Presentation2 EMOTION Main

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Information about Presentation2 EMOTION Main

Published on July 16, 2009

Author: dhirajsona


Slide 1: Maj Dhiraj Raja EMOTION ROAD MAP TO EMOTIONS : ROAD MAP TO EMOTIONS Introduction Definition. Theories of emotion. Development of emotion. Basic emotion & Psychological basis of emotion. Biology of emotion. Disorders of emotion Conclusion INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION In the Third Century BC, Aristotle Considered Emotion An Experiencing and Evaluating Stimuli that Weights Experiences Taking into Account the Potential for Gain or Pleasure. He beliefs that mind and body are two completely different entities. INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Dictionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries described emotion in a direct meaning from the Latin derivation emovere (to move away from): "1695: a moving out, a migration. 1735: causing a movement 1822: a physical moving, stirring or agitation" (Candland et al. 1977 p. 4). 1847: connected with the feelings or passions" (Candland et al 1977 p. 4). INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION "Emotion is a Complex Set of Interactions Among Subjective and Objective Factors, Mediated by Neural/hormonal Systems, Which Can: (A) Give Rise to Affective Experiences Such As Feelings of Arousal, Pleasure/displeasure; (B) Generate Cognitive Processes Such As Emotionally Relevant Perceptual Effects, Appraisals, Labeling Processes; (C)activate Widespread Physiological Adjustments to the Arousing Conditions; And (D) Lead to Behavior That is often, but not Always, Expressive, Goal Directed, and Adaptive.” (Kleinginna and Kleinginna1981p. 355). DEFINITION : DEFINITION An emotion is a stirred-up state due to physiological changes which occur as a response to some event and which tends to maintain or abolish the causative event. Fish’s clinical Psychopathology DEFINITION : DEFINITION “Any Agitation or Disturbance of Mind , Feeling Passion;Any Vehement or Excited Mental State.”-Oxford English Dict. Outward Expression of the Internal State INDIAN VIEW OF EMOTION : INDIAN VIEW OF EMOTION In India ''Navras'' (Nav) stands for 9 and (ras) for emotion or sentiment, together 9 emotions. The nine emotions are: humor, love, pathos, peace, wrath, supernaturalism, horror, disgust and heroism PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OFEMOTIONAL EXPRESSION : PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OFEMOTIONAL EXPRESSION Verbal Nonverbal – body language, gestures, looks Facial expressions universally understood send signals to autonomic nervous system Social learning BASIC EMOTIONS KEY AREAS : BASIC EMOTIONS KEY AREAS ----- ------------- EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION : EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION Facial Expressions Basic Emotions demonstrated by Ekman ,1992 FACIAL EXPRESSIONS : Display rules-People can manage their facial expression; internalized,cultural specific descriptions of who may show what emotion to whom and when;Ekman & Friesen,1969. Behavioral Ecology-An alternative by Fridiund ,1994-facial behaviors are displays that have evolved in relation to specific situational pressures,& their meaning can only be specified in relation to the context. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION : DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION BABIES, as everyone knows, have intense feelings from the moment of birth. But their early feelings are few, limited to the most primitive such as distress and disgust. Only with the passage of time does the full emotional blossom. By DANIEL GOLEMAN Published: June 19, 1984 DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION : DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION ''Everything we know about a child shows that healthy emotional development is the key to other kinds of growth.'' -Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, a Harvard University researcher and popular author on child development DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION : DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION At birth the infant has only the most elementary emotional life, but by 10 months infants display the full range of what are considered the basic emotions: joy, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise and fear. A major period of growth in a child's emotional life, according to Dr. Kagan, occurs around 5 or 6 years, when a child has a firm sense of himself and how he compares to others. By DANIEL GOLEMAN Published: June 19, 1984 WHEN THE FEELINGS ARRIVE EMOTIONAL CAPACITIES? : WHEN THE FEELINGS ARRIVE EMOTIONAL CAPACITIES? Present at Birth: Pleasure Surprise Disgust Distress By 6-8 Weeks: Joy By 3-4 Months: Anger By 8-9 Months: Sadness Fear By 12-18 Months: Tender Affection By 18 Months: Shame By 2 Years: Pride By 3-4 Years: Guilt By 5-6 Years: Social Emotions, Including: Insecurity Humility Confidence Envy By Adolescence: Romantic Passion Philosophical Brooding Source: Joseph Campos at the University of Denver, and Other Researchers THEORIES OF EMOTION : THEORIES OF EMOTION James Lange theory Cannon Bard theory Schachter’s cognitive theory Pultchik theory of relationship among emotions Leeper & Tomkin theory of emotion & motivation COMMON SENSE VIEWWILLIAM JAMES,1884 : COMMON SENSE VIEWWILLIAM JAMES,1884 “We lose our fortune ,are sorry & weep;we meet a bear,are frightened & run;we are insulted by a rival,are angry & strike.” EMOTION STIMULUS PERCEPTION OF STIMULUS EMOTIONS BODILY CHANGES JAMES-LANGE THEORY : JAMES-LANGE THEORY “We feel sorry because we cry;angry because we strike;afraid because we tremble.” EMOTION STIMULUS PERCEPTION OF STIMULUS BODILY CHANGES EMOTION Perception of a stimulus causes bodily arousal which leads to emotion James Lange theory : James Lange theory William James, 1884 Schachter’s cognitive theory : Schachter’s cognitive theory Cortex creates cognitive response to peripheral information consistent with individuals expectations & social context Injected volunteers with Epinephrine EFFECT OF CATECHOLAMINE INFUSION : EFFECT OF CATECHOLAMINE INFUSION Two factor theory of emotion -Schachter,1964 He claimed that emotion only result when other-wise-unexplained physiological arousal is labeled by cognitive appraisal. Perception and thought about a stimulus influence the type of emotion felt Degree of bodily arousal influences the intensity of emotion felt Cannon & Bard theory : Cannon & Bard theory Studies on cats by Cannon & Bard : Sham Rage Role of hypothalamus & thalamus Cannon & Bard theory : Cannon & Bard theory Proposed That Thalamic and Hypothalamic Centers Organize Emotional Responses to Stimuli. These Centers Are Controlled by Inhibition From the Cerebral Cortex. The Papez Circuit is a Neural Circuit of Emotions in the Limbic System Pultchik theory of relationship among emotions : Pultchik theory of relationship among emotions Emotion differ in three ways-intensity,similarity,polarity or oppositeness. Spatial model representing the relationship Within each primary –emotion the strongest emotion are at the top BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF EMOTIONS : BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF EMOTIONS Slide 28: PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS PERIPHERAL FACTORS : PERIPHERAL FACTORS The James-Lange theory of Emotions Spinal cord lesion Physiological differentiation of emotion SPINAL CORD LESIONS : SPINAL CORD LESIONS Early studies of patient with spinal cord lesions provided evidences that the lesion result in decreased intensity of emotional feeling.Some suggested that the decrement is greater with lesions higher up the spinal cord. -Dana,1964; Hohmann,1966 Later studies have failed to find any such effect of injury. -Lowe & Carroll,1985 -Bermond et al.,1991 PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF EMOTIONS : PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF EMOTIONS The endocrine & autonomic nervous system are capable of much more differentiated activity then Cannon was aware of -Janiag,2003 Facial Feed Back Theory - argues that our emotional experience is determined by the expression we have on our faces.- -Laird,1974 Keillor et al.2002 reported a case of a woman with complete paralysis of the facial muscles who nevertheless responded normally to emotional stimuli. CENTRAL MECHANISMS IN EMOTION : CENTRAL MECHANISMS IN EMOTION Cannon-Bard theory The Orbit frontal cortex Emotion and the Amygdla The Cingulate cortex The Limbic system Hemispheric Lateralization & Emotion ORBITO FRONTAL CORTEX : ORBITO FRONTAL CORTEX The Frontal Lobe, Especially the Orbitofrontal Cortex,at the Base of the Frontal Lobe Receives Input From Various Brain Location Involved in Emotion. It Sends Fiber to the Hippocampus, the Amygdla, & the Lateral Hypothalamus. Damage to Frontal Lobe Has a Calming Effect. The Orbitofrontal Lobe Plays a Role in Reward Mechanism & Seems to Mediate the of Use Emotion to Direct Judgments. ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX : ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX Brain imaging studies have shown that it is involved in response to pleasant unpleasant situations, as varied as touch and odors(Francis et al.,1999) ,food & monetary reward (Thut et al.,1997) . Its role seems to be use emotion to direct Judgements(Damasio,1996) PHINEAS GAGE MID 19th CENTURY : PHINEAS GAGE MID 19th CENTURY Lesion of ventro medial frontal cortex Before lesion serious,efficient & energetic worker. Afterwards became childish,apathetic,rude irresponsible, thoughtless Disinhibition Planning for future lost CORTICAL MECHANISM : CORTICAL MECHANISM Autonomic & generalized arousal Learning & experience - cognitive aspects of emotion Memory & imagination evoke emotions Conscious thought can suppress reflex emotional responses EMOTION & THE AMYGDLA : EMOTION & THE AMYGDLA Coordinates peripheral & affective component Lesion impairs both Electrical stimulation - Fear EMOTION & THE AMYGDLA : EMOTION & THE AMYGDLA BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF AMYGDLA : BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF AMYGDLA Emotional assessment Input from all sensory modalities Projects to the orbit frontal cortex, medio-dorsal thalamus and ventral striatum Explicit memory of facial identity (input inferotemporal cortex) Emotional responses to facial expressions BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF AMYGDLA : BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF AMYGDLA Slide 41: CENTRAL NUCLEUS Autonomic control CINGULAT CORTEX : CINGULAT CORTEX Region of cerebral cortex surrounding the thalamus. It is the part of PAPEZ circuit. Tolle et al.,1999 have shown that different aspect of pain activate different parts of the cingulate cortex,as well as other brain region. CINGULATE CORTEX : CINGULATE CORTEX Surgical removal of cingulate cortex have been use to treat intractable pain in humans(Kondziolka,1999). Activation of the cingulate cortex has been shown in clinical depression, and even in sad moods.(Mayberg et al.,1999) LIMBIC SYSTEM : LIMBIC SYSTEM Limbic Lobe Deep lying structures Amygdala Hippocampus Mamillary bodies Secondary Emotions MAJOR CONNECTION OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM : MAJOR CONNECTION OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM PAPEZ CIRCUIT : PAPEZ CIRCUIT PAPEZ CIRCUIT : PAPEZ CIRCUIT Self sustaining, complete emotional experience Cingulate gyrus & parahippocampal gyrus-perception of emotion First evidence Kluver & Bucy (1939) KLUVER BUCY SYNDROME : KLUVER BUCY SYNDROME Removal of temporal lobe in animals Damage to amygdala Aggressive, raging animal became Docile, orally fixated, increased sexual and compulsive behaviors HYPOTHALAMUS : HYPOTHALAMUS Primary Emotions: Fear and Anger Integrates inputs Peripheral expression Lateral – Pleasure & rage Medial - Aversion & displeasure RAGE : RAGE Bard (1928) showed that removal of the cerebral cortex of cats may result in extreme,undirected aggressive behavior:SHAM RAGE. Subsequent removal of the Hypothalamus or the lower posterior portion of the thalamus stops the shame rage REWARD CENTRE : REWARD CENTRE Electrical stimulation satisfies the animal Chooses electrical stimulation even over the food Centers along MFB, septum, amygdala, thalamus,VTA Brain reward mechanisms : Brain reward mechanisms VTA stimulation produces dopamine release in Nucleus Accumbens Phillips et al 1992 (Microdialysis) Stimulation is rewarding PUNISHMENT CENTRE : PUNISHMENT CENTRE Animal turns off the stimulus Stimulation causes signs of displeasure, fear Central gray, periventricular zones of hypothalamus & thalamus Punishment & fear take preference HEMISPHERIC LATERALIZATION AND RECOGNITION : HEMISPHERIC LATERALIZATION AND RECOGNITION Two hemispheres have different emotional roles -Tucker & Fredrick,1989 Rt.hemisphere lesions lead to impaired ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion.-Etcoff,1984 Lt.hemisphere for positive affect(Davidson et al.,1992) & Rt.hemisphere for negative emotion (Zald et al.,1998) Slide 58: NEURAL MECHANISM OF EMOTION EXPRESSION Neocortical processing Sub-neocortical processing Skeletomotor & autonomic control systems Periphery S t i m u l u s Following Damage to Part of the Prefrontal Cortex,thalamus , Or the Basal Ganglion,an Individual May Be Able to Produce Voluntary Expressions,but Will Not Show Facial Expressions When Emotionally Aroused.-e.g;Parkinson’s Disease. NEURAL MECHANISM IN EMOTION RECOGNITION : NEURAL MECHANISM IN EMOTION RECOGNITION Rt.Cerebral Hemisphere is Involved in the Recognition of Emotion in Facial & Vocal Emotion. Judgment of Emotions in Facial Expressions Was Most Affected Lesions in the Rt. Somatosensory Cortex,with Different Emotions Affected by Different,but Overlapping Regions.