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Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Problem-based Learning

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Information about Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Problem-based Learning

Published on June 21, 2008

Author: markbullen

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presentation to the CADE conference, Montreal, May 2006 with Rick Kenny
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Problem Formulation & Resolution in Online Problem-based Learning Rick Kenny, Athabasca University Mark Bullen, British Columbia Institute of Technology

Introduction E-learning pedagogies must be defensible E-learning pedagogies are evolving E-learning instructional design must be guided by research and theory Examination of problem-based learning in an online course

E-learning pedagogies must be defensible

E-learning pedagogies are evolving

E-learning instructional design must be guided by research and theory

Examination of problem-based learning in an online course

Authentic PBL Characteristics Problem-based Problem-solving Student – centred Self-directed learning Reflection

Problem-based

Problem-solving

Student – centred

Self-directed learning

Reflection

Effectiveness of PBL Meta-analyses examining use of PBL in Medical Education Conventional curricula outperformed PBL on measures of basic science PBL students scored higher on clinical examinations PBL most positive effects when constructs assessed at level of understanding principles that link concepts.

Meta-analyses examining use of PBL in Medical Education

Conventional curricula outperformed PBL on measures of basic science

PBL students scored higher on clinical examinations

PBL most positive effects when constructs assessed at level of understanding principles that link concepts.

Methodology Research Questions What evidence is there that PBL fosters problem-solving behaviours and skills in undergraduate Agricultural Sciences students? What is the nature of the problem-solving process which students apply when engaged in PBL activities?

Research Questions

What evidence is there that PBL fosters problem-solving behaviours and skills in undergraduate Agricultural Sciences students?

What is the nature of the problem-solving process which students apply when engaged in PBL activities?

Methodology Research Setting Undergraduate Agroecology course Fully online, WebCT Participants 11 students Two PBL groups

Research Setting

Undergraduate Agroecology course

Fully online, WebCT

Participants

11 students

Two PBL groups

Methodology

Methodology Context PBL work took place in asynchronous discussion forums Instructor participated by monitoring, guiding, clarifying

Context

PBL work took place in asynchronous discussion forums

Instructor participated by monitoring, guiding, clarifying

Analysis Content analysis based on Murphy’s OAD instrument (2004, 2005) Based on Jonassen’s (1997) conceptual framework Two main categories Problem formulation Problem resolution

Content analysis based on Murphy’s OAD instrument (2004, 2005)

Based on Jonassen’s (1997) conceptual framework

Two main categories

Problem formulation

Problem resolution

Methodology – Modified Instrument Agreeing with problem as presented in OAD Defining PBL Space Reflecting on one’s thinking Identifying value of information Accessing and reporting on sources of information Clarifying (meaning, importance, accuracy of) information Seeking information to resolve lack of knowledge Identifying unknowns in knowledge Building knowledge Articulating a problem outside problem space Identifying causes of problem Identifying extent of problem Minimizing and/or denying problem Redefining problem within problem space Specifying ways that the problem manifests itself Indicator Problem formulation

Methodology – Modified Instrument Proposing solutions Identifying solutions Hypothesizing about solutions Planning to take action to resolve the problem Acting on solutions Coming to agreement about solutions Reaching conclusions Rejecting/eliminating solutions judged unworkable Critiquing solutions Weighing and comparing alternative solutions Agreeing with solutions proposed by others Evaluating solutions Indicator Problem resolution

Results - Pass 1

Results - Pass 2 17.5 66 6.9 26 Other 0 0 0 0 Acting on solutions 0 0 4.2 16 Reaching conclusions 10.3 39 13.8 52 Evaluating solutions 9.8 37 14.3 54 Identifying solutions Problem Resolution 50.7 191 57.8 218 Building knowledge 11.7 44 2.9 11 Defining problem space Problem Formulation % Cases % Cases Coder 3 Coder 1 Process

Results Only coded two levels: category, process Cohen’s kappa used for inter-coder agreement (Cohen, 1960) Categories Case 2, Group 1: 0.449 Case 2, Group 2: 0.593 Processes Case 2, Group 1: 0.344

Only coded two levels: category, process

Cohen’s kappa used for inter-coder agreement (Cohen, 1960)

Categories

Case 2, Group 1: 0.449

Case 2, Group 2: 0.593

Processes

Case 2, Group 1: 0.344

Issues The PFR process and PBL Unit of analysis Representing the PFR process in a PBL context Training

The PFR process and PBL

Unit of analysis

Representing the PFR process in a PBL context

Training

Contact Information Rick Kenny Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University [email_address] Mark Bullen Associate Dean Learning & Teaching Centre BC Institute of Technology [email_address]

Rick Kenny

Associate Professor

Centre for Distance Education

Athabasca University

[email_address]

Mark Bullen

Associate Dean

Learning & Teaching Centre

BC Institute of Technology

[email_address]

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