Published on February 15, 2014
Presentation on Internship at Millat Tractors Limited (MTL) Presented By: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Usman Hassan Nadeem Akram Tanzeel-ur-Rehman Azlan Zahid Muhammad Ali Haseeb Bilal Muhammad Aamir 2009-ag-3084 2009-ag-3092 2009-ag-3100 2009-ag-3108 2009-ag-3109 2009-ag-3150 2009-ag-3204 Submitted To: Dr. Manzoor Ahmad
Objective of our Internship 1. Primary Objective: To get training in a professional environment by engaging ourselves in one of leading automotive company Millet Tractors Limited and to highlight the problems and suggesting the suitable solutions.
Objective of our Internship 2. Secondary Objective: To know about the market structure. To get training at Engine Assembly Plant. To get training at Tractor Assembly Plant. To get familiar with all machining processes. To get familiar with the operations of Quality Assurance Department. To analyze different problems in industry. To give suitable suggestions regarding problems.
Introduction of Millet Tractors Limited •Millet Group is Pakistan’s leading engineering concern in automobile sector & has a history that spans almost half a century, Millet Tractors Limited is market leading industry of agricultural tractors & holds above 50% market share. •Millet Tractors Limited (MTL) was established in 1964 to introduce and market Massey Ferguson (MF) Tractors in Pakistan. •An assembly plant was set up in 1967 to assemble tractors. • Millet Group encompasses four major companies MILLAT TRACTOR LIMITED MILLAT EQUIPMENT LIMITED MILLAT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT LIMITED BOLAN CASTINGS LIMITED •Millet Tractors Limited manufactures MF-240, MF-350, MF-260, MF-375, MF385, MF-385 4WD, Implements, Prime movers, Forklift Truck & Power Generation Sets.
Features of MTL 1. Millet Tractors Limited turnover is Rs.2300 crore. 2. Export market comprises of countries like Afghanistan, China, Namibia, Uganda, Somalia and other African countries. 3. Highest market share in Pakistan of 64%. 4. Biggest assembly line in Pakistan. 5. Extensive dealership network and after sale services all over Pakistan.
Products of Millat Tractors Limited • Tractors MF-240 MF-260 MF-350 MF-350+ MF-375 MF-385 MF-385 (4WD) MF-455
Multi Products Forklift Truck Generators Prime Mowers
Marketing Division Task 1: Field Market Survey
Objective of Field Market Survey Our objective was to conduct an analysis on Marketing Tactics Market share of MTL and its competitors Quality of the brand Dealership network and commissions Marketing regions Customer and dealer satisfaction level Current tractors demand Brand equity Future demand of tractors
Graphical Representation of Market Share across Pakistan 70 60 50 40 Millat tractors Al-Ghazi Tractors 30 Others 20 10 0 2010 2011 2012
Internal Problems Analyzed At Marketing Division 1. Product development 2. Weak in aggressive marketing. 3. Unsatisfied delivery procedure. 4. Lack of proper survey (Market research). 5. Delay in tractor delivery. 6. No team work. 7. Totally centralized decision making. 8. Time consuming procedure. 9. No customer dealing department in real meaning.
Problems Regarding The Quality According to the dealers, the overall quality of the tractors was not found satisfactory the reasons are summed up below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The performance of Fuel Injection Pump is not good it consumes more fuel due to the rotor clearance. The major problem was of Differential System (Crown Pinion). There is a problem of Rear Rim distortion in shape and early rusting of the rims. Pressure is not maintained under loaded conditions in the Hydraulic System due to the manufacturing fault. Turbo charger oil kit leakage in MF-260. The chassis is not properly painted due to which sometimes it rusts. When the temperature reaches near 400C the seals of tractors standing in showroom leaks.
