Product process design & development water cooler

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Information about Product process design & development water cooler
Technology

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: hrishik26

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Water cooler analysis using tools including Voice of customer, functional analysis, process maps, quality function deployment, Failure Mode effect & analysis, Customer value chain analysis, Kano matrix, NUD analysis, DFMA analysis, concurrent costing, pareto plots.

Product Process Design & Development Group: 7 Primo Water Cooler Rochester Institute of Technology

Executive Summary Primo is a young company that started in 2005. The main products that Primo sells are both water coolers and water canisters with a range of 3 to 5 gallons. It caters to the customer’s needs by providing clean and pure bottled water. In order for a company to maintain its success, it needs to make a complete study on its product in order to improve it. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current Primo water cooler and to provide possible redesign ideas in order to give Primo a competitive edge in the market. Before analyzing the product, the customer needs are identified in order to deliver a product that meets the customer’s expectations. As a team we gathered and decided on the customer needs with the important ones being affordable cost, less effort, aesthetics, time taken to heat or cool water and energy efficiency. All these needs have been addressed in our final hybrid concept, in addition we have added various other functions have been added to the product such as facilitating for portability be skipped which add more value to the product. The product developed can be summarized as a product with good design features and the one can that can be successful in market. The next approach we had to do was to understand how Primo as a company works with respect to both internal and external stakeholders. The CVCA gives us an idea on how the product flows within and outside the company. The last approach that needs to be done before analyzing the product is benchmarking. This is an important step as this allows us to see how the current Primo water cooler measures to other products within the market. It is benchmarked against two products, one that has higher standards and one that has lower standards. With all the data being gathered, we can now initiate the design process and ultimately provide an improved product. 1

Table of Contents Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Background: .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Process Flow Chart: .................................................................................................................................. 5 Analysis and Discussion: ............................................................................................................................. 11 Optional Analysis: ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Product Definition ....................................................................................................................................... 64 Concept Development: ............................................................................................................................... 68 Conclusions and Future Work: ................................................................................................................... 76 Acknowledgements:.................................................................................................................................... 78 References: ................................................................................................................................................. 78 List of Figures: Figure 1 Bottled Water Cooler ........................................................................................................ 4 Figure 2 Water Fountain ................................................................................................................. 4 Figure 3 Process Flow Chart ........................................................................................................... 5 Figure 4 Market Locations .............................................................................................................. 7 Figure 5 Internal and External CVCA .......................................................................................... 11 Figure 6 Parties involved .............................................................................................................. 12 Figure 7 Function Tree.................................................................................................................. 16 Figure 8 Hardware Tree ................................................................................................................ 17 Figure 9 Mapped Function Tree ................................................................................................... 20 Figure 10 Mapped Engineering Matrix......................................................................................... 21 Figure 11 Functional Analysis Flow ............................................................................................. 23 Figure 12 Phase 1 of the QFD....................................................................................................... 25 Figure 13 Phase 2 of the QFD....................................................................................................... 26 Figure 14 Pareto Plot for Water Cooler's expensive parts ............................................................ 28 Figure 15 Cost-Worth Plot for water cooler ................................................................................. 29 Figure 16 QFD & Cost Worth Analysis ....................................................................................... 33 Figure 17 Schematic Diagram of the water cooler ....................................................................... 37 Figure 18 Pareto Chart for assembly time for main subassemblies .............................................. 40 Figure 19 Pareto Analysis on individual parts of outer body assembly ....................................... 41 Figure 20 Pareto Analysis on individual parts of Heating Unit Assembly ................................... 41 Figure 21 VOC and Function based FMEA Analysis .................................................................. 47 Figure 22 Polar Plot ...................................................................................................................... 51 Figure 23 AT&T Matrix ............................................................................................................... 52 2

Figure 24 Comparison between extraction and recycled materials .............................................. 53 Figure 25 Weight breakdown of materials.................................................................................... 53 Figure 26 carbon emissions from product .................................................................................... 54 Figure 27 Detailed stages and tools of DFSS. Source Geoff Tennant, Design for six sigma, 2002 ....................................................................................................................................................... 57 Figure 29 Critical to Quality tree of two selected customer requirements ................................... 60 Figure 30 Statistical Control Chart for design phase. Source: Geoff Tennant, Design for Six Sigma, 2002. ................................................................................................................................. 61 Figure 31 Process mean compared to customer expectation ........................................................ 62 Figure 32 Process specification limit compared to customer limits ............................................. 63 Figure 33 mean response .............................................................................................................. 67 Figure 34Hybrid diagram .............................................................................................................. 74 List of Tables: Table 1 SWOT ................................................................................................................................ 6 Table 2 Comparisons of various water coolers ............................................................................... 8 Table 3 Comparison between Primo & its competitors .................................................................. 9 Table 4 Comparison of Primo to the High and Low Performance Competitor ............................ 13 Table 5 Cost Worth Ratio ............................................................................................................. 31 Table 6 Assembly Times .............................................................................................................. 38 Table 7 Carbon emissions within the water cooler ....................................................................... 54 Table 1 Customer needs and importance levels ............................................................................ 58 Table 8 Project Priority Matrix ..................................................................................................... 64 Table 9 Target Sheet ..................................................................................................................... 68 Table 10 Morphological Analysis ................................................................................................. 69 Table 11 Summary of Concepts Developed ................................................................................. 71 Table 12 Pugh Analysis 3rd iteration............................................................................................ 72 Table 13 Final Concept ................................................................................................................. 73 3

Background: A water cooler is a device that we see in our everyday lives. Its primary use is to provide the user with hot and cold water. This device can be widely seen in both the residential and commercial areas. There are two main types of water coolers, bottle-less water coolers and bottled water coolers. The water fountains that we see around campus are an example of a bottle-less water cooler. They are connected to a continuous supply of municipal water and electricity. The bottleless water cooler dispense chilled water, which is stored in a small tank after passing through a refrigeration cycle. The bottled water cooler on the other hand is a free standing water cooler with a 5 gallon water canister. They are portable water devices with a replaceable treated water canister. They dispense cold water through a refrigeration cycle and hot water through a heating process. The pictures below depict an example of a bottle-less water cooler and a bottled water cooler. Our project will be focusing on the bottled water cooler specifically the one presented in figure 1 below. Figure 2 Water Fountain Figure 1 Bottled Water Cooler 4

