Published on March 6, 2014
Production Process and Operations 1. Hydrocarbon Industry Overview 1. Resources- Reserves – Production 2. Conventional 3. Unconventional 4. Colombian Quick Overview 2. Upstream, Midstream and Down Stream 3. Exploration and Production Live Cycle 4. Exploration Process and Operations 5. Production Process and Operations – Primary- Secondary and Tertiary Recovery 6. Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies
Production Process and Operations Cycle of Oil Production Process Exploration Discovery Abandon Tertiary Recovery Secondary Recovery Exploration and Production Cycle Delimitation Development Primary Recovery
Production Process and Operations Oil Production, BOPD Cycle of Oil Production Process Ternary “Enhanced Oil“ Recovery Secondary Recovery 12 - 15 % OOIP Primary Recovery 10 - 15 % OOIP 5 - 25 % OOIP Time Reserves
Production Process and Operations Primary recovery Production reservoirs usually start such as natural production taking advantages of gas or water drive reservoirs that gives a formation pressure high enough to force crude oil into the well and sometimes to the surface through the tubing. However, many oil reservoirs enter production with a formation pressure high enough to push the oil into the well but not up to the surface through the tubing. In these cases, some means of “artificial lift” must be installed. • • Pumps at the bottom of the production tubing that is operated by a motor. Gas lift, uses gas bubbles to lower the density of the oil, allowing the reservoir pressure to push it to the surface. The means by which the initial production is achieved, in many cases, a secondary recovery method, such as waterflood, is required to maintain an economical reservoir production rate.
Production Process and Operations Primary recovery: natural drive and artificial lift The First and Most Important Step Primary oil recovery is the first phase, which happens once a well has been drilled from the surface to an underground reserve. Gravity, along with the pressure inside the reservoir, forces the oil into the wellbore. From here, the oil is brought to the surface through mechanical means, like a pump jack. The primary phase of oil recovery continues until the pressure inside the well is no longer enough to produce oil in quantities that make it financially worthwhile.
Production Process and Operations Primary recovery: natural drive and artificial lift Once an accumulation of oil has been found in a porous and permeable reservoir, a series of wells are drilled in a predetermined pattern to effectively drain this “oil pool”. Wells may be drilled as close as one to each 10 aces (660 ft. between wells) or as far apart as one to each 640 acres (1 mile between wells) depending on the type of reservoir and the depth to the “pay” horizon. The rate of production is highest at the start when all of the energy from the dissolved gas or water drive is still available. As this energy is used up, production rates drop until it becomes uneconomical to operate although significant amount of oil still remains in the reservoir.
Production Process and Operations When Primary methods are Not Enough Primary oil recovery is the first option to the oil-exploration industry. There are also secondary and tertiary recovery methods. These methods make it possible to access another 20 - 30 percent of a reserve's crude supply.
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: injection of gas or water Secondary recovery is based on the injection of fluids for supplying extra energy into the reservoir and push the oil to the production wells. Gas Oil Secondary recovery is accomplished by injecting GAS or WATER into the reservoir to replace produced fluids and thus maintain or increase the reservoir pressure. Connate water When gas alone is injected, it is usually put into the top of the reservoir, where petroleum gases normally collect to form a gas cap. When water is injected, it is pumped into the oil reservoir from several sites around the field; (inset) within the formation, the injected water forces oil toward the production well. Grains of sand
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: injection of gas or water An even more widely practiced secondary recovery method is Water injection “waterflooding”. After being treated to remove any material that might interfere with its movement in the reservoir, water is injected through some of the wells in an oil field. Water moves through the formation, pushing oil toward the production wells. Water injection is the most widely applied enhanced recovery technique. The source of water to be injected comes from: • Water that is produced and separated from the oil in the initial production phase. • Water coming from external sources, like subsurface aquifers or surface streams.
