relationships) between the work breakdown structure (commonly WBS) elements. PERT facilitates identification of the critical path and makes this visible. PERT facilitates identification of early start, late start, and slack for each activity. PERT provides for potentially reduced project duration due to better understanding of dependencies leading to improved overlapping of activities and tasks where feasible. The large amount of project data can be organized & presented in diagram for use in decision making. Disadvantages There can be potentially hundreds or thousands of activities and individual dependency relationships. PERT is not easily scalable for smaller projects. The network charts tend to be large and unwieldy requiring several pages to print and requiring special size paper. The lack of a timeframe on most PERT/CPM charts makes it harder to show status although colures can help (e.g., specific color for completed nodes). When the PERT/CPM charts become unwieldy, they are no longer used to manage the project.
Conclusion: This chapter provided an overview of project management. Projects are one time operations with a defined beginning and defined end. Project management success depends on the initial statement of work and the planning involved before starting the project. Projects can be controlled through the use of Gantt charts, PERT diagrams or CPM diagrams. The Gantt chart provides an easy to use visual display of the activities and project completion progress. The CPM and PERT diagrams provide the same display with the biggest difference being the deterministic times of the CPM and the three time estimates for the PERT network. Resource: Osama Moselhi, Nazila Roofigari-Esfahan, (2013) "Project schedule compression: a multi-objective methodology", Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, Vol. 13 Iss: 4, pp.374 – 393 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17094145 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Program_Evaluation_and_Review_Technique
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