Presentation Ireland Special%2520 Nov08%2520%252708 3 1 %252525255 B2%252525255 D%2525255 B1%2525255 D%25255 B1%25255 D%255 B1%255 D%5 B1%5 D[1].Ppt.

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Published on December 12, 2008

Author: guest70760d0

Source: slideshare.net

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Historic Tour of Ireland

Dublin’s Fair City Dublin a Modern European City and The Capital City of Ireland

Dublin Presentation By C O Ghallchobhair How to Use: (in power-point) A. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to bring up the information on each slide. B. Use the on-screen arrow keys to move to the next slide. C. You can also use the on-screen arrow keys to move back to the previous slide. D. The Home Button will bring you back to the start of the presentation. E. There are also some links that you can click on; to go to relevant information from some slides. Click on the right arrow key to continue >>

Dublin Presentation The History of The City and Area Viking Period to Modern Times

 

Use the Down Arrow Key on your keyboard to obtain information on each slide Try it now! Thanks that’s great (press it again) You are ready to continue! (press it again) Now Click on the right hand on-screen arrow to continue >>>>> Click to return to last page viewed 

Dublin City The city can trace it’s origin back over 2000 years. First settlement was called Eblana. Today's city was originally founded by the Vikings. Much of the grand city seen today was later built by the British Empire from the 16 th to the 19 th Century. – Dublin was built as a 2 nd Capital show, piece of Great Britain’s that vast Empire. The town appears in history as Dubh-linn, which is Gaelic for (Blackpool) – AD 291 Baile Atha Cliath is the official name, which came from a settlement there at a later date. Please use the down arrow key to move to next slide . Don’t forget to use the down arrow key on your keyboard. Thanks XXXXXXXXXX

The city can trace it’s origin back over 2000 years.

First settlement was called Eblana.

Today's city was originally founded by the Vikings.

Much of the grand city seen today was later built by the British Empire from the 16 th to the 19 th Century.

– Dublin was built as a 2 nd Capital show, piece of Great Britain’s that vast Empire.

The town appears in history as Dubh-linn, which is Gaelic for (Blackpool) – AD 291

Baile Atha Cliath is the official name, which came from a settlement there at a later date.

Please use the down arrow key to move to next slide .

DUBLIN Dublin has often figured prominently in Irish history. On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>

Dublin has often figured prominently in Irish history.

Christian Dublin Dublin’s early settlement inhabitants were converted to Christianity about the year 450 by St. Patrick On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>

Dublin’s early settlement inhabitants were converted to Christianity about

the year 450 by St. Patrick

St. Patrick

Early Medieval & Viking Dublin The Danish Vikings captured the City of Dublin in the 9 th Century. The Celts gained control back in 1014, 1075 and 1124 . In 1171 the Danes were expelled by the Celt’s and the Anglo~Normans, who were led by The Earl of Pembroke Strongbow and King Henry II of England. Henry held court in Dublin until 1172, he later made the town a dependency of the English City of Bristol.

The Danish Vikings captured the City of Dublin in the 9 th Century.

The Celts gained control back in 1014, 1075 and 1124 .

In 1171 the Danes were expelled by the Celt’s and the Anglo~Normans, who were led by The Earl of Pembroke Strongbow and King Henry II of England.

Henry held court in Dublin until 1172, he later made the town a dependency of the English City of Bristol.

Viking Dublin The Vikings originally attempted to conquer the whole country. The Celtic Chieftains forced them to withdraw back to Dublin, Waterford, Wexford and Youghal. These Viking settlements merged into a mosaic of small kingdoms.

The Vikings originally attempted to conquer the whole country.

The Celtic Chieftains forced them to withdraw back to Dublin, Waterford, Wexford and Youghal.

These Viking settlements merged into a mosaic of small kingdoms.

The Viking Fleet In 914 the Vikings brought a huge Viking fleet which arrived in Waterford. VIKING LONGBOATS IN HARBOUR Viking longboat

In 914 the Vikings brought a huge Viking fleet which arrived in Waterford.

The Viking Stronghold They attacked all of Leinster and Munster from their settlements in the eastern costal areas of Dublin and Waterford. The Vikings then kept raiding villages and Irish monasteries and making off with their booty to Scandinavia!

They attacked all of Leinster and Munster from their settlements in the eastern costal areas of Dublin and Waterford.

The Vikings then kept raiding villages and Irish monasteries and making off with their booty to Scandinavia!

Chieftain Brian Boru The Vikings were first driven out of Dublin by Brian Boru, who became High King of Ireland. He was helped by his other fellow Chieftains. He took to his throne; the throne of all Ireland, at the Rock of Cashel.

The Vikings were first driven out of Dublin by Brian Boru, who became High King of Ireland.

He was helped by his other fellow Chieftains.

He took to his throne; the throne of all Ireland, at the Rock of Cashel.

Brian Boru Chieftain Brian Boru the last great High King of all Ireland

The Chieftain Clan Wars The Boru Clan lost their status as High King’s shortly after the Vikings had been driven out. The deals with other Chieftains had collapsed and Clan warfare ensued. Much Chieftain feuding and battles between the clans then occurred. Now various Chieftain’s were wrestling with each other over all the land, with no High King in charge.

The Boru Clan lost their status as High King’s shortly after the Vikings had been driven out.

The deals with other Chieftains had collapsed and Clan warfare ensued.

Much Chieftain feuding and battles between the clans then occurred.

Now various Chieftain’s were wrestling with each other over all the land, with no High King in charge.

Chieftain O’Connor & Chieftain McMurrough After the Irish Clan wars, eventually Rory O’Connor and Dermot McMurrough became contenders for overall control of the Island. This included Dublin and Leinster of course, now that the Vikings had gone. McMurrough was defeated and Rory O’Connor gained control as High King Chieftain of Ireland.

After the Irish Clan wars, eventually Rory O’Connor and Dermot McMurrough became contenders for overall control of the Island.

This included Dublin and Leinster of course, now that the Vikings had gone.

McMurrough was defeated and Rory O’Connor gained control as High King Chieftain of Ireland.

Chieftain Dermot McMurrough The manipulative Chieftain McMurrough, who did a deal with Strongbow to re-gain power in Dublin amd Leinster.

The manipulative Chieftain McMurrough, who did a deal with Strongbow to re-gain power in Dublin amd Leinster.

Chieftains O’Connor & McMurrough Chieftain Rory O’Connor had a Castle in Castlerea in Connacht. O’Connor now took the throne of Ireland at the formidable castle at Cashel. “ The Rock of Cashel”.

Chieftain Rory O’Connor had a Castle in Castlerea in Connacht.

O’Connor now took the throne of Ireland at the formidable castle at Cashel.

“ The Rock of Cashel”.

The Rock of Cashel On the main Dublin-Cork road, you are transported back 1,500 years. This was the seat of Kings and medieval bishops for 900 years and flourished until the early 17th century.

