Progressivism and Social Progress

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Published on January 9, 2008

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Progressivism and Social Reform:  Progressivism and Social Reform By: Colin Heyson, Alexander Milldrum, Brennan Nagle, AJ Getz, Joe Pankow, and Raed Khawaja Progress:  Progress Idea of Progress- “possibility of changing the human condition for the better.” “Man, as an individual, is capable of indefinite improvement… And this is the Destiny of Man, or societies, and of the Human Race.” Charles Sumner We do not merely have to repeat the past, or wait for accidents to force change upon us. We use our past experiences to construct new and better ones in the future.” John Dewey The Great Awakening:  The Great Awakening Between the 1730’s and 1740’s. Started in Northern Europe in England, Scotland, and Germany. Reaffirmed the view that being truly religious meant trusting the heart rather than the head, prizing feeling more than thinking, and relying on biblical revelation rather than human reason Directly before the Great Awakening, churches were less fervid and dominant than they had been in previous decades More Great Awakening:  More Great Awakening Started with Presbyterians in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Led by the Tennent family--Reverend William Tennent, a Scots-Irish immigrant, and his four sons, all clergymen The Tennents established Princeton University to train the clergy Movement characterized by emotional and eloquent sermons Jonathan Edwards evoked vivid, terrifying images of the utter corruption of human nature and the terrors of hell This spread to other preachers throughout the colonies. More Great Awakening:  More Great Awakening George Whitefield’s famous eloquence inspired preachers’ dramatic styles of the era Edwards's famous description of the sinner as a loathsome spider suspended by a slender thread over a pit of seething brimstone in his best known sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" “We find it easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth; so it is easy for us to cut or singe a slender thread that any thing hangs by: thus easy is it for God, when he pleases, to cast his enemies down to hell. What are we, that we should think to stand before him, at whose rebuke the earth trembles, and before whom the rocks are thrown down?” -Jonathan Edwards The Second Great Awakening:  The Second Great Awakening Approximately from 1820- 1830 Championed by Charles Grandison Finney He taught people that they were "moral free agents" who could obtain salvation through their own efforts Finney achieved his greatest success in New York State's "burned-over district," especially in the winter of 1830-1831 in Rochester, where prayer meetings were crowded almost every night, and conversions and confessions of sin were frequent The Church grew in numbers by 100,000 Spread the belief that “heaven on Earth” is possible Great Awakening Round Two:  Great Awakening Round Two contributed to many secular reform movements, including, temperance, abolition, anti-dueling, moral reform, public education, philanthropic endeavors, and utopian socialism Dorothea Dix and Campaigns for the Mentally Ill:  Dorothea Dix and Campaigns for the Mentally Ill Sought reforms for the mentally ill, who were treated like animals at the time Her efforts brought improved treatment for the mentally ill in prisons Famously petitioned the Massachusetts legislature in 1843 describing the awful conditions these people were subjected to Temperance Movements:  Temperance Movements Temperance = Is the restraint in the use of or abstinence from alcoholic liquors. Thomas Jefferson’s complaints towards alcohol. “The habit of using ardent spirits by men in public office has often produced more injury to the public service, and more trouble to me, than any other circumstances that has occurred in the internal concerns of the country during my administration. And were I to commence my administration again, with the knowledge which from experience I have acquired, the first question that I would ask with regard to every candidate for office should be, “Is he addicted to the use of ardent spirits?” Early 19th Century Temperance:  Early 19th Century Temperance The first temperance societies were traced back to New York (1808), Massachusetts (1813), and Connecticut (1813). The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance was created in Boston in 1826. The members, working with great passion, were able to create thousands of local and national auxiliaries. Continued…:  Continued… By 1835, the temperance societies had around 1 million members. Massachusetts, in 1838, created legislation to sell alcohol in large quantities to prevent the laboring class from being able to afford the liquor. Maine was the first state to opt for statewide prohibition, in 1846. Many other states followed suit. The strong temperance spirit witnessed early in the 19th century faded once the American Civil War broke out. Views of Societies / Parties:  Views of Societies / Parties Temperance issues were very strong among some religions