Process Flow Chart: A simplified process flow is shown below. This flow chart depicts how a bottled water cooler dispenses either hot or cold water depending on the user’s choice. Figure 3 Process Flow Chart The process flow chart in figure: 3 shows how a water cooler works. The first step is to load the canister onto the water cooler. When the user add his or her input through pressing the hot or cold buttons, either the heating or cooling system will work. Once the buttons are also pressed by the user, the water flows from the either the heating or cooling storage tanks through the piping system and to the taps. Lastly, once the water reaches the internal taps, it is dispensed to the user through the external tap. 5

Intended market segment to be targeted: At the end of the day, the goal of any company would be to have a successful product and to make profits. Designing a product having all the features within the given budget range isn’t enough to make the product successful, estimating or calculating the geographical area or the market environment in which the product has to be released matters a lot to the success of the product. This section of the report helps in estimating the locations or the environments in which the product has to be released. For estimating the above mentioned, a lot of information gathering and constant study of the market is required. In addition to that SWOT analysis which helps the teams in acknowledging their strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats has to be made, given below is the SWOT analysis, Table 1 SWOT Strengths Weakness Affordable cost Weight of the product Good design Noise levels(not very high) High on performance Usage of large number of electrical Portable components Less power consumption Dimensions of the product Aesthetics Water purifier Less user effort Spilt water recycling Opportunities Threats With affordable price the product can creep Copying of the design or features by into countries whose per capita income is low. competitors (or) Chinese companies, who by unethical business means can manufacture the Can be a very good competitor in countries product at a much lower price. like UK and Australia with high 6

(Performance/cost) value. Establishing the product into a new market environment and competing with well- Can look appealable to all age groups with the established companies. provision for touch-screen, also adding aesthetics. Financial constraints within the management. Increase in market share value, basing on the advantages or strengths of the product, compared to others. Basing on the above analysis, there was a lot of brainstorming done by the team members and a whole of information on the various companies in various market environments. The data collected and the research made by the team members helped in finalizing the five prime locations to market and sell the product. All the five locations are shown in the figure below, Figure 4 Market Locations 7

The main and primary area of concentration would be to establish a strong market basis within USA and Canada, based on the information collected Oasis Aqua Bar11 which is the leading and top water cooler in North America, the cost of it is way higher($539) than our product, by this it means that the product cannot be affordable to the a middle class user. With the cost of our product as low as $125 and complying to majority of the customer requirements, the probability is very high that the product makes good market impact. Aquaport, Water Star and Royal Springs are the major water cooler manufacturing companies in Australia, table given below show the comparison of all these with our product Table 2 Comparisons of various water coolers Criteria Aquaport Water Star Royal Spring Primo Cost $318 $250 $565 $125 Value 0.8 0.75 0.9 0.85 The value of each of the product was estimated by calculating performance of the product upon its cost, the performance of each product was determined by the team by analyzing all the functions of the product and then relating them with the customer requirements. It can be seen from the table that the value for our product is higher compared to few others also with the cost of our product being low, there is a high probability that our product can be successful in the market [1,2,3]. In UK the major water cooler manufacturing companies are Mount marble and Oasis, the costs of the products are higher and the value is lower compared to our product which means a part of distribution can be made to the UK market and can initialize the establishment of market share with in the country. In India, Tata Voltas and Blue star constitutes for most of the market share for water coolers. India being a country with low per capita income, users for water coolers are less. Most of the consumers are either BPO’s or Major IT or outsourcing companies, a contract can be made with all these companies and an initial establishment of the product in the Indian market can be made, since the water cooler manufactured by Tata costs $200, which is higher than the cost of our product, a significant amount of market share can be gained with this 8

establishment. Since the cost of labor and manufacturing is less in India, hopefully with regards to the development of the company in India a manufacturing site can be set up in India. Aqua Gefei co. Ltd, a company based in Moscow is a leading water cooler supplier in Russia , this might be a risk taken by Primo to establish their market in Russia, as Aqua Gefei is well is established in Russia there is a certain amount of risk in exploring the market, as both products have similar performance levels and the only advantage for Primo is that their product is cheaper than the local product. The risk being taken can turn any way round, if the product receives appreciation in the market then it is good for the company, if it does not work in worst case then a small amount of loss can be incurred, this is done because a firm has to certain level of risk to explore the market and to establish their base as a successful company. The table given below shows the comparison of Primo with respect to various competitors around the world [4, 5, 6]. Table 3 Comparison between Primo & its competitors Company/Product Location Cost Value Primo USA $125 0.85 Aquaport Australia(Findon) $318 0.8 Water Star Australia(Riverwood) $250 0.75 Royal Springs Australia(Adelaide) $565 0.9 Voltas India $200 0.85 Blue Star India $145 0.8 Mount Marble UK $99.99 0.8 Aqua Gefei Moscow $145 0.85 Oasis North America $560 0.9 Ragalta USA $60 0.8 The value of the products was determined by calculating performance of the product upon the cost. The performance level of each product was determined by various functions of the product and then relating them to the customer requirements [7, 8]. 9

Key Assumptions: - The cooling system is assumed to be working on a standard refrigeration cycle. - It is assumed that the heating tin acts as a heating vessel (tin is a good conductor of heat), which heats the water, and then delivers it to the hot water tap. - The flow from the canister to the storage tin is due to a pressure difference between the canister and the probe. - The heating and cooling process of the water are assumed to be continuous for the product’s life cycle. - Electric power is supplied to the water dispenser by the user. 10

Analysis and Discussion: Customer Value Chain Analysis (CVCA) :- Figure 5 Internal and External CVCA   Before starting the development of the product, the most important thing is to capture the insight of those people who are related to the product, with regards to its use, investment, development and supervision. The CVCA tool helps us to understand what are the elements with regards to the product that we should work upon to create “VALUE” for the customer. Simultaneously, we need to keep in sight the constraints on our design parameters with regards to the needs of those bodies who are investing in product development and, regulating its performance (eg:- to meet predefined environmental factors). 11

