Presen 1

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Information about Presen 1

Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Janelle


OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONOMY IN NORTHERN KENYA :  OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONOMY IN NORTHERN KENYA Presented by: A. O. Esmail – DDLP (CRMD) INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION The population in ASALs is growing at a faster rate than the high potential areas. Challenge:- how to sustain ASAL productivity, which is mostly livestock based, and still provide for more people. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the total red meat in the country comes from the ASAL areas livestock population:- 8.9 million beef cattle, 5.9 million sheep, 7.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. Demand for beef is over 340,000 metric tons per year. Demand growth rate:-15,000 metric tones per year in the next 5 years. BACKGROUND INFORMATION:  BACKGROUND INFORMATION The ASAL area covers about 80% of the country’s total landmass. The ASAL contribute 52% of Kenya’s livestock. Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists occupy ASALs of Kenya. They make up 25% (10 million) of Kenya’s population Pastoral areas of Kenya have the highest incidences of poverty, and the lowest level of access to basic services. ASAL ecosystem is characterized by :- low and variable rainfall, with most areas receiving 200-350 mm annually, water resources are limited and poorly distributed, vegetation varies from desert to shrub, to dry bush and grassland, and dry, often leafless woodland. Livelihood is solely based on animal products such as milk, blood, meat, hides and skins Drought is a common phenomenon in these areas HISTORY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN KENYA:  HISTORY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN KENYA Livestock Development during the Colonial Period. Livestock management through the tribal policies by the tribal chiefs. Restricted movement of people and animals:- efficient grazing systems leading to conservation of grazing lands. Early efforts in range/livestock development emphasized disease control and livestock marketing. Also controlled grazing (restriction of stocking rates, rotational grazing), establishing dry season grazing reserves, improving water supplies, and improving the quality of livestock and livestock products, such as hides. Post – Independence Livestock Development in the Rangelands Development mostly emphasized on improvement of the range/livestock pastoral production system. Development projects:- large, structurally and administratively complex, often multi-donor, efforts covering one or more provinces. Aim was to transform pastoralists to commercial ranches OPPORTUNITIES TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY:  OPPORTUNITIES TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY Natural Resource Base A large pool (percent of landmass) of natural resources A large population of livestock The area is generally underdeveloped Pastoralism is the production system makes the best use of natural resources in the rangelands and is currently the most suited approach to the development of the arid districts Livestock Enterprises Hay baling Value addition in livestock products Bee keeping Cottage Industries Livelihood Diversification OPPORTUNITIES TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti…:  OPPORTUNITIES TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti… Capacity Building/Investments In the following areas Animal Breeding, Disease free Zones Management Fodder production and Conservation Drought Management (Mitigation, recovery strategies, etc.) and Early Warning Systems ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid Lands) management in relation to livestock production, Development of Standards for Quality Control, Residue Testing in Livestock products, By-products Utilization in the development of Livestock feeds Livestock Meat Marketing Systems in the ASALs, Processing and packaging of the Non-conventional Livestock (Ostrich, Crocodile etc.) products. THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY:  THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY DROUGHT MANAGEMENT Drought is the single most significant threat to livestock development in northern Kenya Threats associated with drought Inadequate drought preparedness mitigation and responses mechanism, Inadequate early warning information on drought, Low level of community participation, Unpredictable climatic fluctuations, Lack of appreciation of tradition early warning and drought management mechanism, Limited attempts at provision of livestock relief, etc. Drought Intensity and Frequency:  Drought Intensity and Frequency Source:- Tengemeo Institute THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti…:  THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti… Natural Resources Management Threats to natural resource management are associated with land, water and pasture and vegetation. They include the following:- Lack of appropriate land use and ownership, Low return from the land e.g. poor soils, Overgrazing, overstocking, Poor water distribution, Inadequate water sources, Resource use conflict, Low community participation in natural resource management THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti…:  THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti… Natural Resources Management conti… Limited promotion of water harvest and conservation technologies, Poor pasture and vegetation utilization and management, Bush encroachment (invaders) e.g. Prosopi spp., Depletion of vegetation palatable species, Limited grazing reserves, Lack of understanding of the pastoral systems and low investments in these areas. Slide11:  Conflict and insecurity Threats associated with conflict and insecurity are as follows:- Unharmonised Transboudary resources use/exploitation, Adherence to negative Socio-cultural beliefs and practices –e.g. raiding, High incidences of poverty levels, Weak community based conflict resolution mechanism, Resources use competitiveness e.g. water Infrastructure Infrastructural threats are: - Inappropriate location of some physical structures, Lack of or under utilization of some facilities, poor prioritization of some development of structures e.g. roads, electricity provision, Inappropriate policies and legal framework, Poor workmanship and corruption, Limited private sector involvement THREATS TO THE LIVESTOCK ECOMONY conti Way forward:  Way forward Community based natural resource management should be adopted as the most efficient way of natural resource management in the ASAL areas of Kenya Alternative livelihoods to be promoted in the pastoral areas. Formulate policies which effective address the pastoral production systems e.g. the land use policy, the National Extension Policy and National Agriculture and Livestock Extension, etc. Pastoral development and especially the delivery of social services which are adapted to pastoral systems to be enhanced. Infrastructure development highly needed to open up these areas for faster development. Way forward conti…:  Way forward conti… Establishment of resource use and marketing associations for efficient and economical resource management to respond to market demands. Promote livelihood diversification and non-conventional livestock production systems like camel keeping and beekeeping as drought and land degradation coping mechanism. Support ASAL community based traditional early warning systems to generate credible information sufficient to trigger relatively rapid and appropriate response to the affected communities. 20% of the national Budget to target pastoral areas every year for the next 15 years. Slide14:  THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

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