and groups. Congregationalists, Baptists, Mormons, Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Seventh Day Adventists, and others. Many groups/societies non-religious groups considered temperance important also. I.E. The Washington Temperance Society. Continued:  Continued The societies and groups were kind and caring towards those who were sick from alcohol, but they were critical of the manufactures. The societies and groups were not political parties, so they participated in political proceedings through lobbying. Until the Constitutional Amendment prohibiting alcohol was put in place, temperance parties participated in the state battles of applying and appealing alcohol related laws. Post Civil War Temperance:  Post Civil War Temperance The decade following the war, the temperance movement regained its fire. Witnessed was an increased drunkenness during the time period after the Civil War. The citizens were concerned with the tremendous growth of the alcohol industry and the involvement of the alcohol industry in local and national politics. I.E. Whiskey Ring = Major distillers from Milwaukee, Chicago, and St. Louis and public officials were involved in a conspiracy to defraud the federal government of a great amount of the liquor tax. Continued…:  Continued… During this time, the Prohibition Party (1869) and the National Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU)(1874) were created. The Anti-Saloon League (1893) began on a local level encouraging towns and counties to refrain from alcoholic beverages. They even launched an national drive to create a Constitutional Amendment prohibiting the creation and distribution of alcohol. The effort failed, due to not enough support in the House of Representatives, but prohibitionists started to play a much more important role on the political field. By 1917, many railroads and other industries required their employees to refrain from intoxicating beverages. After the 18th Amendment was repealed in 1933, temperance societies have been ineffective and quiet ever since. Temperance Slogans and Sayings:  Temperance Slogans and Sayings “Temperance leads to health, wealth, and happiness and long life.” “Tis here we pledge perpetual hate, to all that can intoxicate.” “Touch Not, Taste Not, Handle Not the Unclean Thing.” “We serve the tyrant Alcohol no longer.” “To the cause of temperance, ten dollars, to king alcohol, not one cent.” Freedman’s Bureau:  Freedman’s Bureau An early welfare organization founded in 1865 To help former slaves integrate into society Educated thousands of ex-slaves Social Darwinism:  Social Darwinism Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859 Advent of the Theory of Evolution Social Darwinism—survival of the fittest—used to defend capitalism Carnegie and others used it to justify laissez-faire Also used to justify late 19th Century American imperialism Social Welfare in Cities:  Social Welfare in Cities Jane Addams set up efforts for the poor working class and immigrants at Hull House in Chicago, the 1st of its kind in 1889 Lillian Ward opened a similar project, the Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893 Florence Kelly worked at Henry Street and battled for the welfare of all people The houses became centers of reform—in 1893 the Hull House successfully lobbied for an Illinois anti-sweat shop law that prohibited child labor The Granger Movement:  The Granger Movement American agrarian movement taking its name from the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry Founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley Founded as a social and educational organization for farmers Soon expanded its influence into politics Used influence to pass “Granger Laws” in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin—these laws regulated the railroads to keep costs down Munn v. Illinois (1876) upheld public regulation of utilities—a victory for the Grangers The Grangers were the beginnings of the Populist and Progressive movements The Greenback Party:  The Greenback Party Founded in 1876 to promote the expansion of the money supply Gained the backing of farmers and poor laborers Pushed for the repeal of the 1975 Specie Resumption Act, which put the nation back on the gold standard Wanted the silver standard or no specie at all Polled a million votes in 1878 Congressional elections and elected 14 of their candidates to Congress Ran James B. Weaver in 1880 Presidential election, polled 3% Died out after the 1884 election Other groups picked up its ideas for reform The Farmers’ Alliance:  The Farmers’ Alliance Founded in Texas in 1876, picked up where the Grange had left off Tried to initiate reforms to regulate railroads, brokers, and businessmen who were taking the farmers’ profits Pushed the silver standard as a means of inflation Blended into the Populist party The Populist Crusade:  The Populist Crusade Created due to the failure of Democrats and Republicans to pick up the reform ideas of the Grangers, Greenbacks, and Farmers’ Alliance Populist Party founded in 1889 by Alliance members and the Knights of Labor Made a big splash in the 1892 presidential election Platform