High King Ruairi O’Connor O’Connor Coat of Arms – Chieftains of Connacht, Clare & Sligo ( High Kings)

O’Connor Coat of Arms – Chieftains of Connacht, Clare & Sligo

( High Kings)

Strongbow Strongbow, a very powerful knight arrived in Ireland from Anglo~Norman England with a very skilled and professional army in 1170 . The famous Cider depicting the Norman Earl of Pembroke Strongbow. Richard de Clare

Strongbow, a very powerful knight arrived in Ireland from Anglo~Norman England with a very skilled and professional army in 1170 .

Strongbow Richard de Clare – the 2 nd Earl of Pembroke. Richard was King Henry II of England’s trusted knight of the realm. Strongbow, although fairly ruthless, was also a very fine soldier and knight. He was a superbly skilled archer * - hence the name. *de Clare brought into effective military use; the strongbow, to his fellow archers.

Richard de Clare – the 2 nd Earl of Pembroke.

Richard was King Henry II of England’s trusted knight of the realm.

Strongbow, although fairly ruthless, was also a very fine soldier and knight. He was a superbly skilled archer * - hence the name.

*de Clare brought into effective military use; the strongbow, to his fellow archers.

Strongbow’s Castle in Wales Pembroke Castle – Norman home and Stronghold of Richard de Clare 2 nd Earl of Pembroke

Pembroke Castle – Norman home and Stronghold of

Richard de Clare 2 nd Earl of Pembroke

Strongbow Lord Strongbow arrived in Waterford and proceeded to attack north with a large force and with the help of McMurrough’s loyal clan supporters he quickly took Dublin.

Lord Strongbow arrived in Waterford and proceeded to attack north with a large force and with the help of McMurrough’s loyal clan supporters he quickly took Dublin.

Strongbow & Aoife

Strongbow Strongbow duly married McMurrough’s daughter Aoife, as agreed. Interestingly he married whilst Waterford still burned, and it is said that “the River Suir still ran red with the blood of the slain”, these were medieval times. Marring Aoife thus, brought himself in line to the Chieftain throne of Leinster after McMurrough himself died. (Strongbow thus also inherited divine right to rule Leinster)

Strongbow duly married McMurrough’s daughter Aoife, as agreed.

Interestingly he married whilst Waterford still burned, and it is said that “the River Suir still ran red with the blood of the slain”, these were medieval times.

Marring Aoife thus, brought himself in line to the Chieftain throne of Leinster after McMurrough himself died.

(Strongbow thus also inherited divine right to rule Leinster)

Strongbow’s Chieftain ~ Norman Wedding Strongbow’s marriage to Chieftain McMurrough’s Daughter Aoife in Waterford.

Strongbow’s marriage to Chieftain McMurrough’s Daughter Aoife in Waterford.

Strongbow King of Dublin & Leinster Lord Strongbow was now high regent and Lord of Norman (Anglo~French) rule in Ireland for the English King, Henry II . Strongbow, was also now King of Leinster and he took up court in Dublin in 1171 and he also built the first of the large Norman castles in Kilkenny in 1172 .

Lord Strongbow was now high regent and Lord of Norman (Anglo~French) rule in Ireland for the English King, Henry II .

Strongbow, was also now King of Leinster and he took up court in Dublin in 1171 and he also built the first of the large Norman castles in Kilkenny in 1172 .

Henry II

King Henry II Henry believed Strongbow would become too powerful in Ireland, and Strongbow could easily become the King of Ireland as he was better equipped and stronger than Chief O’Connor.

Henry believed Strongbow would become too powerful in Ireland, and Strongbow could easily become the King of Ireland as he was better equipped and stronger than Chief O’Connor.

Henry II Henry II did not trust Strongbow to remain loyal to the Crown. He believed Strongbow wanted his own expanded Kingdom of Ireland, separate from the English Crown.

Henry II did not trust Strongbow to remain loyal to the Crown.

He believed Strongbow wanted his own expanded Kingdom of Ireland, separate from the English Crown.

Henry II & Strongbow Henry II arrived in 1171 via Waterford and accepted loyalty directly from the Roman Catholic Bishops, who believed Henry had been sent by the Pope in Rome. The Chieftains gave their loyalty and O’Connor had now been re-instated as High King of Ireland, and Strongbow in theory now had only as much power as O’Connor’s other subordinate Chieftains.

Henry II arrived in 1171 via Waterford and accepted loyalty directly from the Roman Catholic Bishops, who believed Henry had been sent by the Pope in Rome.

The Chieftains gave their loyalty and O’Connor had now been re-instated as High King of Ireland, and Strongbow in theory now had only as much power as O’Connor’s other subordinate Chieftains.

Henry II Henry II without any Battles had now conquered Ireland and he became: “ Lord of Ireland.”

Henry II without any Battles had now conquered Ireland and he became:

“ Lord of Ireland.”

Strongbow & O’Connor Under Henry II, the High King Rory O’Connor was again the High Chieftain for the Island of Ireland; Connacht, Munster, Ulster and Leinster. Strongbow & Aoife controlled the eastern part of Ireland from Dublin to Waterford, Leinster.

Under Henry II, the High King Rory O’Connor was again the High Chieftain for the Island of Ireland; Connacht, Munster, Ulster and Leinster.

Strongbow & Aoife controlled the eastern part of Ireland from Dublin to Waterford, Leinster.

Strongbow’s Power Strongbow – still a knight of the English realm, was now demoted to a Chieftain~Lord of Leinster, (no longer a king) with O’Connor and King Henry II now his masters. Strongbow still ruled in Leinster with great steal and consolidated his Norman rule in the East. He built magnificent Castles and fortifications to protect Anglo~Norman Control.

Strongbow – still a knight of the English realm, was now demoted to a Chieftain~Lord of Leinster, (no longer a king) with O’Connor and King Henry II now his masters.

Strongbow still ruled in Leinster with great steal and consolidated his Norman rule in the East.

He built magnificent Castles and fortifications to protect Anglo~Norman Control.

Strongbow Strongbow was summoned to England for the Treaty of Windsor in 1175 between King Henry II and Rory O'Connor, high king of Ireland. He now had to also make peace and now work with Chieftain Rory O’Connor, as ordered to by Henry II.

Strongbow was summoned to England for the Treaty of Windsor in 1175 between King Henry II and Rory O'Connor, high king of Ireland.

He now had to also make peace and now work with Chieftain Rory O’Connor, as ordered to by Henry II.

Waterford to Dublin Ireland’s second port and staging post for the sieges and naval landings on Dublin and the East of Ireland. Firstly by the Vikings, McMurrough & Strongbow & King Henry II himself. Waterford City on the River Suir

Ireland’s second port and staging post for the sieges and naval landings on Dublin and the East of Ireland.

Firstly by the Vikings, McMurrough & Strongbow & King Henry II himself.

Strongbow’s Dublin After Henry II came to establish overall power in Ireland, Strongbow and Aoife were still to remain The Norman -Chieftain rulers of Leinster. Strongbow took court at Dublin Castle and at Kilkenny Castle further south into Leinster. He left a strong legacy behind in Anglo~ Norman Dublin and Leinster.

After Henry II came to establish overall power in Ireland, Strongbow and Aoife were still to remain The Norman -Chieftain rulers of Leinster.

Strongbow took court at Dublin Castle and at Kilkenny Castle further south into Leinster.