Reasons for Market Downfall The downfall pattern shown graphically below in local market due to the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. 10% Tax increase the prices. Green Tractor Scheme and Sindh Government tractor scheme 45000 High price of tractors. 40000 High fuel price. 35000 30000 25000 Units Produced 20000 Units Sold 15000 10000 5000 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Suggestions and Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. The delivery time period at MTL is 21-days, arrangement should be made to decrease the delivery time so that service level can be improved. There is some need to change the working environment of organization. HR should be the most valuable person in the marketing department. Do not just use newspaper or conferences for advertisement but there should be proper publicity of the product so that people should be aware of Millat. There should be complete R & D development department in company. This department should do market research and providing guideline for developing new products and modifying existing ones.
Machining Division Task 2: To Practically Experience The Machining Operations
Lines in Machining Division There are nine lines in the machining division listed below 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Axel Housing Line (Right and Left) Cylinder Block Line (old) Cylinder Block Line (Ext) Cylinder Head Line (old) Cylinder Head Line (Ext) Center Housing Line Transmission Case Line Lub Oil Sump Line (240) Lub Oil Sump Line (385)
General Operations in Machining 1. Drilling 2. Rimming 3. Boring 4. Counter Boring(⌴) 5. Spot Facing 6. Counter Sinking(⌵) 7. Milling 8. Tapping 9. Facing 10. Turning 11. Honing
Cylinder Block Line It is foundation of the engine. All other engine parts are assembled in or attached to cylinder block. There are two cylinder block machining lines. 1. Old Manual Machining Line (48 Parts per shift ) 2. New Automatic Machining Line (72 Parts Per Shift ) Cylinder Block line consist of 35 different machines performing different machining operations.
Milling at Head Face
Honing Operation in Cylinder
Water Jackets and Oil Galleries Testing Operation
Oil Sump Sump is a part of a tractor engine in which Lubrication oil is present. It is filled with the bottom face of block where the Crankshaft is present. It is also called Lubrication Oil Pan. Material for cutting tools Carbide
Production against Workers 100 90 80 70 60 50 Production/Shift Workers 40 30 20 10 0 Transmission case Cylinder Head Axel housing Block(old) Block(Ext) Central Housing
Suggestions and Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Different machines performing the same operation must be checked and their number must be reduced. The production efficiency could be increased by increasing worker’s efficiency. This can be done by giving some kind of incentives to the worker. Old machines must be replaced by automatic plants. It will enhance the rate of production, better finishing quality, reduce the labor cost, consume less energy and would be space efficient as well. CNC machine is required in OP‐53 on lube oil sump line because 0.064 tolerance cannot be controlled by manual Mill machine. An alternate source is required for casting of lube oil sump due to casting problems.
Engine Assembly Plant (EAP) Task 3: To know about the operations happening in Engine Assembly Plant.
Engine Assembly Plant Engine Assembly line is a line in which all the parts of engine are fitted with Engine block and this line starts with block and complete on full engine. There are 10 operational sections for complete engine assembly and the operations are given on engine build card. There are sub-assembly sections in which small parts like Engine Head, Rocker Arm Assembly, Piston etc. are assembled. In 3 cylinder type there are engines MF-240, MF-260, MF-350, MF350+ which are used in tractors as well as fork lifters, generator sets and prime movers. 4 cylinder Engines of MF-375, MF-385, MF-385(4WD) are assembled which are used in big tractors. Production Capacity of EAP plant is 95 per shift per day. Production can be increased on demand.