Stakeholder & Partners Customers Regulatory bodies Pertinent parties involved Figure 6 Parties involved  The CVCA helped us to understand the following,  Capture the structure of the stakeholders (the level of their intimacy in development of the product and their investments)  Types of customers involved ( this initiates the need to manufacture different designs for different types of customers in different regions)  Values of the customer and there related requirements.  Keeping ourselves into the shoes of our customers made us realize that the success of a product depends upon,  Aesthetic appeal.  Fundamental expectations from the product.  The pleasure it creates for the user, due to its satisfactory performance. This created a proper base to chart down the actual needs of our customer (in nontechnical terms).     Benchmarking:Benchmarking is useful to a product design team because it gives an idea about where they stand with regards to the current market scenario (market share occupied and monopoly of others competitors) Before beginning a product design, we get to understand our starting point and makes us capable of formulating a goal to achieve (by assessing ourselves against a high performance leader) PRIMO Benchmarking: 12

Table 4 Comparison of Primo to the High and Low Performance Competitor Oasis Water Parameters Primo Water Dispenser Dispenser Ragalta hot and cold water dispenser Price $99 + tax $581 + tax $ 59.99 Style Top Loading Top Loading Top Loading Dispenses Cold and hot Cold and Hot and Hot and Cold Ambient Water Bottle size 3-5 Gallons 3-5 gallons 3-5 gallons Cold Output Range 37°F to 50°F 30-50 deg F 45-60 deg F Hot Output Range 185°F to 210°F adjustable 185-205F Voltage 110-120V/60Hz 220-240V/50Hz 110V/60Hz Child Safety Latch Yes Yes Yes LED Night Light Yes Yes Yes Energy Saving Yes Yes No None. No safety Yes, thermostat with None Limiter used safety limiter Storage compartment None Yes None Float System No Dual Mechanical No (Degrees) Switches Temperature Control Float System Filtration System No Yes- Green Filter No triple stage system Reservoir Tank Fixed Removable Fixed Drip Tray Small Large Small ENERGY STAR Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Qualified UL Safety Listing 13

CSA certified Yes Yes No ETL Safety Listing No Yes Yes NSA certified Yes Yes No Height (Inches) 36.4 44.75 19 Width (Inches) 10.8 12.75 11.5 Depth (Inches) 11.7 16.75 12.38 Weight (in pounds): 29.65 60 15 Aesthetics Nothing Digital clock Nothing Warranty 1 year 3 years 1 year Comparison of Our Product, High Performance, low cost Analysis:1. Benchmarking helped us to understand our product inside out. With this noted down, we could decide what kind of improvement we need. 2. Benchmarking with a High Performance Leader helped us to understand the competition for us in the market, with respect to products which are offering a better quality than us at a higher cost, but greater customer satisfaction, along with incorporation of additional features. For example, the high performance leader chosen above, has additional features which add to its net value. 3. These are features like,  Bottle-less water cooler  Better heating and cooling rates (faster)  Tri temperature dispensing of hot, cold and ambient temperature water  Automated overload protector for compressor  Ultraviolet light water purification  These additional features explain the reasoning behind the difference in price.  We benchmark against this company so that we can include additional features to increase customer satisfaction and maybe try and add a few more unique features, which work in our favor. 14

 Benchmarking with a Low Cost Leader helps us to understand “how to provide satisfactory quality (not necessarily completely satisfactory) at comparatively Lower costs”.  For example, using the Ragalta water dispenser as a low cost leader we can clearly see that, for a very low price Ragalta can give performance parameters, which are very much similar to performance parameters of PRIMO.  This indicates the presence of a cheaper and almost the same (performance wise) competitor in the market. Such a presence can very easily attract attention of the lower economic group or of those who are ready to compensate quality to some extent while saving on a lot of money.  From these two benchmarking studies we try to DEVELOP our product so that it can, “Deliver high performance to increase customer satisfaction at a cost which is very much lower than what the customers expect, in accordance to the Value of our product”.  This way we work for decreasing differences between our product and the high performance leader on one side, and low cost performer on the other side. Benchmarking against a non-competitive company:This kind of benchmarking helped us to understand that,  Our product can incorporate substitute mechanisms from applications which are not a part of its market competitors (eg:- using heating coil of a hair dryer to heat water efficiently and economically)  This requires a proper understanding of, and a good eye for adapting outside mechanisms into your system.  The improvement features added to our product because of such benchmarking’s can vary a lot on a scale of good to bad depending upon the limits of the benchmarked product. 15

Functional Analysis:- Figure 7 Function Tree Now that we have established the needs of our customers and acknowledged our market position with regards to our benchmarked competitors, its time to move ahead with the design stage. Function tree helped us to,  Understand the main function of our product,  Plot the sub-functions of various sub-assemblies, and break them into more levels of sub functions, till the functions cannot be broken down anymore.  Once this is done, we can plot the key function (by recognizing the key chain of subfunctions) 16

Figure 8 Hardware Tree Hardware tree helped us to,  Understand how different sub-assemblies come together to perform the main function,  Detailed distribution of the various parts of our product  And more importantly, helped us understand the flow of different subassemblies and their complexity with regards to the number and the size of the parts Subtract & Operate Approach:   The understanding of the importance of every element of our hardware tree is enhanced by using the subtract and operate approach. This method helped us to understand the effect of the absence of every part from the working of our product and how it affects the performance of our product. Studying the subtract and operate method helped us to understand which parts of the machine body contributed more to the main function of our product, compared to others. 17