He left a strong legacy behind in Anglo~ Norman Dublin and Leinster.

Strongbow at Dublin Castle Strongbow died in June 1176 of some type of infection in his leg or foot. He was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Dublin, his tomb is now vaulted at Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin City. He left a son and a daughter, Gilbert and Isabel, Isabel who later married; William Marshall.

Strongbow died in June 1176 of some type of infection in his leg or foot.

He was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Dublin, his tomb is now vaulted at Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin City.

He left a son and a daughter, Gilbert and Isabel, Isabel who later married; William Marshall.

Christ Church Cathedral Christ Church Cathedral – Church of Ireland Cathedral Strongbow’s burial tomb lies here.

Christ Church Cathedral – Church of Ireland Cathedral

Strongbow’s Aftermath King Henry II took all of Strongbow's lands after his death and castles into his own hands. Henry then placed a royal official in charge of the land and installed a knight or lord commander at Dublin Castle.

King Henry II took all of Strongbow's lands after his death and castles into his own hands.

Henry then placed a royal official in charge of the land and installed a knight or lord commander at Dublin Castle.

The Widowed Eve Aoife, Strongbow’s wife (Eve), was given her dower rights and possibly held Strigul Castle, later called Chepstow Castle as part of those dower rights until the Welsh rebellion of 1184/85 . There is a record of Eve confirming a charter in Ireland in 1188/89 as: "comtissa de Hibernia".

Aoife, Strongbow’s wife (Eve), was given her dower rights and possibly held Strigul Castle, later called Chepstow Castle as part of those dower rights until the Welsh rebellion of 1184/85 .

There is a record of Eve confirming a charter in Ireland in 1188/89 as:

"comtissa de Hibernia".

“Eve at Chepstow Castle” Chepstow Castle, where Aoife MacMurchada (or Eve) may have resided after leaving Dublin Castle in the wake of the death of Strongbow, and the loss of her lands in Ireland to Henry II (In theory Aoife (Eve) would have inherited the lands because of her Chieftain Ladyship of Ireland (Leinster) as she was Strongbow’s widow and she, the daughter of Chieftain McMurrough.)

Chepstow Castle, where Aoife MacMurchada (or Eve) may have resided after leaving Dublin Castle in the wake of the death of Strongbow, and the loss of her lands in Ireland to Henry II

(In theory Aoife (Eve) would have inherited the lands because of her Chieftain Ladyship of Ireland (Leinster) as she was Strongbow’s widow and she, the daughter of Chieftain McMurrough.)

Sir William Marshall William Marshall took over in Dublin as King Henry II’s Lord of Leinster after Strongbow’s death. Marshall had also married into the de Clare estate trough Strongbow’s daughter Isabel. Marshall also later became Henry III regent – minder in 1216 , King John’s son was too young to become the English King on his own.

William Marshall took over in Dublin as King Henry II’s Lord of Leinster after Strongbow’s death.

Marshall had also married into the de Clare estate trough Strongbow’s daughter Isabel.

Marshall also later became Henry III regent – minder in 1216 , King John’s son was too young to become the English King on his own.

Norman Control The Normans then took over the whole land leaving only a small Irish Kingdom in the west of the country for King Henry’s loyal Celtic Cheiftain Rory O’Connor. Earldoms were set up for the remaining loyal Chieftains in Munster, Ulster and parts of Connacht. These Cheiftains now became Anglo~Celt Earls loyal to the Crown of England.

The Normans then took over the whole land leaving only a small Irish Kingdom in the west of the country for King Henry’s loyal Celtic Cheiftain Rory O’Connor.

Earldoms were set up for the remaining loyal Chieftains in Munster, Ulster and parts of Connacht. These Cheiftains now became Anglo~Celt Earls loyal to the Crown of England.

Norman Control Overlordship of Ireland had been established with Kilkenny Castle and Dublin Castle been the main strongholds of English~Norman power, as it was under Strongbow earlier. Kilkenny Castle is not very far from Dublin.

Overlordship of Ireland had been established with Kilkenny Castle and Dublin Castle been the main strongholds of English~Norman power, as it was under Strongbow earlier.

Kilkenny Castle is not very far from Dublin.

 

Norman English Kings Richard I “Richard the Lionheart” 1189 ~1199 Richard I Coeur de Lion Leads the Crusade to Jerusalem (left), to fight against the Turks for the Pope and Frederick I, the Holy Roman Emperor with King Philip II of France .

Richard I “Richard the Lionheart”

1189 ~1199

Richard The Lionheart Richard I statue Westminster Parliament Richard I ‘s Tomb Effigy at Fontevrault – L’abbaye France

Richard I statue Westminster Parliament

Richard I ‘s Tomb Effigy at Fontevrault – L’abbaye France

King John Prince John ~ Lord of Ireland, the title granted to him by Richard the Lionheart. Prince John held power on the throne of England, while King Richard was fighting in the crusades against the Turks and became therefore acting King of England. Prince John (Acting as King) 1190 ~ 1199 Richard I then died in 1199 leaving the crown to his brother King John, who now ruled on his own.

Prince John ~ Lord of Ireland, the title granted to him by Richard the Lionheart.

Prince John held power on the throne of England, while King Richard was fighting in the crusades against the Turks and became therefore acting King of England.

Prince John (Acting as King) 1190 ~ 1199

Richard I then died in 1199 leaving the crown to his brother King John, who now ruled on his own.

Norman English Kings of Ireland King John 1199 ~ 1216 King John was regarded as a cruel King and the least successful, though some military success occurred in Ireland and Scotland. He was known for raising high taxes and for breaking his own treaty (The Magna Carta) generally not liked by his subjects, unlike Richard I. *( Richard I who had maintained a small amount of control over his brother John until his death ).

King John 1199 ~ 1216

King John was regarded as a cruel King and the least successful, though some military success occurred in Ireland and Scotland. He was known for raising high taxes and for breaking his own treaty (The Magna Carta) generally not liked by his subjects, unlike Richard I.

*( Richard I who had maintained a small amount of control over his brother John until his death ).

The Magna Carta King John under great duress from his rebellious barons, was forced into introducing the Magna Carta into Law, a principle in law that still stands on the British and Irish statute today: The Charter’s main changes: Everybody would now have the right to a fair trail before imprisonment. The Archbishops and Cardinals could now appoint priests to positions of power without the King. 25 Barons would now scrutinise the King’s adherence to the Charter. The King would now have to consult the Barons on the issue of raising any taxes.

King John under great duress from his rebellious barons, was forced into introducing the Magna Carta into Law, a principle in law that still stands on the British and Irish statute today:

The Charter’s main changes:

Everybody would now have the right to a fair trail before imprisonment.

The Archbishops and Cardinals could now appoint priests to positions of power without the King.

25 Barons would now scrutinise the King’s adherence to the Charter.

The King would now have to consult the Barons on the issue of raising any taxes.

King John’s Castle King John’s Castle at the mouth of the river Shannon at Limerick. This Castle was in effect an outpost of the English King’s Realm.

King John’s Castle at the mouth of the river Shannon at Limerick.