-Adolphs et al.;2000 NEURAL MECHANISM IN EMOTION RECOGNITION : NEURAL MECHANISM IN EMOTION RECOGNITION Emotion recognition from tone of voice produces greater activity in the right prefrontal cortex-George et al.,1996 Amygdala is involved in recognition of emotion,particularly fear,from visual stimuli-Sato et al.,2002 Adolph,Baron-Cohen & Tranel(2002)-damage to the Amygdala produces social emotion(guilt) deficit rather than basic emotions(happiness & anger) RESPONSE ( LE DOUX ) : RESPONSE ( LE DOUX ) Rapid response - thalamus to amygdala- autonomic changes  Complex emotions processed by cortex –  Take time to process –   Affected by interpretations, memories & expectations EMOTIONAL PERCEPTION : EMOTIONAL PERCEPTION DISORDERS OF EMOTION : DISORDERS OF EMOTION Abnormal emotional predispositions Abnormal emotional reaction Abnormal expressions of emotion Morbid disorders of emotion Morbid disorders of the expressions of emotion. Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology STRESS AND PSYCHOMOTIC ILLNESS : STRESS AND PSYCHOMOTIC ILLNESS Any situation that causes harm or hreat to the person or the body is described as a STRESS. The body’s characteristics response to stressor is known as the stress response. Hans Selye(1936) “People Suffering From a Wide Variety of Stressors Showed a Common Pattern of Symptoms.” GENERAL ADAPTAION SYNDROME(GAN) : GENERAL ADAPTAION SYNDROME(GAN) STRESSOR ALARM REACTION STAGE OF RESISTANCE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION THREE PHASES OF SELYE’S GAD : THREE PHASES OF SELYE’S GAD NORMAL LEVEL R E S I S T A N C E TO D I S E A S E + _ SELEY’S TWO COMPONENT OF THE STRESS REACTION : SELEY’S TWO COMPONENT OF THE STRESS REACTION THE SYMPATHETIC-ADRENAL MEDULLA AXIS THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY-ADRENAL CORTEX AXIS S T E R E S S O R HYPOTHALAMUS SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM ANTERIOR PITUITARY ADRENAL MEDULLA ADRENAL CORTEX EPINEPHRINRE NOREPINEPHRINE GLUCOCORTICOIDS ALLOSTATIC LOAD OF STRES RESPONSE : ALLOSTATIC LOAD OF STRES RESPONSE The longer term effects of stress have recently been viewed in term of ALLOSTATIC LOAD (Mc Ewen & Seeman,2003) Allostasis is the maintenance of stability in the body through physiological change. Prolonged or Repeated stress leads to allostatic load which dispose a person to illness. INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS : INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS The stress response occurs not only to physical stressors ,but also to psychological ones,such as perceived danger,or illness,or illness of close relative. Holmes & Rahe(1967) produced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.This is a list of 43 events with score in unit from 11 to 100 units. INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS : INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS D I S T R E S S C Y C L E INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS : INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO STRESS W E L L N E S S C Y C L E AGGRESSION THE NATURE OF AGGRESSION : AGGRESSION THE NATURE OF AGGRESSION Affective aggression or defensive aggression-is aggressive behavior when attacked or threatened.Accompanied by high level of sym.stimulation. Predation:aggressive behavior directed at a member of another species,usually food,usually consists of a single attack without threat display.No high sym.arousal. HUMAN AGGRESSION : HUMAN AGGRESSION More frequent in male than female.This difference is largest in pre-school children,moderate in 9-12 yr, & smaller in young adults(hyde,1986) Sex diff. Is largest for physical violence. Male aggression increases at puberty. Castration usually decreases aggressivness. Higher aggressiveness seem to relate to higher circulating testosterone androgens(Archer,1994) CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Certain Emotion Expressions are Innate and Universal and Have Significant Functions in Infant Development and in Infant–parent Relations and that There are Stable Individual Differences in Emotion Expressiveness. Emotion States Influence What People Perceive, Learn, and Remember, and They are Involved in the Development of Empathic, Altruistic, and Moral Behavior and in Basic Personality Traits. Slide 75: REFERENCES CTP MORGAN & KING TEXT BOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY WAGNER & SILBER PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY FISH’S CLINICAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MUNN’S PSYCHOLOGY Slide 76: THANK YOU

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