Preschool Overview

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Information about Preschool Overview

Published on January 6, 2009

Author: aSGuest9422


Preschool : Preschool Preschool types Head Start Temperament Behavior problems Preschool: Types : Preschool: Types Montessori Waldorf High/Scope Preschool: Types : Preschool: Types Other types Church- or temple-run programs Community organizations (YMCA) Large companies Bright Horizons (600 nationwide, work-site) Children’s Creative Learning Centers (18 in CA and CO) Parent-run cooperatives Preschool: Montessori : Preschool: Montessori Philosophy Founded by pediatrician / psychiatrist Maria Montessori in 1907, Emphasizes connection of all living things, and need for each person to find meaningful work and own place in the world Child will learn at his or her own pace Classroom Five areas: Practical life, Sensory awareness education, Language arts, Mathematics and geometry, Cultural subjects Most of interaction is among children: Older kids help younger ones learn how to master new skills Who it's best for Children who want a hands-on learning environment suited to their own needs Special needs, especially ADHD or other learning or psychological problems, because of individual attention Preschool: Waldorf : Preschool: Waldorf Philosophy Stimulate and develop ‘spirit, soul, and body’ Engage in creative free play rather than watching TV and videos and playing computer games Classroom Comfortable, homelike environment Daily activities range from painting, coloring, singing, and reciting poems to modeling with beeswax, baking bread, building houses out of boxes, sheets, and boards Dressing up and pretending to be parents, kings, and magicians Who it's best for More group-oriented Good for children who thrive on order and rhythmic repetition Not recommended for children with severe developmental disabilities Preschool: High / Scope : Preschool: High / Scope Philosophy Active involvement with people, materials, ideas, and events Curriculum of "shared control" in which adults and children learn together Children encouraged to make own choices about materials and activities Classroom Key experiences: Creative representation, Language and literacy, Social relations, Movement, Music Computers Who it's best for Children who need individual attention Originally created for at-risk urban children and used in Head Start Effective for children with developmental delays and learning disabilities Head Start: History : Head Start: History Part of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 authorized programs to meet needs of disadvantaged preschool children Panel of child development experts drew up program Office of Economic Opportunity Launched Project Head Start in 1965 Designed to help end poverty by providing low-income preschoolers with program meeting emotional, social, health, nutritional, and psychological needs Today, Head Start is a program within Administration on Children, Youth and Families in HHS Programs are administered locally by non-profit organizations and local school systems Head Start: Programs : Head Start: Programs Early Head Start Promotes healthy prenatal outcomes Promotes healthy family functioning Strengthens development of infants and toddlers Head Start Helps create healthy development in low-income children Offers wide variety of services to influence all aspects of a child's development and learning Migrant and Seasonal Program Branch American Indian-Alaska Native Program Branch Head Start: Services : Head Start: Services Eligibility Largely income-based (100% of the federal poverty level) Each local program includes other eligibility criteria such as disabilities and services to other family members <10% of enrollment can be from over-income families Disabilities - full services to children with disabilities Education Goal of Head Start is to ensure that children are ready to begin school HS educational standards have become de facto standards for high-quality pre-school education programs Family and Community Partnerships Health Provides health screenings Ensures regular health check-ups, including dental care Teaches good practices in oral health, hygiene, nutrition, personal care, and safety Head Start: Effectiveness : Head Start: Effectiveness Summary of 31 studies (Lee et al.,1990) Head Start program showed Immediate improvement in IQ scores of participating children After beginning school, the non-participants were able to narrow the IQ difference Diminution of effects over time, especially for low-ability children, may reflect differences in quality of subsequent schooling or home environment Head Start: Effectiveness : Head Start: Effectiveness HHS Head Start Impact Study (2002 – 2006) 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year old children applying for Head Start Randomly assigned to Head Start group or non- Head Start group Data collection began Fall 2002 and continued through 2006 (spring of 1st grade) Children who entered Head Start as 3-year-olds Higher parent use of educational activities Lower parent use of physical discipline No significant impact for safety practices Children who entered Head Start as 4-year-olds Higher parent use of educational activities No significant impacts for discipline or safety practices Preschool: Temperament : Preschool: Temperament Easy Very social, comfortable in groups, can fit into most situations When she wants something she can't have, it's easy to distract her before emotions escalate When she's out of sorts, she’s easy to calm Has a lot of staying power at a single task When traveling, she can go with the flow and shift gears easily Sensitive, slow-to-warm up Slow to adapt to new situations Likes the world ordered and knowable Hates to be interrupted when engrossed May not do well in social gatherings, especially if feeling pushed If left to own pace, can mature into thoughtful, sensitive thinker Preschool: Temperament : Preschool: Temperament Spirited, active Active physically, often willful, may be prone to temper tantrums Very social and curious Adventurer, very determined Needs very clear boundaries, so that he doesn't act like a steamroller, trampling anyone or anything in her path Given good guidance and an outlet for energy, can be a leader Negative, difficult Angry, obstinate, needs things to be her way Great at independent play, but easily frustrated Finds it hard to express herself, may become a biter or pusher Tend to be insightful, resourceful, creative Preschool: Behavior Problems : Preschool: Behavior Problems Yale Child Study Center - Gilliam Survey responses from 3,900 teachers Educators use expulsion three times more often with troublesome preschoolers than do their colleagues who teach K-12 Preschool boys were 4.5 percent more likely than girls to be expelled African-American children were twice as likely as their white or Latino peers to be expelled Preschool: Behavior Problems : Preschool: Behavior Problems Aggression – predicts oppositional, violent behavior Parent counseling Time out Verbal reprimand: saying “No,” explaining the rule for proper behavior, or warning of consequences if the aggression persists Reward system: withdrawing privileges for aggression or providing incentives, such as a star chart, for prosocial behavior; Redirection: having the child focus on something else Promoting empathy: helping the child understand how aggression made the other child feel Preschool: Behavior Problems : Preschool: Behavior Problems Shyness and fearfulness or behavioral inhibition - predicts social anxiety Parent counseling Encourage child to talk to parent Limit isolating activities such as watching TV Praise positive handling of social situations Give child some undivided attention each day Help child become independent and confident by teaching self-care skills Preschool: Behavior Problems : Preschool: Behavior Problems Speech problems (5.8%) Developmental delay (3.2%) ADHD (2 - 5%) Causes significant functional impairments Is stable over time Predicts behavioral problems later in childhood

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