This Castle was in effect an outpost of the English King’s Realm.

Medieval English Norman Kings in Ireland Sir Richard de Clare “Strongbow” 1170 ~ 1171 (ruled Leinster only – Lord of Ireland until 1171 – lost power in Ireland to Henry II) King Henry II (Curtmantle) 1154 ~ 1189 * (from 1171 “Lord of Ireland”) Richard I (Coeur de Lion ) 1189 ~ 1199 Prince John (Lackland) 1190 ~ 1199 King John (Lackland) 1199 ~ 1216 Sir William Marshall 1216 ~ 1227 (regent to Henry III) Henry III 1227 ~ 1272 King Edward I “Longshanks” 1272 ~ 1307 Edward II 1307 ~ 1327 Edward III 1327 ~ 1377 Richard II 1377 ~ 1399

Sir Richard de Clare “Strongbow” 1170 ~ 1171 (ruled Leinster only – Lord of Ireland until 1171 – lost power in Ireland to Henry II)

King Henry II (Curtmantle) 1154 ~ 1189 * (from 1171 “Lord of Ireland”)

Richard I (Coeur de Lion ) 1189 ~ 1199

Prince John (Lackland) 1190 ~ 1199

King John (Lackland) 1199 ~ 1216

Sir William Marshall 1216 ~ 1227 (regent to Henry III)

Henry III 1227 ~ 1272

King Edward I “Longshanks” 1272 ~ 1307

Edward II 1307 ~ 1327

Edward III 1327 ~ 1377

Richard II 1377 ~ 1399

Earlier Norman Kings of England Following the Battle of Hastings 1066 . William I The Conqueror 1066 ~ 1087 William II Rufus 1087 ~ 1100 King Henry I Beauclerc 1100 ~ 1135 King Stephen 1135 ~ 1154 Empress Matilda 1141 ~ 1141 King Henry II Curtmantle 1154 ~ 1189

William I The Conqueror 1066 ~ 1087

William II Rufus 1087 ~ 1100

King Henry I Beauclerc 1100 ~ 1135

King Stephen 1135 ~ 1154

Empress Matilda 1141 ~ 1141

King Henry II Curtmantle 1154 ~ 1189

Medieval Dublin Castle The Castle in the 12 th Century later partly destroyed by fire.

The Castle in the 12 th Century later partly destroyed by fire.

Edward I ~ “Longshanks” Edward I - The English King and Norman Overlord who conducted the wars with Scotland and France and asserted his authority in Ireland. Edward I or “Longshanks” was also known as the Hammer of the Scots. *(Edward is referred to in the famous Scottish song: “Flower of Scotland”) Image of Edward I at Westminster Abbey with King Alexander of Scotland on the right and Prince Llewellyn of Wales on the left from a 1520’s Manuscript Portrait of King Edward I 1272 - 1301

Edward I - The English King and Norman Overlord who conducted the wars with Scotland and France and asserted his authority in Ireland.

Edward I or “Longshanks” was also known as the Hammer of the Scots.

*(Edward is referred to in the famous Scottish song: “Flower of Scotland”)

Image of Edward I at Westminster Abbey with King Alexander of Scotland on the right and Prince Llewellyn of Wales on the left from a 1520’s Manuscript

Portrait of King Edward I

1272 - 1301

King Edward I The Normans under Edward established a large English garrison the east of Ireland in particular Dublin & Kildare. Towards the close of the reign of Edward I, the English settlers tended to congregate in the district around Dublin. This area became known as "The English Land”. Meanwhile those English who resided outside it were said to be "inter Hibernicos," i.e., among the Irish, and were considered fraternisers.

The Normans under Edward established a large English garrison the east of Ireland in particular Dublin & Kildare.

Towards the close of the reign of Edward I, the English settlers tended to congregate in the district around Dublin.

This area became known as "The English Land”.

Meanwhile those English who resided outside it were said to be "inter Hibernicos," i.e., among the Irish, and were considered fraternisers.

“The English Land” This district was limited, roughly speaking, by the great mountain tract of Wicklow to the south and by the Carlingford and Mourne Mountains to the north in Ulster. It also ran towards the shore of the Shannon in the West, whence the border ran by Edenderry, Rathangan, and Kildare down to the Barrow River. This Norman “border” followed the course of the River Shannon to the west and altered direction towards the sea at the mouth of the Barrow River. It was not until a full century after this, that the English land became known as “The Pale”.

This district was limited, roughly speaking, by the great mountain tract of Wicklow to the south and by the Carlingford and Mourne Mountains to the north in Ulster.

It also ran towards the shore of the Shannon in the West, whence the border ran by Edenderry, Rathangan, and Kildare down to the Barrow River.

This Norman “border” followed the course of the River Shannon to the west and altered direction towards the sea at the mouth of the Barrow River.

It was not until a full century after this, that the English land became known as “The Pale”.

Trim Castle The largest Anglo~Norman fortification in Ireland near Dublin in county Meath. The Castle and moat structure using the River Boyne can be clearly seen, despite its part ruin. Trim Castle is near an attractive little town called Trim on the banks of the River Boyne just north of Dublin. It has a very strong medieval heritage. This Norman castle was also the setting for the movie picture Braveheart.

The largest Anglo~Norman fortification in Ireland near Dublin in county Meath.

The Castle and moat structure using the River Boyne can be clearly seen, despite its part ruin.

The Norman Castle

The Norman Castle Castle Banqueting Hall, Kitchen and With-drawing Room

Kilkenny Castle Norman Lordship of Leinster and Ireland The present Castle begun by William Marshall 1207 (Henry III) King Richard & King John, and later English Kings & Queens visited the Castle, including: King Edward VII (1901~1910) right up to King George V and Queen Mary (1910~1936) Strongbow’s first earthwork and wood Castle was burned down by Donal Mor O’Brien (O’Brien was the Chieftain King of Limerick)

The present Castle begun by William Marshall 1207 (Henry III)

King Richard & King John, and later English Kings & Queens visited the Castle, including: King Edward VII (1901~1910) right up to King George V and Queen Mary (1910~1936)

Strongbow’s first earthwork and wood Castle was burned down by Donal Mor O’Brien

(O’Brien was the Chieftain King of Limerick)

House of York King Richard II died (he was possibly murdered!) His son Edward IV eventually ascended to the throne in 1461 bringing Anglo~Irish relations closer even more. Later Edward’s brother King Richard III became King and was the last English King to lead fully armoured knights into battle. Richard II Edward IV

King Richard II died (he was possibly murdered!)

His son Edward IV eventually ascended to the throne in 1461 bringing Anglo~Irish relations closer even more.

Later Edward’s brother King Richard III became King and was the last English King to lead fully armoured knights into battle.

House of York English rule in Ireland by force alone was not working outside the “Pale” The English Pale was a fortified area surrounding Dublin and later stretching as far as Waterford. English & Irish relations though, now became inextricably bound together during his reign. The English now granted power to the “Anglo~Irish” Chiefs (former Norman Lords/Chieftains) granting very grand Earldoms in Ireland.

English rule in Ireland by force alone was not working outside the “Pale”

The English Pale was a fortified area surrounding Dublin and later stretching as far as Waterford.