called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, the silver standard, direct election of senators, civil service reform, government regulation of railroads and telephone, and a working day of eight hours 1892 Presidential Election:  1892 Presidential Election Weaver carried 4 states, 22 electoral votes, and over 1 million popular votes The End of Populism:  The End of Populism In 1896, the Democratic party swallowed the Populist platform and its candidate, William Jennings Bryan In his famous Cross of Gold speech, Bryan took up Populist calls for silver— “You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. I tell you that the great cities rest upon these broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country…If they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we shall fight them to the uttermost, having behind us the producing masses of the nation and the world. Having behind us the commercial interests and the laboring interests and all the toiling masses, we shall answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” -William Jennings Bryan The Populist Party dissolved into the Democratic party The “Progressive Era”:  The “Progressive Era” Presented by Alexander Milldrum General Junk to Know:  General Junk to Know Referendum-The submission of a proposed public measure or actual statute to a direct popular vote. Initiative-The right and procedure by which citizens can propose a law by petition and ensure its submission to the electorate. Recall-The procedure by which a public official may be removed from office by popular vote. General Goals of the Progressives:  General Goals of the Progressives Referendum Recall Initiative City managers-non-elected professional city managers to create efficiency Direct primaries for state officials Direct elections of Senators Supported mostly by Farmers High minded intellectuals Small business owners Middle class people Theodore Roosevelt:  Theodore Roosevelt Broke up J.P Morgan’s trust (National Securities Company) in 1904 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906-prompted by Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle His attendance to the National Conservation Conference set a precedent for government conservation of resources Arbitration of the United Coal Miners strike in 1902, agreeing to higher wages and a 9 hour work day Beefed up the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate Railroad prices Made the famous distinction between a “good” trust and a “bad” trust Fed off of the “muckrakers” but condemned them for not seeing the “celestial crown” that hung above them. (Speech, 1906) Negotiated with African American leaders, but still believed in the “White man’s Burden” Taft:  Taft Not a very good progressive president Main three things he did were: Mann-Elkins act of 1910 made the Interstate Commerce Commission Created the Department of Labor Angered Progressives with the Payne-Aldrich tariff, which really shows that he was not a very progressive president Did contribute to killing a lot of trusts, even those that Roosevelt had said were “good” Wilson:  Wilson Cut tariffs in the Underwood tariff of 1913 First president to introduce a graduated income tax Helped along the federal reserve act, to create elasticity of the money supply in 1913 Established the Federal Trade Commission to crack down on the trusts with the Clayton Act of 1914 Prohibited child labor Cut railroad workers’ days down to eight hours in 1916 In his fourteen points, stressed self determination, a large part of the Progressive movement Helped with the Federal Farm Act of 1916 The seventeenth amendment, direct election of Senators, the eighteenth, prohibition, and the nineteenth, women's suffrage all happened under his watch Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFollette:  Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFollette Governor of Wisconsin from 1900-1904 Pushed for the general goals of progressivism, and succeeded in all of them Imposed high taxes on corporations Formed the first railroad commission to regulate rates Gave extensive funds to education Supported and enacted a civil service law Senator of Wisconsin 1905-1911 Secured a bill protecting rights of seamen in 1915 Founded National Progressive Republican League Prohibition/Prohibition Movement:  Prohibition/Prohibition Movement Is the forbidding by law of the manufacture, transportation, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages. In 1750, England and the American colonies made efforts to discourage the use and consumption of alcohol. Abraham Lincoln spoke out against liquor. He said intoxicating liquor was “used by everybody, repudiated by nobody” and that it came forth in society “like the Egyptian angel of death, commissioned to slay if not the first, the fairest born in every family.” More Prohibition:  More Prohibition In the 1820’s the average American drank 7 gallons of pure alcohol per year. Thus, political and religious leaders started to see the nation as becoming excessively drunk. Many believed the increase in drinking had a direct relationship with crime and poverty. 