presentation Mexico and Brazil

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Information about presentation Mexico and Brazil

Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Urban


Comparative Politics:  Comparative Politics Brazil and Mexico PoliSci Department SUNY @ Stony Brook POL 103 (Section 2) Spring 2005 Instructor: Udi Sommer Mexico - Themes:  Mexico - Themes 1st Latin American country Proximity with the USA – wars, territory, institutions Institutions – presidential system, federalism, dominant executive “State Party” – the PRI A detailed constitution – more encompassing than its contemporaries Continuous civilian government – no military regime Patronage and clientalism Colonial era:  Colonial era 16th Century – arrival of Spaniards The Colonial Period – 300 years Independence from Spain – early 19th century The Mexican – American War:  The Mexican – American War 1846 – 1848 Mexico looses large territories to the USA General Porfirio Díaz: "¡Pobre México! Tan lejos de Dios, y tan cerca de los Estados Unidos." ("Poor Mexico! So far from God, and so close to the United States."). Later in 19th century – French occupation The Mexican Revolution:  The Mexican Revolution Starting in 1910 A new constitution in 1917 A comprehensive and extremely liberal constitution e.g. – social guarantees, collective labour rights The Mexican Revolution:  The Mexican Revolution Followed by a period of constant instability Only in the 1920s was the PNM (Partido Naciolalista Mexicano) able to unite the opposing factions PNM later became PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional – Institutional Revolutionary Party) The Mexican Revolution:  The Mexican Revolution PRI was to hold political power for the next 70 years. Also marks the beginning of a tradition of political patronage Characteristics of Mexican politics:  Characteristics of Mexican politics Decisive role of the Mexican Revolution Spanish colonialism Heavy state involvement in economics Supremacy of the executive Occupation, and territorial loses to the USA Civilian supremacy over the army Early 1940s:  Early 1940s By early 1940s 2 accomplishments: Emphasis on nationalism as a force in Mexican politics Institutional structures are well-defined (federalism, dominant civilian president, loyalists of the president within the party, rotation of power in the party etc.) The 1980s:  The 1980s Financial crisis Organization of the system breaks down Mexico opens up economically Some of the reforms are not welcomed by members of PRI PRI breaks down The 1980s and 1990s:  The 1980s and 1990s Leadership of PRI aims to integrate Mexico in the trends of globalization In 2000 PRI looses presidential elections Supreme court reviews electoral matters The elections are regulated Opposition parties increase their power and influence 2006 presidential elections:  2006 presidential elections Issues on the agenda for the coming presidential elections include: Recognition of human and labour rights Support for public education Improvement of public health and social security The Constitution:  The Constitution Of the most radical and comprehensive in modern political history Imported liberal principles (e.g. federalism, Separation of Powers, Bill of Rights) Strong nationalist proclamation Separation of Church and State Some provisions are contradictory The Constitution:  The Constitution An activist state The most advanced labour code of its time Right to organize Protection of women and minors in the workplace Minimum wage Mexican Institutions – The Executive:  Mexican Institutions – The Executive The presidency is a paramount institution “six-years-monarchy” Directly elected HS + HG + Commander in Chief No VP No re-election Extensive appointment authority Mexico – The Executive:  Mexico – The Executive Structure of cabinet is flexible Mysterious process of presidential succession The candidate reflects change or continuity in the system. To the discretion of the predecessor Skilful attentiveness to public opinion Beginning in 2000 – the candidate is nominated by a nominating convention Mexico – The Legislature:  Mexico – The Legislature Bicameral congress Upper chamber – Senate – Camara de Senadores Lower chamber – Chamber of deputies – Camara de Diputados Legislation (90% of which is initiated by the executive) Mexico – Senate – Camara de Senadores:  Mexico – Senate – Camara de Senadores 128 members 4 members from each state 3 representatives from the state’s largest party 1 representative from the second largest party in the state Mexico – Chamber of deputies – Camara de Diputados:  Mexico – Chamber of deputies – Camara de Diputados 500 members 200 representatives through PR 300 through SMD No re-election to consecutive terms Mexico – The Legislature:  Mexico – The Legislature Powers: Pass laws Impose taxes Declare war Approve national budget Ratify diplomatic apointments Mexico – The Legislature:  Mexico – The Legislature Mexico – The Legislature:  Mexico – The Legislature Committees of each of the chambers Joint committees Has become increasingly important since the mid 1990s An important element