English & Irish relations though, now became inextricably bound together during his reign.

The English now granted power to the “Anglo~Irish” Chiefs (former Norman Lords/Chieftains) granting very grand Earldoms in Ireland.

Richard III

Henry VII

Sir Edward Poyning Edward Poyning (Poyning’s Law) Poyning was Henry VII Lord Deputy of Ireland 1459 ~ 1521 He was best known for introducing Poyning’s Law, making the Irish Parliament (originally just ruling the English Pale in Ireland) subordinate to the English Parliament and under direct control of the King’s Council and the Privy Council. Originally this Irish Parliament held in Drogheda just ruled the King’s English Pale in Ireland, later the newer Irish Parliament however was to extend English rule over all of Ireland, with Poyning’s Law having direct consequences for the whole country. Back to the Pale Next to Poyning’s Law Back to Henry VII Go to Regency Dublin 1700 Go to Dublin Parliament (1700) Go to Act of Union 1800 Go to Elizabeth I Go to Queen Victoria Go to Henry VIII

Edward Poyning (Poyning’s Law) Poyning was Henry VII Lord Deputy of Ireland

1459 ~ 1521

He was best known for introducing Poyning’s Law, making the Irish Parliament (originally just ruling the English Pale in Ireland) subordinate to the English Parliament and under direct control of the King’s Council and the Privy Council.

Originally this Irish Parliament held in Drogheda just ruled the King’s English Pale in Ireland, later the newer Irish Parliament however was to extend English rule over all of Ireland, with Poyning’s Law having direct consequences for the whole country.

Back to the Pale

Next to Poyning’s Law

Back to Henry VII

Go to Regency Dublin 1700

Go to Dublin Parliament (1700)

Go to Act of Union 1800

Go to Elizabeth I

Go to Queen Victoria

Go to Henry VIII

‘ Poynings Law’ 1494 Poyning convened a parliament at Drogheda in November, 1494 , the memorable parliament in which the act since known as "Poynings' law" was passed, removing all local power from the colonial Irish Parliament, which at the time only ruled for the pale, no native Irish person sat in this parliament, the later Irish Parliament set up in Dublin to rule for the Protestant ruling class, was to preside over all of Ireland, English law was extended over the whole country. “Poynings Law” would remain in force, establishing a grievance amongst the Irish population. This new law was considered to be a very unfair measure. Poynings Law 1~6 Edward Poyning

Poyning convened a parliament at Drogheda in November, 1494 , the memorable parliament in which the act since known as "Poynings' law" was passed, removing all local power from the colonial Irish Parliament, which at the time only ruled for the pale, no native Irish person sat in this parliament, the later Irish Parliament set up in Dublin to rule for the Protestant ruling class, was to preside over all of Ireland, English law was extended over the whole country. “Poynings Law” would remain in force, establishing a grievance amongst the Irish population.

This new law was considered to be a very unfair measure. Poynings Law 1~6

‘ Poynings Law’ The following are the most important provisions of this law: l. No parliament was in future to be held in Ireland until the Irish Chief Governor and Privy Council had sent the King information of all the acts intended to be passed in it, with a full statement of the reasons why they were required, and until these acts had been approved and permission granted by the King and Privy Council of England. This single provision is what is popularly known as " Poynings' law." Poynings Law 2 ~ 6

The following are the most important provisions of this law:

l. No parliament was in future to be held in Ireland until the Irish Chief Governor and Privy Council had sent the King information of all the acts intended to be passed in it, with a full statement of the reasons why they were required, and until these acts had been approved and permission granted by the King and Privy Council of England.

This single provision is what is popularly known as " Poynings' law."

Poynings Law 2. All the laws lately made in England affecting the. public weal should hold good in Ireland. This referred only to English laws then existing; it gave no power to the English parliament to make laws for Ireland in the future, that remained unchanged until the Act of Union in 1800. The English Parliament was to gain greater control however following the English Civil War. 3. The Statute of Kilkenny was revived and confirmed, except the part forbidding the use of the Irish tongue, which could not be carried out, as the Gaelic Language was now used everywhere, even throughout the English settlements . 4 ~ 6

2. All the laws lately made in England affecting the. public weal should hold good in Ireland. This referred only to English laws then existing; it gave no power to the English parliament to make laws for Ireland in the future, that remained unchanged until the Act of Union in 1800. The English Parliament was to gain greater control however following the English Civil War.

3. The Statute of Kilkenny was revived and confirmed, except the part forbidding the use of the Irish tongue, which could not be carried out, as the Gaelic Language was now used everywhere, even throughout the English settlements .

Poynings Law 4. For the purpose of protecting the settlement, it was made a felony to permit enemies or rebels to pass through the marches; and the owners of march lands were obliged to reside on them or send proper deputies on pain of losing their estates. 5. The exaction of “coyne and livery” was forbidden in any shape or form. 6. Many of the Anglo-Irish families had adopted the Irish War Cries; the use of these war~cries was now strictly forbidden. More Information

4. For the purpose of protecting the settlement, it was made a felony to permit enemies or rebels to pass through the marches; and the owners of march lands were obliged to reside on them or send proper deputies on pain of losing their estates.

5. The exaction of “coyne and livery” was forbidden in any shape or form.

6. Many of the Anglo-Irish families had adopted the Irish War Cries; the use of these war~cries was now strictly forbidden.

Poynings Law In this parliament the Earl of Kildare was attainted for high treason, mainly on account of his supposed conspiracy with O'Hanlon to destroy the English Deputy; in consequence of which he was soon afterwards arrested and sent as prisoner to England. O’Hanlon was a northern Anglo~Irish Chieftain ~ Earl. He conspired with the Earl of Kildare to seize Carlow Castle - Poyning swiftly recaptured it. Return to Edward Poyning

In this parliament the Earl of Kildare was attainted for high treason, mainly on account of his supposed conspiracy with O'Hanlon to destroy the English Deputy; in consequence of which he was soon afterwards arrested and sent as prisoner to England.

O’Hanlon was a northern Anglo~Irish Chieftain ~ Earl.

He conspired with the Earl of Kildare to seize Carlow Castle - Poyning swiftly recaptured it.

The War of the Roses Henry VII the new Tudor King of England took power after the War of the Roses. The Red Rose Tudor House of Lancaster had won the Crown from the House of York. When Henry VII died Henry VIII ascended to the throne he was to bring religious strife to Ireland for the very first time.

Henry VII the new Tudor King of England took power after the War of the Roses.

The Red Rose Tudor House of Lancaster had won the Crown from the House of York.

When Henry VII died Henry VIII ascended to the throne he was to bring religious strife to Ireland for the very first time.

Henry VIII & The Vatican His departure from the Roman Catholic Church was over the disallowed divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to Anne Boleyn his new love and mother to Elizabeth I. The Vatican in Rome excommunicated him over the issue. Henry had 6 wives in all – not all at the same time! Link: * Go back to Dublin 1800

His departure from the Roman Catholic Church was over the disallowed divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to Anne Boleyn his new love and mother to Elizabeth I.