13 of the 33 states, in 1855, had prohibition laws. The Anti-Saloon League of America was created to protest the presence of alcohol and other unbearable acts that the saloons would entertain. The League would endorse certain candidates. By 1916 23 of the 48 states had anti-saloon laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. In 1916, the elections produced a Congress that had a 2:1 majority of dry members compared to wet members. On December 22, 1917, Congress sent the Prohibition Amendment to the states for ratification. By 1919 ratification was complete with 46 states supporting it, meeting the 80% requirement. Prohibition Party:  Prohibition Party Created in 1869 by James Black. The two main platforms of the party included: national prohibition and universal suffrage. In 1884, when Kansas Governor John P. St. John left the Republican party and came to the Prohibition party; the Prohibition Party went from obtaining 5,000 votes to over 150,000. While the Prohibition party never won a national election, they did, however, win numerous local and state offices. The New Deal:  The New Deal One of the 3 R’s was reform The Social Security Act of 1935 created government supported retirement The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 banned those under 16 from working, set the 40-hour work week, and created the $.40 minimum wage Two tiered Federal Housing program enacted The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), created in 1934, gave small loans to builders and landlords The United States Housing Authority (USHA), 1937, lent money to states and communities for building low cost housing Eugenics:  Eugenics eugenics theory- a racially superior people deserved more land Minister Neville Chamberlain in England, Marshal Philippe PÈtain in France, and the leading advocate of neutrality in the United States, Charles Lindbergh, were all supportive of eugenics and were all members of eugenics societies at some point Eugenics and bigotry were partially responsible for the internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII 110,000 Japanese-Americans put into concentration camps Upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. US (1944) Eugenics:  Eugenics Hitler's desire for power was unmistakably a form of eugenics; he believed passionately in improving the human race Many argue that it is nonsense to consider any other cause for World War II other than eugenicist ideology Nazi labor camps and death camps, designed to use and kill people considered to be inferior, particularly Jews "The consequence of this racial purity, universally valid in Nature, is not only the sharp outward delimitation of the various races, but their uniform character in themselves. The fox is always a fox, the goose a goose, the tiger a tiger, etc., and the difference can lie at most in the varying measure of force, strength, intelligence, dexterity, endurance, etc., of the individual specimens. But you will never find a fox who in his inner attitude might, for example, show humanitarian tendencies toward geese, as similarly there is no cat with a friendly inclination toward mice." – Hitler The Great Society:  The Great Society Lyndon B. Johnson’s plan for welfare and social reform The Office of Economic Opportunity saw its appropriation double to $2 billion Congress also appropriated $1 billion to redevelop Appalachia Created Medicare in 1965 to provide drugs to elderly—helped reduce poverty among seniors Project Head Start helped improve education in impoverished areas Timeline:  Timeline 1730s-1740s-First Great Awakening spawns a Christian revival 1734-Jonathan Edwards begins giving his fiery sermons 1815-Lowell System: A Paternalistic approach toward their young women workers, promising good living conditions and occasional evening lectures in order to bring northeast farm daughters to the factory. 1816 – American Colonization Society: Attempted to free slaves and ship them back to Africa. 1820s-1830s – Second Great Awakening: Preachers encouraged sinners to repent and offered a chance to become Christians. Salvation was available through personal conversion. Religion was made more democratic. Reforms to society were made as a result of the SGA 1826-American Society for the Promotion of Temperance founded 1834 – Female Moral Reform Society: Anti-prostitution organization More Timeline:  More Timeline 1843-Dorothea Dix’s famous petition of the Massachusetts state legislature for rights for mentally ill 1853 – Timothy Shaw Arther’s Ten Nights in a Barroom & Deacon Robert Peckham temperance paintings were part of the temperance movement. 1859-Darwin published On the Origin of Species, from which Social Darwinism is derived 1865-Freedman’s Bureau begun 1867-The Grange farmers’ alliance founded 1869-Prohibition Party founded 1870 – Fifteenth Amendment: Forbids states from prohibiting vote based on race, sex, or color. 