Process systems engineering and the environment

50 %
50 %
Information about Process systems engineering and the environment
Technology

Published on January 12, 2009

Author: ericsfraga

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presentation given at Stinkfest 2008 held at University College London (UCL).

. Process systems engineering and the environment Eric S Fraga Centre for Process Systems Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering UCL 17 June 2008 c 2008, Eric S Fraga, All rights reserved. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 1 / 20

Introduction. Outline Introduction 1 Water distribution networks 2 Biofuel 3 Conclusions 4 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 2 / 20

Introduction. Design Engineers work from “incomplete specifications and ill-defined, oft-conflicting aims.”1 Environmental aspects are almost always conflicting and sometimes difficult to quantify. Process systems engineering: deals will complex systems, looking at multiple aspects simultaneously. methodologies often based on optimisation for identifying good solutions. can provide the necessary insight for decision making. 1 S Kelly-Bootle (2008), “Solomon’s sword beats Occam’s razor”, Queue 6(2):72-ff. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 3 / 20

Water distribution networks. Outline Introduction 1 Water distribution networks 2 Biofuel 3 Conclusions 4 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 4 / 20

Water distribution networks. Water distribution networks Example problem: 7 nodes 8 pipes 1 reservoir no pumps Aim is to meet demand with redundancy. Alperovits & Shamir (1977), Water Resource Research 13(6):885-900 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 5 / 20

Water distribution networks. The design problem Given the network layout, with sufficient redundancy, the water demand at each location, and the pressure requirements determine the diameter of each pipe, the water flow, amount and direction, and the pressure at each location so as to minimise total network cost. Problem is mathematically and numerically challenging. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 6 / 20

Water distribution networks. Direct optimization Attempting this problem using a number of industry standard solvers: Solution (103 $) Initial Configuration conopt2 conopt3 minos minos5 None 659 655 444 Fails All flows = 100 441 441 452 452 We find that the initialization affects the success of the solution procedures: Large variation in quality of solutions obtained. Motivates interactive approach to bring engineer into the decision making process. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 7 / 20

Water distribution networks. Visualization Computer based tools for design and optimization are intended for use by non-experts. Visual representations critical for ease of use. Interaction can enable engineer to apply own intuition. Interactive graphical display could provide initialization for rigorous optimization procedures. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 8 / 20

Water distribution networks. A graphical interface Demand at node Bars, denoting pressure at each Pipe node, can be moved up and down. Demand Pipe diameters can not met be increased or decreased. Effect of changes Surplus to demand immediately visible. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 9 / 20

Water distribution networks. Demonstration Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 10 / 20

Water distribution networks. Results Solution (103 $) Initial Configuration conopt2 conopt3 minos minos5 None 659 655 444 Fails All flows = 100 441 441 452 452 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 11 / 20

Water distribution networks. Results Solution (103 $) Initial Configuration conopt2 conopt3 minos minos5 None 659 655 444 Fails All flows = 100 441 441 452 452 Interactive 419 419 423 419 Behaviour of solvers is more consistent. Solutions obtained are better in all cases. The best solution known is found in 3 of the cases. ˘ ESF & L G Papageorgiou (2006), in A Törn & J Zilinskas (ed.), “Models and algorithms for global optimization,” 311-322. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 11 / 20

Biofuel. Outline Introduction 1 Water distribution networks 2 Biofuel 3 Conclusions 4 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 12 / 20

Biofuel. Overview Increasing need to meet energy demands from renewable resources. Wind, solar and wave sources cannot provide guaranteed provision. One alternative is the production of liquid fuels from biomass sources (potentially carbon neutral). Questions: Which sources? How to produce? What is the impact? Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 13 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Biological transformations simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation simultaneous saccharification and fermentation separate hydrolysis and fermentation Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Biological transformations simultaneous SSCF saccharification and co-fermentation Feed simultaneous saccharification and SSF fermentation separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Separation and purification Consider distillation alone but this could be relaxed. Must handle non-ideal mixture behaviour. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Solvent Ethanol Water Separation and purification Consider distillation alone but this could be relaxed. Must handle non-ideal mixture behaviour. Solvent Waste Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Process design Solvent Ethanol Water SSCF Feed SSF Solvent SHF Waste Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 14 / 20

Biofuel. Evaluating sustainability Process Photos courtesy flickr users: 28481k, andwar, anyhoo, somnolence, waldopepper. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 15 / 20