The Vatican in Rome excommunicated him over the issue.

Henry had 6 wives in all – not all at the same time!

Henry VIII Henry VIII when he gained power thought about taking Ireland by force. The Earl of Surrey was sent to Ireland to assess the Irish situation, the Earl reported back that a draft of 6,000 men would be required to enforce the Crown’s rule. This army would have required material support from England and new castles would have to be built in each area as they conquered the land.

Henry VIII when he gained power thought about taking Ireland by force.

The Earl of Surrey was sent to Ireland to assess the Irish situation, the Earl reported back that a draft of 6,000 men would be required to enforce the Crown’s rule. This army would have required material support from England and new castles would have to be built in each area as they conquered the land.

Henry VIII The Crown would also have to follow this up with forced colonisation or plantation of English people. Military presence alone would not be sufficient to maintain control. It would have been a vast undertaking for the English Crown at this time. Henry VIII decided it was too expensive to attack Ireland. However events were to play into his hands.

The Crown would also have to follow this up with forced colonisation or plantation of English people.

Military presence alone would not be sufficient to maintain control. It would have been a vast undertaking for the English Crown at this time.

Henry VIII decided it was too expensive to attack Ireland.

However events were to play into his hands.

Henry VIII

Henry VIII The problem for Henry was that the previously loyal Irish Earls did not support the new Tudor Kings following the war of the roses. Henry VIII now demanded loyalty to the Tudor Crown, but alas the new House of Lancaster remained unpopular with Irish lords.

The problem for Henry was that the previously loyal Irish Earls did not support the new Tudor Kings following the war of the roses.

Henry VIII now demanded loyalty to the Tudor Crown, but alas the new House of Lancaster remained unpopular with Irish lords.

Cardinal Wolsey Prior to excommunication, Henry’s trusted Roman Catholic Cardinal from the Vatican in Rome, Cardinal Wolsey suggested the English Roman Catholic Church should rule Ireland, from the established Catholic Church of England. He also suggested taking control via the Archbishops in Ireland. To force Ireland to accept Henry III by military means, castle construction and Church infiltration would be very costly indeed.

Prior to excommunication, Henry’s trusted Roman Catholic Cardinal from the Vatican in Rome, Cardinal Wolsey suggested the English Roman Catholic Church should rule Ireland, from the established Catholic Church of England.

He also suggested taking control via the Archbishops in Ireland.

To force Ireland to accept Henry III by military means, castle construction and Church infiltration would be very costly indeed.

Cardinal Wolsey The Roman Catholic Cardinal and senior religious advisor to King Henry VIII of England, Ireland & Wales.

The Roman Catholic Cardinal and senior religious advisor to King Henry VIII of England, Ireland & Wales.

Silken Thomas Silken Tomas, Fitzgerald the Earl of Kildare and Chief~Governor of Ireland since 1496 He was given the title by Henry VII to rule Ireland on his behalf. Nicknamed Silken Thomas because of his flashy cloak of state.

Silken Tomas, Fitzgerald the Earl of Kildare and Chief~Governor of Ireland since 1496

He was given the title by Henry VII to rule Ireland on his behalf.

Nicknamed Silken Thomas because of his flashy cloak of state.

Silken Thomas Thomas Fitzgerald, The Earl of Kildare

Thomas Fitzgerald, The Earl of Kildare

Silken Thomas On arriving at the Irish Earls Council Chamber, he flung his sword of state across the council table, whilst also removing his robe of state and showing himself in complete mail. At a stroke he renounced himself, Dublin and Ireland from he English Monarchy. English Overlordship set up by Strongbow and King Henry II now seamed to be at a amazing sudden end !!

On arriving at the Irish Earls Council Chamber, he flung his sword of state across the council table, whilst also removing his robe of state and showing himself in complete mail.

At a stroke he renounced himself, Dublin and Ireland from he English Monarchy.

English Overlordship set up by Strongbow and King Henry II now seamed to be at a amazing sudden end !!

Dublin Castle 1534 Silken Thomas Fitzgerald’s siege on Dublin Castle

Sir William Skeffington The young Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, was friendly with some of the Irish Archbishops who were mostly arch enemies of Cardinal Wolsey. The Archbishop of Dublin John Allen was one of Wolsey allies however. Wolsey had a great deal of influence over the bishops in Ireland at the time. Silken Thomas then attempted to attack Dublin Castle. Henry VIII - outraged, sent the ruthless General Sir William Skeffington to quell the rebellion with 2,300 men, the Fitzgerald Castle was swifty taken and Thomas & his Clan executed. (a small baby of the clan was spared from this slaughter).

The young Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, was friendly with some of the Irish Archbishops who were mostly arch enemies of Cardinal Wolsey. The Archbishop of Dublin John Allen was one of Wolsey allies however. Wolsey had a great deal of influence over the bishops in Ireland at the time.

Silken Thomas then attempted to attack Dublin Castle.

Henry VIII - outraged, sent the ruthless General Sir William Skeffington to quell the rebellion with 2,300 men, the Fitzgerald Castle was swifty taken and Thomas & his Clan executed. (a small baby of the clan was spared from this slaughter).

Sir William Skeffington Skeffington had been ruthless in his killing of the Fitzgeralds, which struck fear in the hearts of Irish Earls. Skeffington then fortified Dublin Castle and also took the Fitzgerald Castle at Maynooth Co. Kildare. The Pale already partially established by the Normans now consolidated the English control particularly in the East.

Skeffington had been ruthless in his killing of the Fitzgeralds, which struck fear in the hearts of Irish Earls.

Skeffington then fortified Dublin Castle and also took the Fitzgerald Castle at Maynooth Co. Kildare.

The Pale already partially established by the Normans now consolidated the English control particularly in the East.

Tudor Loyalty Established Most of the the Anglo~Irish Earls were supportive of the Fitzgerald rebellion prior to its defeat. The Earls now fearful of Henry’s methods, quickly passed laws in the old Drogheda Parliament as a display of loyalty to Henry VIII. Poynings Law These were similar laws to those already passed in England. Henry VIII was now all powerful over the Irish Earls and now Tudor King of Ireland.

Most of the the Anglo~Irish Earls were supportive of the Fitzgerald rebellion prior to its defeat.

The Earls now fearful of Henry’s methods, quickly passed laws in the old Drogheda Parliament as a display of loyalty to Henry VIII. Poynings Law

These were similar laws to those already passed in England.

Henry VIII was now all powerful over the Irish Earls and now Tudor King of Ireland.

The Pale The Pale which emanated outwards from Dublin, originally named “The English Land” by Edward I (Longshanks) , during the Norman period, had stretched from Dublin to Waterford and westward to Kildare and further still to the Shannon and the Barrow rivers, pretty much all of Leinster and its surrounding land. No boundary had been built however it relied only on natural river and mountain boundaries. Therefore it could be breached by a rebel Chieftain Army or potentially by a rebel murder gang willing to cross the rivers Barrow and Shannon or via difficult mountain terrain.

The Pale which emanated outwards from Dublin, originally named “The English Land” by Edward I (Longshanks) , during the Norman period, had stretched from Dublin to Waterford and westward to Kildare and further still to the Shannon and the Barrow rivers, pretty much all of Leinster and its surrounding land.