Engine build card is followed in the engine assembly plant
Line Diagram of Engine Assembly Plant
Sections of Engine Assembly Plant Engine Assembly Plant (EAP) has been divided into 4 sections which are as follow: 1. Segregation 2. Engine Assembly Line 3. Engine testing or Test shop 4. Rectification Section
Engine Test Section
Engine Test Ranges There is a complete testing setup for every engine that comes out of the main assembly line. Here engine is thoroughly checked for its working and any possible faults such as engine noise, rpm, loading, leakages, exhaust smoke etc. Different ranges are given below: 1st Time 2ndTime Time (minutes) R.P.M Brake (NM) Power (K.W) 750 750 5 1000 50-55 5.8 5 Tester 1500 60-65 9.4 Low Idling R.PM Low Idling Oil Pressure High Idling Oil Pressure 2470 2470 5 1500 90-95 14.9 .010” .010” 20 2250 146-160 35-37 Tappet setting
Engine Test Bed
Weekly Production in Engine Assembly Plant 60 57 54 53 51 50 46 40 30 21 20 17 13 11 10 11 9 9 9 6 3 0 23-04-2013 24-04-2013 25-04-2013 MF 240 MF 375 26-04-2013 Gen Set 29-04-2013
Assignment Task To suggest the possible problems of excessive engine noise during testing which is the big problem and can cause engine rejection. We found following problems which are given below: 1. Excessive Back Lash between the gears 2. Excessive End Float in the idler gear 3. Improper fitting of timing case
Suggestions and Recommendations 1. Gauges should be calibrated timely and properly and worn out gauges should be replaced on time. 2. The company should put more effort in taking care of its workers especially daily wages and contractual workers so that they are satisfied with their jobs and give more quality output. 3. Another area which demand attention is that of job rotation. Employees are not so much productive, motivated and efficient because of their routine job. 4. They are allowed the operational level employee in decision making process especially when the decision are taken about the labor force because most of the time they better know about what is beneficial and suits to them. 5. The Quality Circles should be introduced among workers so that their participation in the improvement process increases. 6. Worker safety should be taken under consideration at the EAP (Engine Assembly Plant).
Tractor Assembly Plant (TAP) Task 4: • To conduct an analysis on Mishandling • To analyze the problems in Material Flow • To analyze Painting Section and Painting Quality
Tractor Assembly Plant This is the main plant of Millat Tractors. All the components of tractor carried from different locations are assembled here. In this plant all the parts of the tractor are assembled on assembly lines.
Tractor Assembly Plant Assembly Lines of TAP There are three assembly lines in TAP: Initial Build Assembly Line Chassis Paint Assembly Line Final Build Assembly Line Sections of TAP These are as follows: • Segregation and Degreasing • Assembly line • Sheet Metal Washing and Paint Shop • Test shop/Rectification area
Analysis on Mishandling • Mishandling can be narrated as the miss use of the tool or the miss use of the component to be assembled both are under the issue of mishandling. • Mishandling is a very big issue in any industry and its cost is always beard by the industry thus the profitability is decreased. • Millat lost 2.5 million as mishandling expenses in Tractor Assembly Plant only which is a big loss. We the internees were asked to conduct the survey in Tractor Assembly Plant on Mishandling. Our main concern was to know about three main questions and to help understand the reasons and to give suggestions to limit the mishandling losses. Q.No.1. Do the worker know about what is mishandling? Q.No.2. Why mishandling occurs? Q.No.3. Suggestions by the workers i.e. how we can minimize this mishandling.
Survey Questionnaire Reasons why mishandling occurs Lack of Expertise way of Rejection Inspector bias to Press machine of the laborers of the component vendor or sincere malfunctioning in rejection Sr. #. Worker familiar with the concept of mishandling 01 Yes Yes Improper Sincere 02 Yes Yes Improper 03 Yes Yes 04 No 05 Timely Rejection of the component Inspector Availability Worker Inspector No Yes Yes Yes Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes Proper Sincere No No Yes Yes Yes Improper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Proper Sincere Yes No Yes Yes 06 Yes Yes Proper Sincere No Yes No No 07 Yes Yes Proper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 08 Yes Yes Proper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 09 No Yes Proper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 10 No Yes Proper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 11 No Yes Proper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 12 No Yes Proper Sincere No Yes Yes Yes 13 No Yes Proper Sincere Yes No Yes No 14 Yes Yes Improper Sincere Yes Yes Yes Yes 15 Yes Yes Improper Sincere No Yes Yes Yes
Reasons of Mishandling The following are the main reasons of mishandling. Above all the reasons one thing in common was that newly appointed worker always do losses as he is unfamiliar with the system, so less expertise of the laborer is the main reason in mishandling. We also came to know that some appointments of workers on reference are not right some of those workers are not fit for the job hence they greatly mishandle tools and components as they are not eligible. QA should not allow the bad quality piece fed to assembly line, once it is assembled it becomes mishandled willingly or unwillingly. Due to over burden of production mishandling occurs. Duties changing again and again cause mishandling as every worker best knows his work.