   This helps a lot in analysis and R&D, when the design team is planning to improve the ‘VALUE’ of the product. In other words, by understanding the key function of your product, you can determine which parts help to contribute value to the product, from a customer’s point of view. The main aspect of our product and need of the customer is availability of ‘HOT & COLD’ water. Any other part of the product, which does not contribute to the main function, is a liability and should be either eliminated or replaced with a more economical substitute. While doing the analysis of our product, we came across the following aspects of our product which can be improved/eliminated or substituted :1. Base plate: - It can be replaced by a substitute which can help to absorb the vibrations of the compressor, thereby bringing in more stability. Also, we can incorporate a new design, wherein, the base plate supports the outer body of the water dispenser rather than just supporting the compressor. Eliminating the base plate is also an option, if the compressor can be shifted upwards with proper support structure from the inner sides of the outer body cover. Eg:- a framework which eliminates the base plate altogether. 2. Drain pipe: - If the level of water remaining in the heating container (tin container) is reduced to 0, then all fluids entering the tin container will be used completely by the user. This will reduce wastage of water, and help us to eliminate the machining costs of attaching a drainage pipe. 3. Keeping the heating and cooling containers at same level:- A lot of smaller parts come into existence when there is gap between the cooling storage container and the heating tin. Hence, if we can ‘redesign’ the water storage unit in such a way that it can accommodate both hot and cold water, then all the parts ( metal pipe, plastic joints, pipe insulation etc.) which just join the two containers can be easily eliminated. 4. Metal support plate: - Replacing the metal support plate and the base plate with a single frame structure, which can handle the load of storage container and at the same time provide a stable firm structure from the inside to the dispenser, can help immensely to eliminate the complex base plate with its multiple holes and cavities for wire movements and connections. 5. Metal strip: - This again serves the purpose of reducing vibrations and keeping the rear body of the dispenser intact. However, due to the vibration of the radiator and 18

compressor, it cannot serve its purpose completely. One single frame structure can take care of multiple vibration and support issues as well. 6. Drip tray: - The drip tray serves the purpose of collecting spilled water. Instead of having such a large assembly in the dispenser, we can just connect the spilled water to either the radiator of the hot copper coil connected to the compressor. “This will serve two purposes, one of cooling the radiator to some extent, and at the same time the heat exchange can cause the water to evaporate rather than remain in the water cooler. This also eliminates the maintenance of the water drip tray, from the user’s point of view. 7. Top Panel: - Connections of wires and switches should be attached to the lower body only, as this facilitates easy removal of the top cover, and electrical connections can be kept away from. Also this helps easy cleaning and maintenance. 19

Mapped Function tree and Mapping Engineering metrics to the function diagram:- Figure 9 Mapped Function Tree   After understanding the importance of the role played by every part in the products performance, it is important to understand how these parts and the functions of the product correlate with each other. The Mapped function tree helps us to understand,  Which function requires which body part to perform normally  Gives us a pictorial representation of how much a particular body part is crucial to performing more than one functions 20

 Load distribution on various body parts, and understanding their criticality to the main function of the product. Figure 10 Mapped Engineering Matrix  The mapping of Engineering Metrics with the functions of the products helps us to,  Understand the correlation between various engineering metrics with the functions to be performed.  Just like the function structure mapping, here we get to know which EM’s would contribute significantly to a particular function.  That way we can understand which of the EM’s are more critical to the performance of the main function of the product, and which ones are complementary to the main function.  This mapping also explains how to distribute improvement efforts, while improving engineering metrics, amongst the various functions of the product.  Next comes the Function Chain Diagram & Activity diagram:These two diagrams helped us to understand how a product is used in a customer environment and how the internal working of the product performs with regards to the 21

input for required interfaces and working parts, and the output that every part gives to make the main function happen. Function Chain Diagram Activity Diagram understand input/output energy, effort for each function understand activities performed in a products functional cycle realize the contribution of sub functions to the main function map flow of external activities with regards to the user,from pressing button to obtaining water observe activities like noise generation, thermal losses, to eliminate later on. this pinpoints the amount of user activity required & hence shows possible ergonomical improvements Flow of Functional Analysis to understand the product as a whole from functional and operational point of view:- 22

• Function tree • Hardware tree Subtract and approach • importance of parts • room for part elimination? Draw trees to understand structure • Find all EM's related to all the functions • Relate all parts with main subfunctions Mapping Functions v/s Parts, EM's Figure 11 Functional Analysis Flow Quality Function Deployment:After understanding the needs of our customers, the main objective function of our product, and the correlation between the physical parts and the actual functions of our product, we need to formulate which customer needs should be given how much priority over the others, and what needs to be done from an Engineering and Design point of view to meet those customer needs. KANO ASSESSMENT AND NUD ANALYSIS:    These two tools are the first step towards a proper start to the QFD analyses. They help us to group together customer needs and plot the behavior of considering a customer needs v/s level of customer satisfaction for embedding the solution to that customer need into your final product. These needs gave us an idea as to which needs can we focus of (based upon our products strength and weaknesses) to increase the value of our product. The NUD analysis helped us to understand whether our needs are new, unique & difficult. This analysis helps to categorize which needs are achievable and how much of an impact can it have on our customers. 23

Linear Satisfiers Must Haves Delighters Power regulation quality of water (no plastic taste) Controllable temperature Recycle Hygienic water Sensor driven taps QFD I & II: 24

Figure 12 Phase 1 of the QFD     The Phase-I helps us to understand the correlation between the customer needs and which engineering metrics are required to achieve those customer needs. This way we can transform verbal terms of customer needs into engineering parameters using the EM’s. The relative weights give an idea of which EM’s are more important than others, and how much is their relevance amongst the whole group of EM’s These EM’s can be further weighed against various parts of the product, to understand which parts gain how much significance in achieving the main function. (done in QFD-2) 25

QFD Phase-2:- Figure 13 Phase 2 of the QFD 26

Short analysis of QFD- I&II :- Customer needs Engineering metrics Fast heating/cooling Body Parts 15% -Compressor 10% - Time to heat/cool Temperature regulation Ensure safety 11% - Heating coil 9% - Effort applied Low cost 15% - Radiator 12% - Copper tube 8% - Energy consumed Easy to use   10% - Heating tin This indicates that to achieve the above mentioned customer need (ones with a rating = 9) the EM’s to be focused upon are the time to heat/cool water, Energy consumed in the complete operation of the product and the Effort applied by the user to operate, maintain and move the product. Also, if we want to increase customer satisfaction we need to do an R&D on the cooling mechanism (Compressor, radiator, copper coil) and the heating tin. Cost-Worth Analysis:  The Function–cost–worth analysis is an excellent tool that we used to identify the value improvement potential in some part functions of our Water Cooler. This tool not only helped us in identifying the potential for improvement but also developed some creative ideas as to how could we achieve that.  We performed the cost-worth analysis with the use of relative weights for each component that was calculated in the QFD phase I. A Pareto Plot, shown in the figure below is developed in order to comprehend the most costly parts for our water cooler product. 27