No boundary had been built however it relied only on natural river and mountain boundaries.

Therefore it could be breached by a rebel Chieftain Army or potentially by a rebel murder gang willing to cross the rivers Barrow and Shannon or via difficult mountain terrain.

The Pale In 1488 the English pale was formally introduced in an Act passed by a Anglo~Irish Parliamentary Statute from the English garrison town of Drogheda. The Medieval Anglo~Irish Parliament was held at Drogheda. The Pale was now down to just four counties, Dublin, Meath, Kildare and Uriel (now Louth), much smaller than in Norman times. English garrison towns still existed outside the pale of course, and these were mainly constructed during the Medieval period. The phrase to be “beyond the pale” comes from this reference, namely if you came from outside the pale you were a barbarian.

In 1488 the English pale was formally introduced in an Act passed by a Anglo~Irish Parliamentary Statute from the English garrison town of Drogheda.

The Medieval Anglo~Irish Parliament was held at Drogheda.

The Pale was now down to just four counties, Dublin, Meath, Kildare and Uriel (now Louth), much smaller than in Norman times.

English garrison towns still existed outside the pale of course, and these were mainly constructed during the Medieval period.

The phrase to be “beyond the pale” comes from this reference, namely if you came from outside the pale you were a barbarian.

The Pale The Pale 1488 – Statute from the old Drogheda Parliament .

The Pale 1488 – Statute from the old Drogheda Parliament .

The Pale In 1494 Sir Edward Poyning passed an Act allowing for new construction around the Pale consisting of huge double ditches to be interlaced with Castles to protect this English Pale. These ditches were to be six feet high, but in some stretches there were much higher. The ditches stretched the entire district around Dublin and Drogheda. The Pale now also bordered the River Dodder including Merrion Castle the old Fitzwilliam Stronghold.

In 1494 Sir Edward Poyning passed an Act allowing for new construction around the Pale consisting of huge double ditches to be interlaced with Castles to protect this English Pale.

These ditches were to be six feet high, but in some stretches there were much higher.

The ditches stretched the entire district around Dublin and Drogheda.

The Pale now also bordered the River Dodder including Merrion Castle the old Fitzwilliam Stronghold.

The Pale The Area just outside the Pale became hinterland, and would be only occupied by old Irish or English soldiers. During Henry VIII 34 th year reign 1543 , he extended the Pale northwards to Dundalk, the next garrison town along the eastern coast beyond Drogheda. He also extended it south towards Dalkey an old small coastal garrison harbour town just south of the town of Dublin, hence the Pale now reached the start of the mountains.

The Area just outside the Pale became hinterland, and would be only occupied by old Irish or English soldiers.

During Henry VIII 34 th year reign 1543 , he extended the Pale northwards to Dundalk, the next garrison town along the eastern coast beyond Drogheda.

He also extended it south towards Dalkey an old small coastal garrison harbour town just south of the town of Dublin, hence the Pale now reached the start of the mountains.

The Pale These Dublin mountains and Wicklow mountains were not properly captured until much later, and therefore created access points in the border for Chieftain clans to secretly enter the pale. The English Army was placed intermittently along the Pale’s border to protect against raiders and to try to capture any trespassers or Chieftain merchants.

These Dublin mountains and Wicklow mountains were not properly captured until much later, and therefore created access points in the border for Chieftain clans to secretly enter the pale.

The English Army was placed intermittently along the Pale’s border to protect against raiders and to try to capture any trespassers or Chieftain merchants.

The Pale The small Town of Dalkey still has a Tudor look about it today, with a small Tudor Castle at one end of the town. The Pale was also extended by Henry VIII ~ westward to Nass, Sydan, Kells, Rathmore, Balimore, Clan and Kilcocke, Tallaght and to the bridge at Kilcullen. A larger Rampart was then built to keep the rebels out from entering the Pale and the Lord Deputy Garret og Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare had been given charge of maintenance of these defences. The last defence was still the Castles of course.

The small Town of Dalkey still has a Tudor look about it today, with a small Tudor Castle at one end of the town.

The Pale was also extended by Henry VIII ~ westward to Nass, Sydan, Kells, Rathmore, Balimore, Clan and Kilcocke, Tallaght and to the bridge at Kilcullen.

A larger Rampart was then built to keep the rebels out from entering the Pale and the Lord Deputy Garret og Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare had been given charge of maintenance of these defences. The last defence was still the Castles of course.

Dublin The “Protestant Ascendancy” through “re-colonising” was a largely successful policy, shoring up military control particularly in the area around Dublin and in the Leinster province. The policy was first introduced by Henry VIII, and increased by Elizabeth I , all ruled over by a Lord Lieutenant Viceroy in Dublin. Dublin Castle 1570 Lord Lieutenant Sidney riding out from the Castle

The “Protestant Ascendancy” through “re-colonising” was a largely successful policy, shoring up military control particularly in the area around Dublin and in the Leinster province.

The policy was first introduced by Henry VIII, and increased by Elizabeth I , all ruled over by a Lord Lieutenant Viceroy in Dublin.

Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 , now made sure that she controlled the Irish Earls, and the Scottish Earls. She now waged war on both the Scottish & Irish rebel armies. She also increased the Anglicisation of Ireland and large protestant land-owner plantation followed. Governor Presidencies had been set up to administer the Earls in the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connacht. Ulster was still solely under her Chieftain~Earldom control.

Queen Elizabeth after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 , now made sure that she controlled the Irish Earls, and the Scottish Earls.

She now waged war on both the Scottish & Irish rebel armies.

She also increased the Anglicisation of Ireland and large protestant land-owner plantation followed.

Governor Presidencies had been set up to administer the Earls in the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connacht.

Ulster was still solely under her Chieftain~Earldom control.

Lord Mountjoy Elizabeth’s Viceroy General Lord Mountjoy, a very clever tactician, was now put in charge of the English garrison at Dublin Castle. Cheiftain O’Neill the Earl of Tyrone was one of the last of the great Gaelic Chieftains, along with Chieftain Red Hugh O’Donnell, the Earl of Tyreconnel. Both Chieftain~Earls still had full control in Ulster, under English “Overlordship”, now the Tudor Queen’s new Lord~Lieutenant Mountoy.

Elizabeth’s Viceroy General Lord Mountjoy, a very clever tactician, was now put in charge of the English garrison at Dublin Castle.

Cheiftain O’Neill the Earl of Tyrone was one of the last of the great Gaelic Chieftains, along with Chieftain Red Hugh O’Donnell, the Earl of Tyreconnel.

Both Chieftain~Earls still had full control in Ulster, under English “Overlordship”, now the Tudor Queen’s new Lord~Lieutenant Mountoy.

Chieftain O’Neill Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster had originally shown loyalty to the Crown, but he later cast away his title of Earl of Tyrone. He was locally proclaimed “King of Ireland”. O’Neill attacked Elizabeth’s forces with a great deal of success in Ulster, which gained him support. Red Hugh O’Donnell also gained military success by re-capturing Sligo Castle and defeating Lord Clifford, the English Governor of Connacht.

Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster had originally shown loyalty to the Crown, but he later cast away his title of Earl of Tyrone.

He was locally proclaimed “King of Ireland”.

O’Neill attacked Elizabeth’s forces with a great deal of success in Ulster, which gained him support.

Red Hugh O’Donnell also gained military success by re-capturing Sligo Castle and defeating Lord Clifford, the English Governor of Connacht.

The Spanish Return Elizabeth was now under a big challenge by Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster and Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had joined forces with O’Neill, supported by a Scottish rebel army 1,000 strong. The Spanish firstly surprised the English and entered Kinsale harbour and the town itself from the sea, in the September of 1601 . They arrived in very hostile English territory. Don Juan del Aguilla’s small Spanish Army only numbered 4,000 men however and were to be no match for the English.

Elizabeth was now under a big challenge by Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster and Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had joined forces with O’Neill, supported by a Scottish rebel army 1,000 strong.

The Spanish firstly surprised the English and entered Kinsale harbour and the town itself from the sea, in the September of 1601 . They arrived in very hostile English territory.

Don Juan del Aguilla’s small Spanish Army only numbered 4,000 men however and were to be no match for the English.

The Battle of Kinsale O’Neill’s hand was now forced, so he marched his Chieftain army south and west from Ulster on a long march through enemy territory Connacht and Munster, in the depth of a very cold winter to support the Spanish at Kinsale. To his credit, he managed to avoid all attempts of being stopped by the English en-route to the south.

O’Neill’s hand was now forced, so he marched his Chieftain army south and west from Ulster on a long march through enemy territory Connacht and Munster, in the depth of a very cold winter to support the Spanish at Kinsale.

To his credit, he managed to avoid all attempts of being stopped by the English en-route to the south.

The Battle of Kinsale The English would have had superior forces in the west of Ireland and should have been able to capture O’Neill’s forces, but O’Neill managed to evade them. O’Neill on arrival at Kinsale, still had 12,000 men, who immediately surrounded the English just outside the small garrison town of Kinsale, whilst the English forces were still fighting the remaining Spanish inside.

The English would have had superior forces in the west of Ireland and should have been able to capture O’Neill’s forces, but O’Neill managed to evade them.

O’Neill on arrival at Kinsale, still had 12,000 men, who immediately surrounded the English just outside the small garrison town of Kinsale, whilst the English forces were still fighting the remaining Spanish inside.

The Battle of Kinsale The battle now also became one of terrible trench warfare and attrition. Mountjoy dug in to wait and merely hold off the Chieftain Army, until reinforcements arrived. Lord Mounjoy’s forces on land were down to 6,500 men by the 2 nd December 1601 , whilst O’Neill and the combined Scottish and Spanish armies numbered 10,000.

The battle now also became one of terrible trench warfare and attrition. Mountjoy dug in to wait and merely hold off the Chieftain Army, until reinforcements arrived.

Lord Mounjoy’s forces on land were down to 6,500 men by the 2 nd December 1601 , whilst O’Neill and the combined Scottish and Spanish armies numbered 10,000.

The Battle of Kinsale The Spanish struggle in the town put pressure on O’Neill and O’Donnell to attack the English forces. The English Royal Naval fleet had just arrived however. The Fleet, arrived with supplies and men for Mountjoy.

The Spanish struggle in the town put pressure on O’Neill and O’Donnell to attack the English forces.

The English Royal Naval fleet had just arrived however.

The Fleet, arrived with supplies and men for Mountjoy.

The Battle of Kinsale Queen Elizabeth had sent a large Naval Fleet to defeat the small Spanish fleet that had been sent by King Pillip III of Spain, now anchored in Kinsale harbour. The English now besieged the Spanish Army, with vastly superior forces both at land and from their fleet at sea.

Queen Elizabeth had sent a large Naval Fleet to defeat the small Spanish fleet that had been sent by King Pillip III of Spain, now anchored in Kinsale harbour.

The English now besieged the Spanish Army, with vastly superior forces both at land and from their fleet at sea.

The Battle of Kinsale Lord Mountjoy with a large mounted land force now ruthlessly defeated the Chieftain Armies when they tried to mount a coordinated attack , along with the Spanish from inside the town, Mountjoy immediately crushed them all. The Spanish Fleet were forced to surrender by the English fleet on Christmas Eve 1601 , and turned back for Spain.

Lord Mountjoy with a large mounted land force now ruthlessly defeated the Chieftain Armies when they tried to mount a coordinated attack , along with the Spanish from inside the town, Mountjoy immediately crushed them all.

The Spanish Fleet were forced to surrender by the English fleet on Christmas Eve 1601 , and turned back for Spain.

Elizabeth I The defeat of the Chieftain Armies enabled her to now capture Ulster completely. In 1610 the Ulster Plantation was started to maintain control in Ulster, this time with a complex system of multi-tier plantation of Ulster’s lands. O’Neill’s nine-year war with Ireland had been put to the sword. O’Neill himself was now finished.

The defeat of the Chieftain Armies enabled her to now capture Ulster completely.

In 1610 the Ulster Plantation was started to maintain control in Ulster, this time with a complex system of multi-tier plantation of Ulster’s lands.

O’Neill’s nine-year war with Ireland had been put to the sword. O’Neill himself was now finished.

Elizabeth I Elizabeth now very much consolidated her English Tudor Rule. Queen Elizabeth I established Ireland’s first University in Dublin at Trinity College, and was a great supporter of Arts and Education. Further magnificent Tudor~Elizabethan buildings were constructed around this period in Dublin.

Elizabeth now very much consolidated her English Tudor Rule.

Queen Elizabeth I established Ireland’s first University in Dublin at Trinity College, and was a great supporter of Arts and Education.

Further magnificent Tudor~Elizabethan buildings were constructed around this period in Dublin.

Elizabeth I Dublin was now the seat of control for the entire Irish Colony. The 1610 plantation of Ulster was extensive creating a long legacy in the province of Protestant Rule and consolidating English power in Ulster, and loyalty to the Crown. Dublin Castle was also re-built during her reign.

Dublin was now the seat of control for the entire Irish Colony.

The 1610 plantation of Ulster was extensive creating a long legacy in the province of Protestant Rule and consolidating English power in Ulster, and loyalty to the Crown.

Dublin Castle was also re-built during her reign.

Dublin Castle 1600’s The Elizabethan (re-built) Dublin Castle

The Elizabethan (re-built) Dublin Castle

Charles I & The 1641 Rebellion. By 1641 King Charles I tried to maintain control in Ireland and with his own parliament in London, but the English parliament was gaining far greater control over the English King and the Monarchy. Difficulties in England encourage the Irish population including the Anglo~Irish Earls to mount a major uprising in 1641 mainly the native people of Ulster, who had never accepted the violence and injustice of the plantation of their lands since 1610 . The Scots or English parliaments were also now seen as a greater threat to them than the power of the English King.

By 1641 King Charles I tried to maintain control in Ireland and with his own parliament in London, but the English parliament was gaining far greater control over the English King and the Monarchy.

Difficulties in England encourage the Irish population including the A

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