advertisement

presentatie

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about presentatie
Education

Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Dionigi

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Introduction In general: Significance of propaganda is underestimated Cinema? Dirty word Our goal? Overview of the significance of propaganda and cinema for the politics of WWII. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Content Propaganda definition Why film? Propaganda types of film History of propaganda Parties Germany Great-Brittain United States Russia Conclusion Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Propaganda Definition “Propaganda is the attempt to influence public opinions of an audience through transmission of ideas or values.” “Attempt”: purpose of the activity is important  succeeds “influence”: rather than ‘control’ “Public opinions of an audience”: influenced towards matters of interest “Audience”: propaganda is aimed at a particular audience “Transmission of ideas or values”: Directly / Indirectly Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Why film? Significance of cinema as propaganda weapon Film has been and still is the only true mass medium. Purely visual medium Sound film requires experience Emotions rather then the intellect More primitive, subconscious level Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Why film? Appeals to an audience that is a mass. Attracted audience from all classes. Technological miracle. Reproducible for mass audience. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Propaganda types of films Patriotic films Historical films Newsreel Documentary Warfilms Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé History of Propaganda In Latin propaganda meant “things to be propagated” 1622, shortly after start of 30 years’ war Pope Gregory XV founded Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (“Congregation for Propagating the Faith”) Committee of cardinals to oversee propagation by missionaries sent to non-christian countries Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé History of Propaganda Actual Latin stem ‘propagand’ conveys a sense of ‘that which ought to be spread’ Originally not intended to spead misleading information Modern political sense dates from World War I Was not originally pejorative Propaganda has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The writings of Romans like Livy are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman statist propaganda. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé History of Propaganda Early in the 20th century : Propaganda techniques were first codified and applied in a scientific manner by journalist Walter Lippman psychologist Edward Bernays (nephew of Sigmund Freud) During WWI Bernays & Lippman were hired by president of U.S. (Woodrow Wilson) to participate in Creel Commission Mission : to sway popular opinion to enter the war on the side of Britain. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé History of Propaganda War propaganda campaign from Lippman & Bernays invoked anti-German hysteria Bernays invented terms like Group mind Engineering consent (important concepts in practical propaganda work) WWII saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé History of Propaganda Early 2000s, US government developed freely distributed video game : America’s Army Encourage players to become interested in joining the US army Poll : 30% of young people who had positive view of the military said they had developed it by playing the game. (mss ook prentje hier van spelleke) Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Great-Brittain United States Russia Parties Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany 1933 – German film industry: most powerful in Europe Mainly due to: Germany’s large size and geographical position German-speaking population all across Europe Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Nazis inherited: Cinema with a strong and distinctive national tradition Efficient and loyal state machine Passive and orderly population Ideology based on race Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Plans with film industry indicated by Goebbels’ speech, he claimed: German cinema was in a state of spiritual crisis films were washed out and shapeless cinema reflected weaknesses New role: art is free, should remain free and must get used to certain norms Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Reich film chamber: dealt with the personnel of the film industry. New cinema law: dealt with the films themselves Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Only a small number of the films: political Out of the 1049 films, only 153 are overtly political and propagandistic Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Newsreel Short term propaganda Direct propaganda First to be under complete and effective control Distinctive and unified image Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Indirect / direct propaganda films Indirect: propagandistic message was rather covered heroes appeared as examples Direct: more overt in their propaganda content stereotyped heroes and villains Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Home-front films Reflect: - developments on the battlefield - government’s need to adjust its propaganda - 3 phases Trains spectators to protect themselves from reality Mindset is transferable to everyday life Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Themes and Variations National socialism played upon the instincts of mankind Movies combined elements traditional German virtues with he aggressive new master race Tell individual that he was belonging to a larger group Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Themes and Variations Characteristics of leader figure: - strength and determination - piety and simplicity - humanity and generosity Scapegoat Life in other countries was shown as barbaric and worse to Germany  criticism Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Germany Conclusion Nazis created a series of methods in which they could control German cinema: - controlled the composition of its members - controlled the content of the films by censorship - controlled the industry itself by first covert and then overt nationalism. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Britain Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Ministry of Information – 1939 Responsible for: National propaganda News Minister: Brendan Bracken (1941 – 1945) Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Films Division Films officer: Jack Beddington Responsible for: Cinema as instrument for propaganda Newsreels, documentary and information films Relations to commercial film industry Crown Film Unit Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Documentary and Newsreels Documentary = non-fiction films Example of feature length documentary: Harry Watt’s ‘Target for Tonight’ Documentaries were important but came in second after the Newsreel. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Documentary and Newsreels Newsreel = 5 minute film Weekly audience of around twenty million Providing footage was a disaster. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Feature films - Important – covert propaganda - 3 types of film - government responsibility - link to commercial film industry Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Examples - Noel Coward’s ‘In Which We Serve’ Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Great-Brittain Examples - Michael Powell’s ‘49th Parallel’ Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé America Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American U.S. Propaganda ::: introduction Propaganda = tool for political world Americans specialized in movies >> Hollywood 2 major genres : Hollywood movies Cartoons Purpose : Influence citizens (warfare, combat, finances) Counter Goebbels’ propaganda strategy Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies WWII = complex & distinctive period War era = most overtly genre driven era in American film industry ‘War film’ genre coalesced into single dominant cycle Hollywood : conversion to war production Providing both entertainment & propaganda Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies Roosevelt decided the complete conversion of motion picture industry to war production Same with other industries : Steel Construction Automobile manufacturing Film industry  state propaganda agency Roosevelt allowed film industry to maintain commercial operations as long as they supported the war effort of the government Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies 6 months before Pearl Harbour incident : 1/3 of film industry output = war films Therefore : Late December 1941 : John Mellett Coordinator of government films = liaison to film industry Give advise to studios for war-film production Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies Melletts letter of appointment The American motion picture is one of the most effective mediums in informing and entertaining our citizens. The motion picture must remain free in so far as national security will permit.”  industry could continue commercial operations without direct government control Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies BUT : Roosevelt expected full support of war-effort Roosevelt conveyed to Mellett 6 war-related subjects on which hollywood had to focus on : The issues (“why we fight”) The enemy The allies The home front The production front The U.S. Armed forces Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies Washington : formalize the advisory and monitoring process Creating of OWI in June 1942 John Mellett = head of BMP BMP = Bureau of Motion Pictures By then evolution was : Movie industries voluntary support of the war effort was already evident Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies World War II combat film Stage a sudden and dramatic return at the decade’s end with several huge hits : Battleground, Twelve o’ Clock and Sands of Iwo Jima These films reestablished the currency of the combat film This would become one of Hollywoods more durable genres in subsequent decades. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Hollywood Movies Examples: The fighting 69th, william keighley, Warner Bros, 1940 Wake Island, John farrow, Paramount, 1941 Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Cartoons American propaganda : one golden rule : Had to be entertaining Cartoons = excellent method to deliver propagandistic and educational ideas in a seemingly innocuous manner to the general public and armed forces Perfect tool to influence younger citizens Propaganda for every layer of the population Animation studios putted to work : Walt Disney, Warner Bros, ... Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé American Conclusion Government wanted to project image on population : US is safe Justified actions for people in need Justified finances In U.S. Such things don’t happen Propagandistic movies applicable to U.S. Self, not real purpose to work in into the war-theme More generalistic way of encouraging growth of nationalism Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russia Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Lenin: ‘Of all arts, for us cinema is the most important’ Stalin: ‘The greatest means of mass agitation’ Trotski: ‘The best instrument for propaganda’ Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Introduction: Mean of indoctrination used by all countries Soviet works share great simmilarities But also contrasts Mobilizing the film industry Much greater goal Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Documentaries: Soviet film industry had considerable experience 3 days after the outbreak of the war No footage of real military action Red Army set up special filming groups to improve quality EX. “The Defeat of Nazi Troops near Moscow” by Varlamov & Kopalin First great strategic defeat of the Nazis Huge audiences Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Differences: All documentaries/newsreels cheated Russians have a different type of accompanying Bombastic! Didn’t want to hide the suffering and devastation In contrast with for example Germany Germans started the war Russian movies have an “air of reality “ Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Mobilizing the film industry: To evaluate, look at the circumstances Lack of space, great pressure, minimum raw film, time limit. Ideologically the strongest party! Advantages: Propaganda machine could change direction Very clear understanding of the importance of film as a propaganda device by the leaders. Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Mobilizing the film industry: a. Distribution of these movies: Every Soviet village at least two movies a month 3000 movable projectors 4500 mechanics Theaters build Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Mobilizing the film industry: b. Kinosbornikis: speed => few days after the outbreak Boevye Kinosborniki (Fighting Film Collections) - 5 of 6 shorts - individually entitled with only a number - Content and style varied greatly Obvious propaganda Audience had been prepared No alternative Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian War films: Spring of ’42 completely adapted to the wartime conditions Between 1942 and 1945 the studios made: 70 films. 49 could be described as war films. Themes: main propaganda themes typical Russians themes uncovering of spies Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Nationalism and history: Multinational empire Difficulties to the propagandists - minorities in Russia Solutions: ‘Friendship of the peoples” Georgian and a Russian soldier on a mission National feeling Reemergence of the pan-Slavism Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Nationalism and history: Russian arms in the past had always been victorious What about the minorities? ‘friendship of the people’ into the past’ Title of an individual hero an extraordinary person wisdom and bravery Stalin Importance of leadership and thereby support authority Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein POTEMKIN (1925) Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé Russian Conclusion: The irony of the history of Soviet cinema is that during the war: propaganda films => more realistic Expressed genuine feelings and real pathos - Hatred for the enemy, - The call for sacrifice and heroism, - Sorrow/suffering of the Russian people Directors actually believed in what they were saying Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé:  Evi Jansen Michaël Liekens Peter Pierlé The END