Figure 14 Pareto Plot for Water Cooler's expensive parts  From the Pareto plot, it is seen that the 16% of the parts cost around 80% of the total Water Cooler’s cost. These parts which are the most costly ones are - water taps, compressor, package, outer body covers, copper coil, connecting wires, radiator and top panel.  However, it is important to decide out of these parts which parts could be used for cost reduction and which parts could be used for worth enhancing. In other words, we can find alternatives for current costly parts (like refrigeration cycle) and replace them with cheaper parts without compensating the quality of product, and without diminishing the expected performance by the user. In some scenarios, the customer would have to pay more for those parts which contribute to enhanced features for the product (eg:- Water filter system)  . To identify this cost difference, Cost-Worth Plot was created as shown in figure 11. 28

40 35 RELATIVE COST (%) 30 25 Cost Worth 20 Ylower 15 10 15 11 10 Diagonal Yupper 10 6 5 44 4 4 4 3 3 2 22 22 1111 1 11 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 5 5 15 20 25 30 35 40 RELATIVE WORTH (%) Figure 15 Cost-Worth Plot for water cooler  From this graph, we came to know that parts like water taps, radiator, storage tin, base plate, front and side cover, upper panel, top panel should be redesigned to reduce their costs. This could be done by replacing them with new parts, other alternatives or changing their manufacturing processes to reduce their cost.  The copper coil is cheap to manufacture, but its effect on the environment is immense and hence needs to be worked upon prior to anything else.  Radiator, storage tin, base plate, front and side cover, upper panel and top panel are the manufactured processed parts. So, their cost could be reduced by improving their manufacturing processes which includes designing and manufacturing of precise part geometry, reducing machine uptime and reducing labor costs by improving their respective manufacturing line.  By reducing the costs of these four components, the total cost of the Water Cooler would be highly reduced. It is important to note that while reducing the costs of these components keeping in mind the customers’ needs; it should not hamper the quality and efficiency of water cooler. Cost-Worth Analysis from design for Manufacturing and Assembly:29

 The cost-worth analysis of our product (with regards to its assembly and manufacturing) give us a clear insight into the cost for manufacturing every part of our product and the cost for assembling these parts together.  The tools of DFA and DFM help in following ways,  Allow building prototypes by using variable materials and processes  Understand the probability of number of defects occurring while using a particular manufacturing process.  Thus we can plan manufacturing process by assessing the time and cost for using certain dies, tools and nos of operators.  Knowing the operation time for a particular process helped us to select which process is the optimum one with regards to performance and quality of product.  The design for Assembly tool helps to understand the effect of assembly time on the overall cost of the final product with regards to the fixed labor costs.  Thus a suitable easy to assemble design can be made for ease of operation, reduction in complexity and quicker maintenance and service work. Example :- Detailed costing for storage tank 30

Table 5 Cost Worth Ratio Part Name Compressor Copper Coil Part Cost ($) 17.3 15 Relative Worth (%) Worth Cost/worth 15 5.6 3.08928571 5 2 7.5 Storage Tin Front and Side Cover Package Hot Water tap Water Dispensing Tap Cold Water Tap Base Plate 9.99 6.71 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.4 3.69 10 4 2 4 2 3 5 3.9 1.6 0.7 1.5 0.8 1.1 1.8 2.56153846 4.19375 7 2.93333333 5.5 4 2.05 Connecting Wires Front Upper Panel Metal Pipe 3 2.69 2.3 1 4 0 0.3 1.5 0 10 1.79333333 NA 31

Radiator Top Panel 2 1.86 11 2 4.2 0.8 0.47619048 2.325 Heating Tin Rubber Washers T-Shaped Plastic Tube Drip Tray Black Panel 1.79 1.4 1.19 1.15 0.89 10 1 2 3 0 4 0.5 0.8 1.2 0 0.4475 2.8 1.4875 0.95833333 NA Plastic Strip Metal Support Plate 0.89 0.89 0 1 0 0.3 NA 2.96666667 Heating Pipe 0.86 4 1.5 0.57333333 Baffle Level Indicator Screws Metal Strip Electric Cord Switches Buttons Drain Pipe Probe Insulating sheet Styrofoam for package Styrofoam Led Light 0.84 0.76 0.7 0.69 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.35 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.035 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 4 1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.2 2.2 0.7 1.5 0.2 4.2 2.53333333 1.4 NA 1.5 1.33333333 0.8 1.75 1.55 0.13636364 0.42857143 0.2 0.175 32

QFD and Cost-Worth helped us with the following aspects of product design:- Understand needs of customer Assess the psychology of the end user and needs to satisfy Develop strategies to stay 1 step ahead of your competitors Maximize positive qualities to add value Spend funds for research on quality systems to meet user needs Figure 16 QFD & Cost Worth Analysis Fish Bone Assembly Sequence:     The fish bone assembly clearly indicates how a particular product will be assembled step by step. We could do this analysis by reverse engineering the procedure of disassembly of the product. It helped us to understand which manual process(turning, press fitting, winding coil) takes how much time, and understand its level of difficulty (for a manual operation). Helps to find operations which are time consuming and costly and tedious for operators to do. For example, we have 2 internal taps for dispensing hot and cold water from their respective heating and cooling systems into the T shaped rubber hose which finally transfers the water from either tap into the final delivery tap. From a cost analysis point of view, this is an extremely expensive operation. Since small component such as taps etc are outsourced to other manufacturers, the cost of acquiring taps is high (4.4 -4.9$ per 33

  unit). Hence there is an added approximately 10$ cost just for the 2 internal taps. This can be mitigated by removing the taps and replacing them with gate valves which open as close as per the user input. Using the cost worth analysis and the subsequent time for assembly analysis, we will be able to determine the sub assembly or fixtures and the precise steps where cost and time are being used disproportionately consumed while manufacturing the product. For this, the fishbone diagram is extremely essential as on its bases the time for assembly data can be generated. This points out certain important points like: More small parts implies more time to assemble  Preferable to have one big part than more nos of small parts  Reduction in assembly time can very well improve productivity during assembly 34

