Principles Evolution APBioCh13-14

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Information about Principles Evolution APBioCh13-14

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

Principles of Evolution

Evolution of Evolutionary Thought Develop time line of historical events 427-347 B.C. Plato’s divinely inspired “ideal form” 384-322 B.C. Aristotle’s “Ladder of Nature” until 1700s Creationism Each species was created individually by God Earth was the center of the universe Man stood atop creation Exploration of New Lands Number of species was greater than expected Some species closely resembled one another Some naturalists concluded that similar species may have developed from a common ancestor

Develop time line of historical events

427-347 B.C. Plato’s divinely inspired “ideal form”

384-322 B.C. Aristotle’s “Ladder of Nature”

until 1700s Creationism

Each species was created individually by God

Earth was the center of the universe

Man stood atop creation

Exploration of New Lands

Number of species was greater than expected

Some species closely resembled one another

Some naturalists concluded that similar species may have developed from a common ancestor

Evolution of Evolutionary Thought I 1707-1788 George LeClerc (Comte of Buffon); creation provided a relatively small number of founding species that evolved through natural processes Idea was not accepted Did not provide a mechanism for evolution Earth was not old enough to allow time for the process of evolution 1769-1832 G. Cuvier; theory of catastrophism (creationist w/extinction)

1707-1788 George LeClerc (Comte of Buffon);

creation provided a relatively small number of founding species that evolved through natural processes

Idea was not accepted

Did not provide a mechanism for evolution

Earth was not old enough to allow time for the process of evolution

1769-1832 G. Cuvier; theory of catastrophism (creationist w/extinction)

Evolution of Evolutionary Thought III 1726-1797 James Hutton developed uniformitarianism – gradual change 1797-1875 Charles Lyell’s “Old Earth Hypothesis” supported Hutton, gave time for gradual change (Archbishop James Ussher calculated the date of the creation of the Earth…Oct 23, 4004BC…using biblical lineages.) 1744-1829 Jean Baptiste de Lamarck - inheritance of acquired characteristics (‘cuz if you are gonna be wrong…do it spectacularly!’)

1726-1797 James Hutton developed uniformitarianism – gradual change

1797-1875 Charles Lyell’s “Old Earth Hypothesis” supported Hutton, gave time for gradual change

(Archbishop James Ussher calculated the date of the creation of the Earth…Oct 23, 4004BC…using biblical lineages.)

1744-1829 Jean Baptiste de Lamarck - inheritance of acquired characteristics (‘cuz if you are gonna be wrong…do it spectacularly!’)

Evolution of Evolutionary Thought IV 1809-1882 Charles Darwin Developed the theory of evolution Species evolved through natural selection; Adaptation to their ever-changing environment. 1823-1913 Alfred Wallace; supported Darwin's theory (worked separately, came up with same conclusion, came in “2 nd” ) Present theory of evolution by natural selection

1809-1882 Charles Darwin

Developed the theory of evolution

Species evolved through natural selection;

Adaptation to their ever-changing environment.

1823-1913 Alfred Wallace; supported Darwin's theory (worked separately, came up with same conclusion, came in “2 nd” )

Present theory of evolution by natural selection

Darwin’s Finches

A Flowchart of Evolutionary Reasoning EVOLUTION: The genetic makeup of the population changes over time, driven by natural selection NATURAL SELECTION On average, the fittest organisms leave the most offspring Competition for survival and reproduction Potential for rapid reproduction Relatively constant resources and population over time Variability in structures and behaviors Some variability is inherited (observations) (conclusions)

Evolution by Natural Selection Postulate 1: Individual members of a population differ from one another in many respects Variations arise purely by chance resulting from random mutations in DNA Differences are obvious in many physical characteristics and extend to molecular level

Postulate 1: Individual members of a population differ from one another in many respects

Variations arise purely by chance resulting from random mutations in DNA

Differences are obvious in many physical characteristics and extend to molecular level

 

Evolution by Natural Selection Postulate 2: At least some of the differences among members of a population are due to characteristics that may be passed from parent to offspring However, the mechanism of inheritance was not understood at this point in time (Mendel was working at about the same time…and was ignored until someone saw that Mendel and Darwin/Wallace supported each other.)

Postulate 2: At least some of the differences among members of a population are due to characteristics that may be passed from parent to offspring

However, the mechanism of inheritance was not understood at this point in time (Mendel was working at about the same time…and was ignored until someone saw that Mendel and Darwin/Wallace supported each other.)

Evolution by Natural Selection Postulate 3: In each generation, some individuals in a population survive and reproduce successfully but others do not Darwin observed that many more individuals are born than survive Some individuals have more offspring than others

Postulate 3: In each generation, some individuals in a population survive and reproduce successfully but others do not

Darwin observed that many more individuals are born than survive

Some individuals have more offspring than others

Evolution by Natural Selection Postulate 4: Individuals with advantageous traits survive longest and leave the most offspring, a process known as natural selection

Postulate 4: Individuals with advantageous traits survive longest and leave the most offspring, a process known as natural selection

Evolution by Natural Selection Gregor Mendel’s theories of inheritance (1865) confirmed Darwin’s assumption that certain traits are heritable New variations arise by chance as a result of random mutations in DNA New variations may be good, bad, or neutral

Gregor Mendel’s theories of inheritance (1865) confirmed Darwin’s assumption that certain traits are heritable

New variations arise by chance as a result of random mutations in DNA

New variations may be good, bad, or neutral

Populations Evolve Natural selection acts on individuals within a population; however, it is the population that changes over time

Natural selection acts on individuals within a population; however, it is the population that changes over time

Evidence of Evolution: Fossils Transitional forms are evidence of evolutionary change Fossils of ancient species tend to be simpler in form than modern species Several series of fossils have been found that exhibit the evolution of body structures over time Interpretation of fossil data controversial Dating of fossils Do fossils really show transitional forms?