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

apps.google.com

Hier sollte eine Beschreibung angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht zu.
Read more

dict.cc | presentatie | Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch

Übersetzung für presentatie im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc.
Read more

PowerPoint Vormgeving | Presentatie Vormgeving ...

PowerPoint Presentaties, Presentatie Vormgeving, Sales Presentaties, PowerPoint Vormgeving en PowerPoint Slides van Eyeful Presentations.
Read more

presentatie in het Duits - uitmuntend

alle vertalingen voor presentatie in het Duits in ons Nederlands - Duits woordenboek uitmuntend.de
Read more

Google Presentaties: maak en bewerk presentaties online ...

Maak een nieuwe presentatie en werk er samen met anderen aan. Blijf productief met of zonder internetverbinding. Gebruik Presentaties om PowerPoint ...
Read more

Bedrijfspresentatie

Website als presentatie. Waarom nog een powerpoint presentatie met standaard grafieken, opvolgende paginanummers en doorsnee afbeeldingen Alle mensen in de ...
Read more

Beste presentatie ooit iPhone Steve jobs. - YouTube

Beste presentatie ooit iPhone Steve jobs. Skip navigation Upload. Sign in. ... Presentatie Marcel Crok Klimaatcongres 2011 - Duration: 34:41.
Read more

Timeshare beenden oder Timeshare annullieren | Timesharestop

Timeshare beenden – Beachtenswerte Punkte. Auf der Suche nach einer Möglichkeit Ihr Timeshare zu annullieren ist es wichtig, dass Sie sich die folgenden ...
Read more

Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz - Islamistischer ...

Der Präsident des Bundesamtes für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), Dr. Hans-Georg Maaßen, hat heute das 12. Symposium des BfV unter dem Titel „Islamistischer ...
Read more