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: water injection
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: water injection The waterflooding is a cheap process and also is a very efficient mechanism to produce oil in most of the cases. These are some of the reasons to be worldwide used as the most common secondary recovery process. Nevertheless, the injection water helps to produce de mobile oil in the reservoirs pushing the oil toward to the production wells. This is a dragging process that depends on oil-water viscosity ratio. The mobility of the water and oil is controlled by the mobility ratio “M” among others variables, and help to define the efficiency of the waterflooding process. M = f (µo/µw) M = (Kw/µw)/ (Ko/µo)
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: water injection Injector Instead of have a piston like displacement, the differences in viscosity allow the water to find paths to the producer, leaving and important amount of oil behind the water front. This phenomena is called fingering, and reduces the water injection efficiency. Producer Good sweep process Fingering Effects
Production Process and Operations Secondary recovery: water injection Injector Producer
Production Process and Operations Tertiary recovery Tertiary recovery, involves all methods to maximize the oil recovery beyond the primary and secondary processes, this is usually considered the last step in the life of a reservoir. It is commonly called Enhanced Oil Recovery - EOR. Enhanced recovery techniques are used to: 1. Improve the sweep efficiency and 2. Mobilize the remaining oil. There are three common approaches: • Thermal recovery . Use of heat to make the oil flow more easily, and increase pressure forcing it to the surface. • Steam injection into the formation. • In-situ combustion – air injection • Gas injection. Miscible - immiscible process. Use of gas to drive oil or lower its viscosity and increase flow. • CO2, propane, methane or other gases. • Chemical flooding. involves mixing dense to increase the water viscosity and improve the mobility ratio, and also to reduce the interfacial tension (IFT), to remove some oil sticked in the reservoir rock. • water-soluble polymers with water and, • water-soluble Surfactant – Polymer solution
Production Process and Operations Ternary recovery
Production Process and Operations Secondary versus Tertiary Recovery
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery – Thermal Process In this process steam in injected into the reservoir, the hot water front is formed and the heat is transferred from the this front to the reservoir fluids, increasing the temperature of the fluids and reducing the viscosity, hence improving the mobility ratio. There are two ways to inject steam: • Cycling Steam Injection • Continuous Steam Injection
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery – Thermal Process The cycling process consist on injecting steam in the producer well for some time and then close the well to allow the heat transfer, and finally open the well to production again. This process takes at least 4 to 6 cycles and the it is necessary to move forward to the continuous steam injection process.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery – Thermal Process This is basically a thermodynamic process, where air is injected and an ignition is initiated to promote combustion process using the reservoir oil. The Oil is splitted or cracked into small molecules with lower viscosity and then is more ease to move toward the production wells.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process This process concerns the injection of gas into the oil zone. The injected gas along with oil emerges shortly after taken. There is miscible and immiscible injection gas process. In the miscible process, the gas goes into the oil body reducing the viscosity in a process called swelling. The immiscible process allow the injected gas to increase the reservoir pressure and push the oil to the producer wells.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process The Chemical flooding can be divided into two process • To improve the sweep efficiency. • To reduce the Residual Oil Saturation. For sweep efficiency, the most common method is to inject water-soluble polymers along with the water, to have a denser fluid pushing the oil to the production wells. The process improves the oil recovery because the front moves more like piston displacement.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process Once the polymer flooding push all the oil to the producer well, into the reservoir there are still an important amount of oil, but it is basically non- mobile. To allow this oil the be movable, is it important to reduces de cohering forces, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT), between oil and water and allow the oil to move. To do this it is necessary to inject an chemicals that reduce IFT, the most common products used are the Surfactants.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process The application of Surfactants into the reservoir has the For sweep efficiency, the most common method is to inject water-soluble polymers along with the water, to have a denser fluid pushing the oil to the production wells. The process improve the oil recovery because the front moves more like piston displacement.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process In summary Chemical flooding can be divided into to groups: Injection of Polymer • Linear polymer • Cross – linked polymer Injection of Surfactants • Surfactant – Polymer (SP) • Alkali – Surfactant – Polymer (ASP) Surfactants is produced primary by saponification process, same as any soap. That means that surfactants can be produced by interaction of Alkalis and organic acids. When the oil contains important amount of acid components, it is possible to inject some Alkalis to allow they to react and produce in-situ surfactant.
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies Enhanced Oil Recovery Non – Thermal Process Ususally the batches injected in the different chemical process are: Tomado de “Oil Recovery Enhancements”, Course 2011, Mojdeh Delshad
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies SUMMARY Han visualizado procesos afines a la ingeniería Química en los diferentes métodos de recobro de Petróleo? El flujo de fluidos en un medio poroso es muy diferente al flujo por tuberías?? Que tipo de ecuaciones se utilizan para evaluar el flujo de fluidos?
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies SUMMARY Han visualizado procesos afines a la ingeniería Química en los diferentes métodos de recobro de Petróleo? Darcy´s Equation Viscous forces Capillary forces
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies SUMMARY Son los procesos de EOR afines a la ingeniería química? • Procesos de Cracking • Transferencia de Energía • Transferencia de masa • Proceso de viscosificación - dilución • Reacciones químicas (saponificación) Fluid Flow in Porous Media
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies 3 2 1 Sostener la producción de campos actuales en más de 800 KBDE Aumentar la producción con nuevas reservas Desarrollar HNC y continuar estrategia de compras “de oportunidad” 1,3 MBPED 1 MBPED Hallazgos 30% Potencial Factor de Recobro de campos actuales 23% Factor de Recobro Proyectado 2013 Campos actuales 18% Factor de Recobro actual
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies GRACIAS
Enhanced oil recovery ... A miscible displacement process maintains reservoir pressure and improves oil ... and state income taxes on oil production, ...
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Enhanced Oil Recovery. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR), also known as Improved Oil Recovery (IOR), can maintain or increase the ability of oil to flow to a ...
... (or enhanced) recovery. ... Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three ... or enhanced oil recovery ...
Enhanced Oil Recovery EOR, sometimes called tertiary recovery, is an important part of improving total production. More often, asset managers and field ...