Reasons of Mishandling While making fun at working time, sometime tools become the part of their fun. It occurs due to low quality of tools used. By the worker i.e. use of improper tool for specific function. By the negligence of the worker like sometimes the threads of the nut and bolt mismatch and it is tightened so both the parts become waste. Millat Tractors Limited purchases low quality parts which breaks during working so it also becomes the case of mishandling.
Suggestions for Mishandling 1. It is the duty of the QA department that not to allow the bad quality part fed to the assembly line. 2. The inspector should be on line for timely rejection of parts. 3. Supervisor should always focus on new workers and he should instruct them properly. 4. There should be optimum production load on the workers so the mishandling should be limited. 5. Good quality tools should be used so components can be saved. 6. Proper tools should be used for proper jobs. Like to align the stud by hitting on the threads should not be done this action was seen on line while visiting. 7. Training workshops should be conducted.
To Analyze The Problems In Material Flow The overall productivity of the plant depends on both input resources and output of the plant. The productivity can be increased either by increasing the output or decreasing the input resources. Input resources includes: • Man • • • • Material Machine Tools & Equipment Method
Material Flow Line Diagram
Problems of Material Flow Storage Bins Storage Bins are not enough in every section. Some line facing severe shortage of bins. Due to this, parts are placed on the floor that results in damaging of parts. Delivery of Parts Due to the non-availability of the fork lifter or Stillage parts are not delivered at station on time. Handling of Components Handling of components is done manually which require labor power and more time. Placement of the parts in bins and racks The parts are not properly placed in the bins and racks by Segregation section Colored bins for different model’s parts There are no separate bins for different parts of different tractor models. Rejection Bins Rejection Bins are enough in number but placed far apart so time consuming and tiresome job.
Problems of Material Flow • For higher productivity, the number of bins should be increased. This will reduce Mishandling and time of production. • Workers from Segregation section just throw the parts in the bins that might results in damage of some parts. This results in poor production cost. • It would be great to add more bins but it could never be happened in this scenario because presently the space available is not enough to accumulate many bins at each station. • Workers from segregation section don’t drop or deliver the parts to each station. They just throw in into the Storage bins. • Usually on time delivery doesn’t happen but sometimes it does happen. The production rate is very fast, for this, material flow should also be fast but the quantity of fork lifters and stillage doesn’t respond to the number of work stations. • Shortage of racks is also another factor for the delay of parts. Station having only one rack of each part suffers the most.
Suggestions and Recommendations 1. An electronic Fork lifter should be provided because it is compact in size and produce no smoke. 2. Proper training should be given to workers to give them awareness to avoid the piling of segregated material at work stations. 3. The number of bins should be increased. This will reduce Mishandling and time of production. 4. Proper training should be given to worker to avoid mishandling 5. Material Management (MM) store should not be there within the plant area. It should be in a separate building. This will release some space and it could be utilized in a better way. 6. Fork lifters and stillage should be increased in number to make sure that each part should reach its station on time. 7. Racks should increase in number in order to minimize the time lost in movement. 8. Rejection Bins should be increased to avoid wastage of time. It should be provided in easy reach of each worker or station.