1876-Munn v. Illinois, Supreme Courts rules that the government can control utilities devoted to public use Timelining:  Timelining 1876-Greenback Party founded 1876-Farmers’ Alliance established, taking the place of the Grangers 1880-Greenback Pres. candidate James Weaver polls 3% of popular vote 1889-Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago 1889-Populist Party founded 1892-Weaver, running as Populist candidate, wins 22 electoral votes and 9% of the popular vote 1893-Anti-Saloon League founded 1893-Lillian Ward founds Henry Street Settlement to help impoverished New Yorkers 1896-Democrats swallow Populist party— William Jennings Bryan’s Cross of Gold speech 1896-1920 - Progressivism: “Society is responsible for individuals and should help them” …:  … 1904-National Securities Trust busted by Teddy Roosevelt 1906-Pure Food and Drug Act 1913-17th Amendment passed—direct election of senators 1915-LaFollette Seaman’s Act passed 1919-18th Amendment passed—Prohibition begins 1934-FHA created 1935-Social Security Act passed 1937-USHA passed 1938-Fair Labor Standards Act 1944-Korematsu v. US decision 1964-LBJ’s Great Society plan set into motion 1965-Medicare passed Bibliography:  Bibliography Progressivism in History, packet no other information "Progress and Nostalgia: The Self Image of the Nineteen Twenties" from "The Unpredictable Past" by Lawerence W. Levine http://www.nobel.se/peace/laureates/1931/addams-bio.html Social Reforms/Jane Addams http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/31.htm Progressive Teddy Roosevelt/Wilson http://newdeal.feri.org/library/index.htm#4 New Deal Network http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/lec.1960.html New Frontier/The Tumultuous 60's “The Legacy of New Deal Housing Reform Talk for the New Deal Center, Roosevelt University” http://www.roosevelt.edu/newdeal/pubs/radford.htm DBQ:  DBQ Pick one of these three time periods and defend it as the single period of greatest social progress in American History. -Progressive Era 1900-1920 -The New Deal -The Great Society Documents: Social Security Act The Progressive Party Platform Wilson's Inaugural Address The Man with the Muckrake Speech Greetings to the CCC Blacks and the New Deal The Business of Relief Voting Rights Civil Rights Act Executive Order 11246 Statement About MLK Jr. Biblo:  Biblo “Social Darwinism”. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_079700_socialdarwin.htm http://www.prohibition.org/new_page_3.htm A Brief History of Social Reform: The Temperance Movement and Prohibition Movement in the United States. http://www.u-s-history.com/pagesh1085.html The Temperance Movement http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558973/Temperance.html Temperance http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564677/Prohibition.html#endads Prohibition Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion: An American History. New York: Basic Books, 1995. Stock, Catherine McNicol. Rural Radicals: Righteous Rage in the American Grain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996. Biblo:  Biblo The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition <www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/> (10 April 2005) Garraty, John A. and Eric Foner. The Reader's Companion to American History. Houghton Mifflin Company McMath, Robert C. Jr. American Populism: A Social History 1877-1898. New York, NY: Hill and Wang; Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1993. Goodwyn, Lawrence. The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. Nugent, Walter T. K. The Tolerant Populists: Kansas Populism and Nativism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1962. “Bryan’s ‘Cross of Gold’ Speech: Mesmerizing the Masses”. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/ Bibliography:  Bibliography “Robert M. LaFollette”, Socialstudieshelp.com http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/lesson_66_Handout_Robert_LaFollette.htm “The Progressive Movement” u-s-history.com www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1061.html “Reform Legislation under Theodore Roosevelt” u-s-history.com http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h916.html “Theodore Roosevelt” americanpresident.org http://www.americanpresident.org/history/theodoreroosevelt/biography/domesticaffairs.common.shtml “Wilson, Woodrow” infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0861965.html “Woodrow Wilson” whitehouse.gov http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ww28.html “Taft, William Howard” infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/people/A0861415.html “William Howard Taft” whitehouse.gov http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wt27.html Theodore Roosevelt “The Man with the Muckrake” Speech, April 15th, 1906 More Biblo:  More Biblo “SINNERS IN THE HANDS OF AN ANGRY GOD” http://www.jonathanedwards.com/sermons/Warnings/sinners.htm “EVANGELICALISM” http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_029300_evangelicali.htm “SECOND GREAT AWAKENING” http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_077700_secondgreata.htm “Evangelicalism, Revivalism, and the Second Great Awakening” http://www.nhc.rtp.nc.us:8080/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nevanrev.htm “The Great Awakening” http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html

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