in the process of democratisation in Mexico Mexico – The Judiciary:  Mexico – The Judiciary A federal system and a state system Highest instance is: Supreme Court of Justice Justices are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate Appointed for life but submit their resignation at the end of each sexenio Chiapas:  Chiapas Zapatistas Sporadic clashes Military presence greatly reduced after Fox won the presidency in 2000 Parties – PRI:  Parties – PRI Held every major political position since the Mexican revolution for 70 years Central role in modernization of Mexico A “state-party” Agenda changed with leaders and with time Key events in PRI’s recent history Parties – PAN:  Parties – PAN PAN – Partido Accion Nacional – the National Action Party Currently the ruling party Founded in 1939 Center-right party In opposition until 2000 Parties – PAN:  Parties – PAN Agenda – Center-right Free enterprise Reduction in taxes Reduction of government interference Reform of the welfare state Brazil:  Brazil Brazil - Themes:  Brazil - Themes Role of the military in politics Socio-economic gaps – unequal distribution of income Clientatlism and patronage Dictatorship Frequent constitutional changes República Federativa do Brasil :  República Federativa do Brasil The largest and most populous country in South America Spanning between the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east The Great Depression (1920s-1930s):  The Great Depression (1920s-1930s) Dependency on coffee production and foreign investment Devastating implications of the US stock market crash Government fell apart -> the revolution of 1930 The Revolution of 1930:  The Revolution of 1930 Powerful groups (politically and economically): Urban bourgeoisie North-eastern sugar barons Coffee oligarchs of the south Vargas manages to unite those groups behind him Getulio Vargas:  Getulio Vargas Starting with an army coup Support of popular sectors Demagogic appeals Extremely intricate political coalition – ever-changing Corporatism Interests are incorporated through joint decision-making mechanisms. Getulio Vargas:  Getulio Vargas A revolution from above lead by oligarchs “the father of the poor” Fascism: Industrial growth and nationlism Suppressing the working class Estado Novo:  Estado Novo Vargas’ new dictatorship The Cohen Plan Established power within the exiting system, not a revolution Federal executive controls economy across the nation Five-year plans Second Vargas presidency:  Second Vargas presidency Vargas wins elections again in the elections of 1950 Commits suicide due to high tension with the military and fear of a coup Important elements: Populism Economic nationalism Constantly changing coalition Towards military rule:  Towards military rule Kubitschek – pursues the same legacy of populism and economic nationalism Constructs Brasilia Gradual increase in the degree of dominance of the military e.g. – under Goulart Brazil turns into a parliamentary system, due to pressure from the military Military Rule:  Military Rule 1964 – 1985 Economic reforms Putting Brazil on the world stage as an economic power From Military Rule to Democratization:  From Military Rule to Democratization Move away from authoritarianship starts with president Geisel (1974 – 1979) Promotes massive investments Change in foreign policy Redemocratization:  Redemocratization A new president, there – “to make this country a democracy” Large-scale strikes Rising inflation People take to the streets and demand direct vote Redemocratization:  Redemocratization Only in 1989 the first popularly elected president A central goal is to deal with the economic gap This brings Lula da Silva to the presidency Problems of socio-economic contradictions around the big cities Drug trafficking Brazil - Constitution:  Brazil - Constitution 8 constitutions since 1822 The current constitution: “citizen constitution” Stronger role of state in economy A very liberal constitution Federal presidential republic Decentralized capitalism Brazil – The Executive:  Brazil – The Executive Originally terms of 5 years – reduced to 4 in 1994 Directly elected by the people Huge appointment powers Every president tried to form the post according to his preferences Brazil – The Legislature:  Brazil – The Legislature Bicameral legislature Chamber of deputies (513 members, PR, 4 years) Senate (81 members, 8 years) Weak parties Low cohesion in Congress Peak of power in 1992 – impeachment Brazil – The Judiciary:  Brazil – The Judiciary Federal State Municipal Only appointments to the superior courts are political System is inefficient Lower courts do not follow jurisprudence Comparison of Mexico and Brazil:  Comparison of Mexico and Brazil Similarities: Extreme potential “the country of the future” Income inequality Industrialization Clientalism and patronage Institutions and procedures Comparison of Mexico and Brazil:  Comparison of Mexico and Brazil Dissimilarities: The effect of oil Relations between civilian government and military The role of the military in politics History prior to the republics

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