Biofuel. Evaluating sustainability Process End use Photos courtesy flickr users: 28481k, andwar, anyhoo, somnolence, waldopepper. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 15 / 20

Biofuel. Evaluating sustainability Feed stock Process End use Photos courtesy flickr users: 28481k, andwar, anyhoo, somnolence, waldopepper. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 15 / 20

Biofuel. Evaluating sustainability Feed transport Process Product transport End use Feed stock Photos courtesy flickr users: 28481k, andwar, anyhoo, somnolence, waldopepper. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 15 / 20

Biofuel. Life cycle assessment (LCA) The life cycle assessment procedure involves goal and scoping: inventory analysis: impact assessment: interpretation of results: Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 16 / 20

Biofuel. Life cycle assessment (LCA) The life cycle assessment procedure involves goal and scoping: include feedstock source and energy consumption inventory analysis: impact assessment: interpretation of results: Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 16 / 20

Biofuel. Life cycle assessment (LCA) The life cycle assessment procedure involves goal and scoping: include feedstock source and energy consumption inventory analysis: based on mass and energy models impact assessment: interpretation of results: Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 16 / 20

Biofuel. Life cycle assessment (LCA) The life cycle assessment procedure involves goal and scoping: include feedstock source and energy consumption inventory analysis: based on mass and energy models impact assessment: estimate land yields and global warming potential interpretation of results: Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 16 / 20

Biofuel. Life cycle assessment (LCA) The life cycle assessment procedure involves goal and scoping: include feedstock source and energy consumption inventory analysis: based on mass and energy models impact assessment: estimate land yields and global warming potential interpretation of results: provide alternative solutions for different criteria Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 16 / 20

Biofuel. Results Considering the production of ethanol from a number of alternative feed stocks: Feed Assessment criterion Source Cost GWP Energy Land (M$/a) (g/kg) (TJ/a) (kha) Corn 40 1229 -2.06 43 Cane 42 135 3.12 26 Wood 123 324 7.32 62 Best option depends on which criterion is considered most important (at the time? by whom?). Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 17 / 20

Conclusions. Outline Introduction 1 Water distribution networks 2 Biofuel 3 Conclusions 4 Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 18 / 20

Conclusions. Summary Environmental problems are complex and multi-faceted. A systems approach is necessary to address these problems. Decision support can benefit from visualisation and graphical interfaces. Best approach is to bring together the computer and the user. Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 19 / 20

Conclusions. Acknowledgements Ms Arinola Abiola PhD student, UCL Prof Carlos Ariel Cardona Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales Dr Paola Lettieri UCL Dr Lazaros Papageorgiou UCL Mr Óscar Sánchez Toro PhD student, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales Eric S Fraga (CPSE @ UCL) Environmental Systems Engineering Stinkfest 2008 20 / 20

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Environment and Process Systems - University of Cape Town

Learning environment; ... Home > Research > Environment and Process Systems ... and explores the use of process and systems engineering skills to solve ...
Read more

Process Systems Engineering | Max Planck Institute for ...

Process Systems Engineering. Technical systems of ever increasing complexity change our environment to a dramatic extent. Research on these systems is ...
Read more

Systems engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The systems engineering process is a discovery process that is ... of physical systems. Systems engineering, ... interdisciplinary environment. ...
Read more

Environmental & Process Systems Engineering

Environmental & Process Systems Engineering. Environmental & Process Systems Engineering. Search. Enter your keywords
Read more

What is Systems Engineering - incose.org

This Systems Engineering Process is shown in Figure 1. ... In a manufacturing environment this might mean buying commercial off the shelf hardware or ...
Read more

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS - MIT

Systems Engineering Process Outputs ... picture of what systems engineering means in a real acquisition environment. ... Systems Engineering Fundamentals ...
Read more

Process-Energy-Environmental Systems Engineering

Associate Editor of Computers & Chemical Engineering. 1 ... on process manufacturing, energy systems, ... Science Environment EPA FOCAPO ...
Read more

Environmental Process Engineering | Duke Civil and ...

Research with the Environmental Process Engineering ... the fate of trace metals in the environment, ... interactions, engineering systems ...
Read more

Process engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control, and optimization of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Process engineering ...
Read more

Overview of the System Engineering Process - DOT Home Page

Overview of the System Engineering Process Prepared by ... The systems engineering process includes stakeholders through all stages of the project, ...
Read more