Fishbone Assembly Sequence: X4 Rubber stoppers BASE PLATE X4 screws F COMPRESSOR SUBASSEMBLY A STORAGE TIN SUBASSEMBLY A HEATING UNIT SUBASSEMBLY A X4 screws – to storage tin Support plate Grounding wire F Threaded screw Metal Support plate A OUTER BODY SUBASSEMBLY X4 screws Back panel F FRONT PANEL SUB ASSEMBLY A Level indicator J Porous steel frame Drip tray unit PF F Top panel PF PF 35 FINAL ASSEMBLY Leak proof cover Receiving nozzle

Legend:Symbol W PF S J C Meaning Welding Press fitting Soldering Simple joint Clamping Fitted from top Fitted from the side Rotation / tightening operation Design for Assembly:      The design for assembly helps to analyze and understand the way a product has been assembled to arrest all degrees of freedom, of immovable parts inside the product and how they are supported to balance their mechanical forces. This gives an insight into features for simple designs and options for redesign with regards to structural features. It also tells us the nature of attachments which are used to assemble the product together. At the same time you can find the mechanical errors in assembly as well. For example holding a metal plate and plastic body together using a metal screw is not feasible because the threading on the plastic will come off due to difference in hardness of metal and plastic. Internal assembly of the product:- Dis-assembled water cooler 36

Storage unit Tap sub assembly Copper coil carrying coolant Heating unit Base Plate Figure 17 Schematic Diagram of the water cooler Analysis of disassembly:    We followed a top to bottom approach while disassembling because the base was more stable and well supported than the top assembly. Disassembly process made us conclude that while assembling, the original manufacturers made sure that the assembling procedure is easy to do, and has least cost of joining two parts together. For example the whole outer body cover was supporting the inner structure by just a snap fit. Also the screws and nut bolt arrangement at various places was too easy for anyone to detach. It took us a long time to dismantle the outer body cover, even after applying physical effort, because there was incomplete visibility of the inner joints. This indicated that, the joints are well secured and no layman can easily dismantle it, without getting help from a proper technician. Enough space is provided in between two different parts (internally), to avoid any friction when the part is in transportation. 37

 Table 6 Assembly Times No. Main Assembly Sub-assembly 1. Compressor Base Plate Compressor Radiator Total Assembly time (sec) 4.55 10.50 6.40 21.45 2. Storage Tin Heating pipe Baffle Rubber Gasket Copper Coil Cold water tap Total 3.45 7.85 10.35 9.60 11.35 42.60 3. Heating Unit Heating pipe Hot water tap Rubber gasket Electric cables Thermocouples Insulation Sheet Apply adhesive area Total 3.45 10.65 6.90 22.92 26.30 8.50 28.00 106.72 Screws 44.54 Grounding wire Total 22.23 66.77 Screws 86.18 Washers Electrical cables Switches Power receiving box Power chord Total 27.80 119.36 12.69 7.15 4. 5. Metal Support plate Outer body assembly 14.65 267.83 6. Back Panel Screws 44.54 7. Front Panel Buttons 16.90 38

Piston system T-shaped house Apply grease to area Final delivery tap Totals 5.65 10.65 7.50 Porous steel plate Level Indicator Total 6.51 6.95 13.46 Leak proof cover Receiving nozzle Totals Total for WATER COOLER Total estimated assembly time = 625.27 seconds 6.30 11.15 17.45 625.27 8. 9. Dip tray Top Panel 39 3.75 44.45

Pareto plot using Design for Assembly:   The DFA tool gives a proper idea of how much time a particular part takes to assemble, and how much time a complete sub-assembly takes to assemble. These time readings when plotted give us an idea as to which part takes how much time to assemble and what percentage of the total assembly time it accounts for. Thus when these timings are compared to the worth of the product then we can understand whether a subassembly or a part is worth putting in the effort that we are currently investing in its assembly. 300 120 250 100 200 80 150 60 100 40 50 20 0 0 Time (sec) Cumulative Percentage Figure 18 Pareto Chart for assembly time for main subassemblies    In order to identify most time-consuming subassembly operations, an initial Pareto analysis is conducted on major subassemblies. After identifying three major subassemblies that require longer time of operation, a second level of Pareto analysis is conducted on individual operations of the major subassemblies. For example, in our product initial Pareto analysis showed that three of the most time consuming operations are Outer Body Assembly, Heating Unit Assembly and Metal Support Plate Assembly. Together, these assembly operations account for 68% of the total assembly time. 40

140 120 120 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 Time (sec) 20 20 Cumulative Percentage 0 0 40 Figure 19 Pareto Analysis on individual parts of outer body assembly 30 120 25 100 20 80 15 60 10 40 5 20 0 0 Time (sec) Cumulative Percentage Figure 20 Pareto Analysis on individual parts of Heating Unit Assembly 41

Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA):    FMEA helps to analyze the end quality of the product, during the design stages, by using a thoughtful approach to avoid all possible ways in which our product can fail. This ensures that all the possible defects can be removed before the product reaches the customer thus reducing the nos. of customer complaints. This process helps to ensure satisfaction for,  Customers  Design team  Stakeholders and partners  Regulatory bodies, ensuring that requirements of all the following are met during design stages. It encourages us to provide customer to provide an ethically sound design to the customers. 42

Function based and VOC based FMEA:- The following are the excel sheets: 43

44

45

 The Function based and VOC based FMEA both contribute to understand the failure modes possible with regards to the performance of the product parts (while they perform their individual functions to complete the main function) and with regards to failure of meeting the needs of the customers. 46

