Published on February 25, 2014
Presenting Spatial Data What’s So Spatial About it? Putting Yourself in My Place:
Space, Place and Pattern ! 25 February 2014
No Lecture Next Week 4 March Will see you on 11 March
Did Anyone Happen to Try?: UnBuilding Grand Central Station
So … browsing the gallery: ! "Visual Complexity"
Visual Complexity Good Examples?? Inspiring Ideas?? ! Complexity? Patterns? Aethetics versus Clarity Can you visualise too much? What complications does the move into the visual realm introduce?
Minard x 2 New is Cool …but old classics rule!
Minard - Wheat and Exports
"Digitization makes the most traditional forms of humanistic scholarship more necessary, not less. But the differences mean that we need to reinvent, not reaffirm, the way we engage with the humanities."
Can We Understand Place without Space ‣ Need a wee bit of background in Geospace ! ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ More than GIS Geovisualisation? Geoparsing? Georeference Geoparse Geotag ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Geocode Geolocate GPS GIS Projection Geovisualisation
Georeferencing ‣ ‣ Identify a place in space Usually a minimum of Longitude, Latitude, Altitude
Geoparsing ‣ ‣ ‣ Identifying an entity as a place as opposed to another type within a body of text; To assign geographic identifiers to words and phrases in unstructured content Useful Services: Metacarta / Calais / CalaisFull
Geotagging ‣ Add geographical reference information to media such as photographs, video, websites, blog posting, etc.
Geocoding ‣ ‣ The process of finding geographic coordinates from address data Reverse Geocoding
Geolocating ‣ Assessing the location of a real world object based on IPaddress, or mobile connection to the internet
Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) ‣ ‣ Series of US Defense Department Satellites in Orbit that allow for accurate positioning in three dimensions Additional services available from GLONAS (Russia) and emerging GALILEO (Europe) and COMPASS (China)
Geovisualisation ‣ The use of geographical representation to allow for analysis, decision-making and presentation
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ GIS can display spatial data hidden in tables and databases Create detailed and intelligent maps Integrate data to reveal trends and relationships that bring new perspectives to previously held beliefs about people and places Research questions in the humanities often involve a spatial component that only GIS can expose
Geospatial Data Standards ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ KML GML GeoRSS GPSX Boundary File/Shapefile
Keyhole Markup Language (KML) ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ A language for the visualisation of geographic information Placemarks Ground Overlays Paths Polygons Styles Google Earth Can be embedded in TEI
KML Object Model
Geographic Markup Langauge (GML) ‣ ‣ Adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Can be embedded in TEI
GML ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Feature Geometry Coordinate Reference System Topology Time Dynamic feature Coverage Unit of measure Directions ‣ ‣ Observations Map presentation styling rules
Place and the TEI ‣ ‣ ‣ Guidelines found in 13.2.3 Place Names and 13.3.4 Places in P5 First concerns naming of place (duh!) and the second the locating of the place in space (a little more complex) Placename ‣ ‣ <placeName @type/> or <geogName @type/> Place ‣ <place><placeName @type><location><geo/></location></ placename></place>
Place Naming ‣ placeName contains an absolute or relative place name to a geo-political reference. ‣ ‣ <placeName/ @key> eg. ‣ <placeName key=”FO-01”> <settlement type=””town”>OFFOY </settlement> <country type=”nation”>France </country> </placeName>
Place Naming ‣ ‣ ‣ geogName contains an absolute or relative reference to a geographic feature. <geogName/ @key @type> eg. ‣ <geogName key=”R01” type=”River”> <name>Somme</name> <geogFeature>River</geogFeature> </geogName>
Locating a Place ‣ ‣ place contains direct reference to the location of a place. eg. ‣ <place key=”offoy” type=”Town”> <placeName notBefore=”1450”>OFFOY</placeName> <location><geo> <kml:Placemark id=”OFF-01”> <kml:Point> <kml:coordinates>49.7634,3.0115 </kml:coordinates></kml:Point> </kml:Placemark></geo></location </place>
Complicating Considerations ‣ Specifying a Coordinate System (default:WGS84) ‣ ‣ Dealing with places with different names at different times ‣ ‣ ‣ <placeName notAfter="0056">Lugdunum</placeName> <placeName notBefore="1400">Lyon</placeName> Dealing with relative locations ‣ ‣ Otherwise use GeoDecl in TEI Header <offset> or <measure> Specifying a GML and KML within the TEI ‣ <geo><kml:Placemark/></geo>
Temporality and the TEI ‣ Referenced in 13.3.6 of P5 ! ‣ The TEI Date ‣ ‣ <date @type @when/> where YYYY-MM-DD <time @type @when/> where HH:MM:SS ! ‣ The TEI Event ‣ <event @key @when/><label/><description/><placeName/>
Encoding a Date ‣ ‣ date contains reference to a date in any format. eg. <date when=”1918-01-06” type=”Occassion”> 6 January 1918 </date> ! ! ! ! ! ‣ ‣ dates can be relative: eg. <date when="--12-02"> <date>A week</date> <offset>before</offset> <date when="--12-09"> <date type="occasion">my birthday </date> on <date>9th December </date></date></date>
Encoding a Time ‣ ‣ Time contains reference to a specific granular time of day. eg. <time when=”13:45:00” type=”twentyfourHour”> a quarter of two </time>
Complicating Considerations ‣ Don’t specify accuracy that doesn’t exist ‣ ‣ ‣ If a day missing from a date use “--” or extra seconds “00” Deal with other formats in transformation Dealing with relative time and date ‣ <offset>
Events Tie together Place and Time ‣ ‣ ‣ event contains contains data relating to any kind of significant event associated with a person or place. <event/ @when @type> eg. <event type="battle" when="1918-03-21"> <label>German Spring Offensive</label> <placeName> <region>Northern France</region> </placeName> </event>
Keyhole Markup Language KML ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ As I mentioned earlier it’s a language for the visualisation of geographic information There’s many entities that we can define in KML, we will focus on places --> Placemarks Ground Overlays, Paths, Polygons, Styles All of which can be embedded in TEI
KML and Precise Place and Time ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ <placemark/> <name/> <description/> <point> <coordinates/> <timeStamp/> <timeSpan/> <when/> <begin/><end/> <Folder/> <Document/>
Places to Visit ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Recipes: GIS Cookbook Reference for KML: KML Tutorial Standards: Open Geospatial Consortium News: Slashgeo Online Tutorial: MapSchool
How to Use Palladio
How to Use ARCGIS Online
for Next Lecture (11 March): Presenting Complex Data Objects Please take a look at: ! How Collaboration Works and How it Can Fail DH Contribution to Topic Modeling
Thank You email@example.com @iridium
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