To analyze Painting Section and Painting Quality • To know about the current painting quality, instruments used, processes carried out, problems regarding the worker’s health and safety and to find out the weaknesses and reasons behind poor worker health in that section. • Painting section is very critical section regarding the worker’s health. Two of the workers are already suffering from Lungs infection. • Our task was to find out the reasons behind that. We prepared a questionnaire regarding the painting processes, equipment used and prevailing health and safety conditions. The questionnaire is below Q.1. What are the components painted in this section? Red Fender, Fender Plate, Fender Support Shroud Dash board, Dash board path Tank clamp Top hood, Side hood Channel Strip Side panel Gray Silver Wrapper
Questionnaire Q.2. Q.3. Q.4. Q.5. Q.6. Q.7. Either spray paint guns are available or not in this section? Yes, guns are available in this section. In fact are surplus in number. Either spray paint guns are of good quality or not in this section? Yes, guns are of good quality made by Bashir Sons. Either safety nasal mask are available or not? Yes, the masks are provided by MTL keeping in view the safety of the workers. Either worker wears safety nasal mask or not? No, Workers don’t wore. Masks in summer but in winter they often wore it. What is the effect of paint on the health of worker if the safety measures are not taken into account? Workers have no sound knowledge about their safety. Recently two cases are reported in which the workers are suffering from lungs infection. Either quality of the paint is good or not? MTL is using ICI Paints according to prescribed standards of Massey Ferguson and it is of good quality
Questionnaire Q.8. Q.9. Q.10. Q.11. Q.12. Either work load for worker is manageable or not? Yes, work load is very much manageable. After every 70 hangers the worker in the paint booth is replaced. Either the worker are sufficient or not? Yes, man power in this section is enough in number. Total 24 workers are available in each shift including supervisor and housekeeping staff. Either paint is available on time or not? Paint is available at paint booth and there is no delay what are the major problems faced by workers regarding the painting? No problem at all. Workers consider themselves that they are highly skilled in their respective job and can dealt with the problem Either proper temperature is there or not? Stove oven temperature ranges from 140-150◦C. stove oven doesn’t start till the temperature reaches to 140◦C. Dry oven temperature is 130◦C
Suggestions and Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Training workshops should be carried out in TAP to give awareness to the workers about their safety and health. It should be made mandatory for the workers to wear safety nasal masks during painting. Training workshop should be carried out time to time in order to improve the worker’s skills in order to enhance the painting quality. Painting precision and accuracy should be improved in order to minimize the paint losses. The painting quality must be improved to avoid rusting.
Quality Assurance Department Task 5: To Know The Working Of Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance What is Quality? Product or service that fulfills or completes its task or work effectively for specified period of time is referred as quality. QA has three sections Bought Out Finished (BOF) In House Quality Manufacturing Production Lines Quality To ensure the quality of the components to be assembled MTL have different types of gauges, fixtures and jigs, micro gauges, dial gauges, height gauges, depth gauges and many others.
• In every department of Millat Tractors Quality Assurance section is present which assures the quality of all the processes happening there. • At every step of manufacturing there are gauges present to check the quality of the product at every step. Different types of Gauges Snap gauge: Plug gauge: Slip gauge: Ring gauge: Dial gauge: To determine the outer diameters To determine internal diameter or bore To determine the gaps between two components To determine the thread outer diameters To determine the multiple dimensions (ovality, tapperness, bore, length, clearances) in microns.
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) Quality of precision machined parts both in house manufactured and vendors supplied is ensured by the use of CMM, CMM caters for precise measurement of linear and geometrical size and assures the dimensional integrity of complex parts with high speed. CMM can measure up to half micron. CMM can measure: • • • • • • Intricate sizes Positions Angles Diameters Squareness Flatness • • • • • Parallelism Concentricity Roundness Straightness Co-axial ties
Inspection and Testing Facilities in Labs • Oil and Grease Testing • Paint and Coating Testing Lab • Rubber Testing • Material Testing • Mechanical Testing
Quality Assurance What is Quality? Product or service that fulfills or completes its task or work effectively for specified period of time is referred as quality. What is Quality Assurance? The Quality assurance department attempts to improve and stabilize the production and associated processes to avoid or to at least minimize the issues which leads to the defects. To ensure the quality of the Tractors and other multiple products that are assembled in MTL is the main task of the quality assurance department.