 Analysis of VOC and Function based FMEA:- VOC based FMEA Function based FMEA understand effect of failure to satisfy customer need understand effect of failure of a particular function understand body parts causing this failure and make sure they are operational Understand how and where can a functions performance go wrong making improvements in needs and the procedure to achieve them help lower preliminary costs making technical changes at design stage help reduce cost of rejects understand the most important customer need to work upon (rating 9) helps understand part worth and hence optimize distribution of funds for R&D Figure 21 VOC and Function based FMEA Analysis 47

Design for Environment:Environmental Impact matrix is based on different environmental measures through different life stages. The impacts for each life stage are assessed by considering the product features that are observed during product testing, disassembly procedure 48

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      The Function Impact Matrix helped us to understand that the various factors which are a part of the complete manufacturing cycle of the product are also the drivers for bad impact on the environment. This tool helps us to understand which of these contributes the MAXIMUM to the total environmental impact. Alongwith this we also understand which function is having a larger impact on the environment. This provides us with the analysis to back the removal of a particular material or manufacturing process or main sub-function from our product In other words, it gives us an almost accurate insight into which body parts need to be altered with regards to their manufacturing processes, transportation methods and material selection. This is good from the environmental point of view, as it help reduce greenhouse gases. Polar plot:- Figure 22 Polar Plot 51

Figure 23 AT&T Matrix     Analysis:The Polar plot tells us which of the five columns and which of the five rows is responsible for maximum impact on the environment We get to know the particular process of the product manufacture cycle(product manufacture) (from raw material to finished good, till it reaches customer) and the specific environmental damage cause (material’s choice), for our product, which are causing maximum environmental impact. For our product the materials of manufacturing of the product are causing more impact with regards to their nature and the pollutants that they release. We did an additional Carbon footprint calculation for these materials to understand which material is more hazardous to the environment. CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PRIMO WATER COOLER:     Every product undergoes several operations in its element or raw material form before it can be finally put to use. Operations such as material extraction (mining) manufacturing (plastics, chemicals, synthetics) treatment (alloy and steel manufacture), mechanical process (forging, forming, rolling, heat treatment etc) are commonly carried out to make the final parts that are assembled to make the final product. These processes generate their individual carbon footprint which is the kgs of co2 emitted per kg of material used. From an environmental point of view it is very essential to monitor the carbon footprint generated by each material used in the product. An aggregate of the total carbon footprint of the product will help us analyse where there is a need for improvement in terms of materials and processes employed to manufacture the product. Recycling and reusing materials substantially reduces the carbon foot print generated from the processes. Thus it is highly desired to use as much as recycled. We have found out the approximate Kg/Kg carbon footprint of each material that is being used in the product. From our bill of materials we have found out the aggregate weight of each 52

material in the final product. Thus multiplied by the kg/kg emissions of each material give us the total carbon emitted for the entire product. 14 12 10 8 Extracted (and manufactured) from source (kg co2 / kg material) 6 4 Recycled material (kg co2 / kg material) 2 0 Figure 24 Comparison between extraction and recycled materials MATERIAL WEIGHT's Aluminium Copper Steel Cast iron Rubber Polypropylene Figure 25 Weight breakdown of materials 53

50 45 40 35 30 PRODUCT MADE FROM NEW MATERIALS 25 PRODUCT MADE FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS 20 15 10 5 0 carbon emissions of product Figure 26 carbon emissions from product Carbon emissions of PRIMO water cooler made from extracted v/s recycled materials Table 7 Carbon emissions within the water cooler Material Weight Of Material In Our Product (Gms) Recycled (Kgs Of Co2 /.Kgs Of Metal) 700 300 2061 6100 100 2955 Extracted (Manufactured) From Source (Kgs Of Co2 /.Kgs Of Metal) 12 5.5 2.82 1.91 13 6 Aluminum Copper Steel Cast iron rubber Polypropylen e Glass Activated Carbon 1.7 1.4 0.5 -0.124 3.5 -75 8.4 6 0 0.45 0 0.3735 47 54 Carbon Foorprint Contribution Of Recycled Materials (Kgs) 1.19 0.42 1.0305 0 0.0124 10.3425 1.4 4.98 CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PRODUCT Carbon Footprint Contribution Of Each New Material(Kgs) 8.4 1.65 5.81202 11.651 1.3 17.73 13.37

Conclusion:  After observing the approximate data generated from the above study we as a team observed that there is a huge reduction in carbon footprint of the overall product when new extracted materials are replaced by same recycled materials. This serves as a dual advantage, both to the environment and to the manufacturer (in terms of cost savings). Thus where ever it is technological feasible recycled materials should ne utilized.  It has been observed that the kg/kg contribution of certain materials is much higher compared to the others. For example, there is a significant use of copper and polypropylene in the product and their contributions are 5.5 kg/kg and 6kg/kg respectively. Thus, the design team needs to think of alternatives for these materials which will help reduce the overall carbon footprint of the product. 55

Optional Analysis: Architectural Considerations:1. Problem:- positioning of heating tin.  Design of baffle is such that, the water coming from the inlet first goes to the heating tin, fills it up and then spills out from the baffle to fill the storage tin (for cold water).  This leads to accumulation of water in heating tin for long times (especially during summer), resulting in stale water if not used for long time. This is because of the architectural positioning of heating tin being lower than the storage tin.  This also causes extra maintainence for users to remove this water from time to time Solution:- position heating tin and storage tin at the top (side by side) Advantages: Eliminates many small rubber and plastic linkages  Less maintanence for user  Less occurences of bad quality of water. 2. Problem:- Levelling of taps  The level of the taps is higher than the bottom level of the storage tin, hence all water from storage tin is not used by the user  This results in waste of cold water and improper circulation of water Solution:- position either taps a bit lower than actual position or storage tin a bit lower than current position:Advantages: Efficient use of cold water  Proper structural design  No wastage of power Design for Six Sigma Design for Six Sigma is an approach that can be applied to design and development of new products or processes. With that aspect, Design for Six Sigma differs from traditional Six Sigma tools which are generally deployed for improvement of the existing processes. The approach for DFSS is usually related to DMADV; Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify where the main objective of the DFSS is to identify and transfer the customer needs to operational level / process metrics in order to design and 56