Transitional forms are evidence of evolutionary change

Fossils of ancient species tend to be simpler in form than modern species

Several series of fossils have been found that exhibit the evolution of body structures over time

Interpretation of fossil data controversial

Dating of fossils

Do fossils really show transitional forms?

Information from Fossils?

Fossils of Extinct Organisms

Evidence of Evolution: Comparative… …Anatomy Homologous structures structures that have the same evolutionary origin despite their current appearance or function Analogous structures structures that are outwardly similar in appearance, but differ in their evolutionary origin Vestigial structures remnants of structures that are inherited from ancestors Had important functions in ancestors Serve no obvious purpose in present day organism

…Anatomy

Homologous structures

structures that have the same evolutionary origin despite their current appearance or function

Analogous structures

structures that are outwardly similar in appearance, but differ in their evolutionary origin

Vestigial structures

remnants of structures that are inherited from ancestors

Had important functions in ancestors

Serve no obvious purpose in present day organism

Analogous Structures Not homologous; not analogous Homologous; not analogous Not homologous; analogous Homologous; analogous

Homologous Structures Flying Swimming Running Grasping

Vestigial Structures

Evidence of Evolution: Comparative… …Embryology Early vertebrate embryos similar Tail and gill arches

…Embryology

Early vertebrate embryos similar

Tail and gill arches

Comparative Embryology

Evidence of Evolution: Comparative… … Biochemistry & molecular biology All have DNA, RNA, ribosomes, ATP, etc. DNA similarities

… Biochemistry & molecular biology

All have DNA, RNA, ribosomes, ATP, etc.

DNA similarities

 

How Organisms Evolve

Population Genetics and Evolution I Gene pools and allele frequencies Evolution: Change in gene frequencies Due to differential reproduction among organisms bearing different alleles Fitness of the selected allele leads to viable offspring Evolutionary changes are not "good" or "progressive" in any absolute sense

Gene pools and allele frequencies

Evolution: Change in gene frequencies

Due to differential reproduction among organisms bearing different alleles

Fitness of the selected allele leads to viable offspring

Evolutionary changes are not "good" or "progressive" in any absolute sense

Population Genetics and Evolution II Natural selection causes changes in gene frequencies of a population Does not genetically change individuals! Affects individuals, but evolution occurs in populations Mutations: Source of new alleles Sexual reproduction produces new combinations of alleles Crossing over in meiosis Random fertilization of gametes

Natural selection causes changes in gene frequencies of a population

Does not genetically change individuals!

Affects individuals, but evolution occurs in populations

Mutations: Source of new alleles

Sexual reproduction produces new combinations of alleles

Crossing over in meiosis

Random fertilization of gametes

Mechanisms of Evolution I The hypothetical equilibrium population Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium For a population to be at equilibrium, 5 conditions MUST be true… No Mutations No Migration/Emigration (gene flow) Large population size Random Mating No Natural Selection …this would mean there is NO Evolution!

The hypothetical equilibrium population

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

For a population to be at equilibrium, 5 conditions MUST be true…

No Mutations

No Migration/Emigration (gene flow)

Large population size

Random Mating

No Natural Selection

…this would mean there is NO Evolution!

Genetic Drift

Genetic Bottlenecks Reduce Variability Chance loss of blue Time

Mechanisms of Evolution II Nonrandom mating and sexual selection Natural selection Types of natural selection Directional selection Stabilizing selection Disruptive selection

Nonrandom mating and sexual selection

Natural selection

Types of natural selection

Directional selection

Stabilizing selection

Disruptive selection

Types of Natural Selection Large Size Favored Directional Selection Average Size Favored Stabilizing Selection Extreme Size Favored Disruptive Selection Variation reduced over time Mean changed over time Variation becomes polarized Before Selection After Selection Time

Forces of Natural Selection Abiotic factors (environmental changes!) Biotic factors Coevolution - constant mutual feedback between two species Competition for limited resources Predation Symbiosis Parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism Altruism - self-sacrifice

Abiotic factors (environmental changes!)

Biotic factors

Coevolution - constant mutual feedback between two species

Competition for limited resources

Predation

Symbiosis

Parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism

Altruism - self-sacrifice

Causes of Extinction Localized distribution (i.e. all in one place) Overspecialization (i.e. can only eat one thing) Environmental changes Competition for limited resources Predators and parasites cause diseases Habitat destruction Deforestation Meteorites Fires Volcanic eruptions

Localized distribution (i.e. all in one place)

Overspecialization (i.e. can only eat one thing)

Environmental changes

Competition for limited resources

Predators and parasites cause diseases

Habitat destruction

Deforestation

Meteorites

Fires

Volcanic eruptions

Stabilizing Selection & Balance Polymorphism HH HH Hh Hh Hh hh hh hh Dies of malaria HH Lives and reproduces Dies of sickle-cell anemia Dies of malaria Lives and reproduces Dies of sickle-cell anemia Homozygous Normal Homozygous Defective Heterozygous

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