Quality Assurance Quality Assurance(QA) Department has 3-sections: • Bought Out Finished (BOF) • In House Quality Manufacturing • Production Lines Quality
Bought Out Finished • This section is incoming inspection center that basically deals with the inspection of incoming parts that were manufactured by different Vendors. • It utilizes different types of instruments, gauges, micro gauges, fixtures and jigs for measuring the different dimensions of different parts. • Random sampling technique is adopted to collect the sample out of the total lot and the dimensions are then measured and compared with the standard one. • Massey Ferguson(England) has predefined the acceptable quality level for the different parts according to which lot is either rejected or accepted depending upon the nature and sensitivity of the part, e.g. The acceptable quality level is 2 for the lot of 100 pieces if a sample of 8 pieces is to be taken.
In-House Quality Manufacturing • It basically deals with the quality of the components, parts or accessories that are manufactured o machine d within the fences of MTL. • There are the drawings for the different parts that allows only the specific level of tolerance in the machining or finishing of these parts, this section has basically the concern with that level of tolerance and has to maintain, • This section utilizes very delicate and sensitive equipment's such as Coordinate measuring machine(CMM) for the assurance of quality.
Production Lines Quality • This section has to dealt with the problems encountered on production or assembling lines and is responsible for meting and maintaining the set standards of the final products. • There are pre-defined methods of assembling the different components and sub components to get a final finished products. • This section assures that these predefined methods of assembling should be adopted by the different workers in order to met the standard • Furthermore it resolves the problem encountered in following the specific procedure of assembling.
Gauges • At every step of manufacturing there gauges are present to check the quality of the product. • These gauges are provided to help out the Engineers of Production lines quality to check the various parameters during assembling. Different types of Gauges: Snap gauge: Plug gauge: Slip gauge: Ring gauge: Dial gauge: To determine the outer diameters To determine internal diameter or bore To determine the gaps between two components To determine the thread outer diameters To determine the multiple dimensions (ovality, tapperness, bore, length, clearances) in microns.
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) Quality of precision machined parts both in house manufactured and vendors supplied is ensured by the use of CMM, CMM caters for precise measurement of linear and geometrical size and assures the dimensional integrity of complex parts with high speed. CMM can measure up to half micron. CMM can measure: • • • • • • Intricate sizes Positions Angles Diameters Squareness Flatness • • • • • Parallelism Concentricity Roundness Straightness Co-axialties
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
Detailed Report of CMM
Inspection and Testing Facilities in Labs • Oil and Grease Testing • Paint and Coating Testing Lab • Rubber Testing • Material Testing • Mechanical Testing
Inspection and Testing Facilities in Labs Oil and Grease Testing: • Flashing point apparatus • Different viscometer and viscosity bath Paint and Coating Testing: • Salt spray testing machine • Thickness meter Rubber Testing: • Durometer rubber hardness tester • Ovens and weighing balance Mechanical Testing • • • • • Universal testing machine UTM (50 Tons) Rockwell hardness testing machine Brinell hardness testing machine Vicker hardness tester with micrometer Impact tester
Suggestions and Recommendations • MTL should be quality conscious rather than quantity conscious. • It is the duty of the QA department that not to allow the poor quality part fed to the assembly line. • Good quality tools should be used so components can be saved. • Bought out Finished(BOF) section should work more precisely and accurately to ensure the best quality of the vendor’s product. • CNC machine is required in OP‐53 on lube oil sump line because 0.064 tolerance cannot be controlled by manual Mill machine. • To improve the quality, change the operating machines gradually. • Vendors should be treated properly.
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