launch high performance products. Although DFSS is a wide approach rather than a list of methodologies, Geoff Tennant defines the general methodology as the following:      Define o Define stage is a basis for identifying the customer needs by benchmarking, market survey etc. Customer o This stage is related to identify the customer needs, which was the focus of the earlier methodologies that were used in the water cooler design process. Quality Function Deployment can be used in order to transform customer needs to design parameters. Concept o In this stage a conceptual model is designed based on the customer metrics. Design o The output of this stage is the technical design, usually developed by statistical tools such as Design of Experiment. Implement o Implementation is testing the product before releasing to the market. The aim is to prevent failure modes before the product is commercialized. The tools deployed in this stage are small scale applications and Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA). The detailed processes and tools used in DFSS is represented in Figure 27. Figure 27 Detailed stages and tools of DFSS. Source Geoff Tennant, Design for six sigma, 2002 57

The first stage represents initial project plan that is developed by the design team, this stage includes a brief benchmarking and customer analysis. The second stage is where the customer needs are identified and transferred to measureable performance metrics. This stage is crucial, since one of the main goals of DFSS is to deliver products that the customers actually want. The tool for this stage is Quality Function Deployment which the team deployed in the earlier stages. Also Critical to Quality is developed in order to relate customer requirements to performance measures hierarchically. In the third stage, Critical to Quality metrics are used to update QFD analysis. Later, these metrics are mapped onto Critical to Process metrics, which represent the inputs of the processes to be used. In this stage, initial failure mode analysis is completed in order to come up with a design brief. The fourth stage is an iterative stage in which design is reconsidered with the outcomes of process constraints and failure analysis. Before releasing the product to market, the product is tested with prototypes and finally commercialized. However, learning process continues in order to update the project plan and the design. For DFSS, eliminating possible failures before releasing the product to market is significant. For the water cooler design process, the failures modes are tried to be identified with Failure Mode Affect Analysis. For the failure analysis before releasing the product to the market, technical simulations could be a good way to visualize the product functions. One of the tools that is used for DFSS is Critical to Quality tree; which connects the customer needs to measurable performance requirements. CTQ tree analysis is applied to the customer requirements of the water cooler. The customer requirements and their importance levels were previously identified as the following: Table 8 Customer needs and importance levels Easy to install Easy to move Faster rate of cooling and heating Temperature regulation Large capacity to store water 58 3 3 9 9 9

9 1 9 3 9 3 3 9 Ensure safety Low cost Low maintenance Energy efficient Easy to use Compact size Noise level Stability of structure The CTQ tree is a hierarchical analysis which translates customer needs to performance requirements. By determining performance requirements with this analysis, it is assured that these requirements actually reflect the voice of the customer. This is important because a process may not be producing desirable parts even if the process itself is in control according to statistical control charts. Below is the two CTQ tree that are developed for two selected customer needs of the water cooler. 59

Figure 28 Critical to Quality tree of two selected customer requirements 60

Conventional tools of six sigma to improve an existing process can also be incorporated into design phase to eliminate future failure modes. For instance, Statistical Process Control (SPC) methods such as control charts can be used for product specifications from a customer focus. The following figure represents a control chart that is adapted to analyze product specifications in the design phase. Figure 29 Statistical Control Chart for design phase. Source: Geoff Tennant, Design for Six Sigma, 2002. Different from the control charts for the process improvement, the lower and upper limits that are specified in the design phase are based on customer expectations, not on the capability of the actual process. The target value is similarly the mean expectation of the customer from the quality metric. For the water cooler, a quality metrics to be analyzed is the size. The histogram can include historical data from a similar process or expected future values. By analyzing the estimated levels of the specific quality metrics against customer expectations, the processes are actually designed to meet the voice of the customers from the very beginning. The idea is, a manufacturing process might be in control when analyzed by statistical control charts. However, that is not necessarily mean that process delivers parts or provides product specifications that the customer needs. In the case of the size of the water cooler, 61

Size Figure 30 Process mean compared to customer expectation In the above chart, the process seems to be in control. Thus, it is very likely for the manufacturer to not implement further modifications in order to improve that process. However, if this chart is analyzed during design phase with the customer expectations incorporated, it might be the case that the process target is not actually satisfying what the customer expects. If required design changes are implemented that will shift the process mean through the mean customer target, the process will still be in control, this time meeting the specifications of the customer. Also, lower and upper process specifications should be specified according to the customer expectations. For instance, it might be the case that manufacturing team puts effort to make water cooler smaller by dedicating more time and cost, but the customer does not actually expect the product to be that small. Thus, it is important to review process specification window together with the customer limits. 62

Figure 31 Process specification limit compared to customer limits In the above chart, the expected size of the water cooler by the customer is actually greater than what the process is designed to deliver. 63

Product Definition When designing a product there are three main aspects to look at which are feature, cost and time. Although in an ideal situation we would like to optimize all three aspects that isn’t possible. As a team, we have decided to constrain the cost, optimize the feature and accept any time to release the product into the market. In general, a customer would like to have as much features as possible provided there is a minimum cost. Keeping the customer’s need in mind, we decided to focus on increasing the features of our product, PRIMO water cooler, while keeping the cost as a constraint at $140. We will accept whatever time we get to sell the product in the market, as this will give us time to research properly on how to provide the necessary features desired by the customer at an appropriate cost. It will also allow us to study how our competitors are doing in the market, in order to benchmark our product against our competitors’. This will give us an upper advantage as when we release our product into the market, we will have provided the customer with what he or she wants. Table 9 Project Priority Matrix Feature Cost Time Constrain Optimize 64 Accept

KEY POINTS OF FOCUS: In order to make a product more competitive, we as a design team analyzed the products keeping the customer needs in mind. This directed us to concentrate on features of the product that were lead to maximum customer dissatisfaction. Factors identified are as follows: COOLING SYSTEM ANALYSIS:  We identified that the cooling system of the product need to be redesigned because their current state is contributing to majority needs that are being generated. Need to regulate the temperature of the output water, to reduce the

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