Published on January 10, 2008
Predicate and Argument: Predicate and Argument Sílvia Gómez - Rasmus Heller - Stephanie Möllmann - Katharina Skocki Structure : Structure Introduction Definition Predicate & Argument Vendler Classes Carlson: SLP, ILP, KLP Spanish: Ser and Estar (to be) Valency model Predicate: Predicate lat. Praedicare=aussagen one of the two main parts of a sentence (predicate and argument) must contain a verb and can contain objects or phrases governed by the verb gives information about the argument Predicate: Predicate Nominal Predicate predicate that consists of a NP He-Man is the master of the Universe. ^ ^ linking verb nominal predicate (Copula) Predicate: Predicate Adjectival Predicate adjective with the role of a predicate Sheila is powerful. ^ ^ Copula adjectival predicate Argument: Argument The noun phrase of a predicate: arguments can be realized as nouns, groups of nouns or sentences Vendler classes: Vendler classes - Predicates are divided into sub-classes The Vendler classes are based on the relation between predicates and their arguments They subdivide verbs into states (Zustände) and occurences (Ereignisse) Vendler classes: Vendler classes 1. States (static) -- Occurences (dynamic) I Processes (durative) 4. Achievements (punctual) I 2. Activities (atelic) 3. Accomplishments (telic) Telic vs Atelic: Telic vs Atelic Telic accomplishments have a terminal point from which on they cannot continue: We walked six kilometres. Atelic activities can be carried on: I had walked in the park. Vendler classes: Vendler classes 1. States - the verb describes a static situation - no temporal extent is mentioned - action is unbound in time - states cannot occur in the progressive aspect - never stand together with time-span adverbials She loves him. Vendler classes: Vendler classes 2. Activities - all the characteristics of states + some kind of change involved + can occur in the progressive and with time-span adverbials John read a book. Vendler classes: Vendler classes 3. Accomplishments - involve change - events are presented as bound in time - have a beginning, an end, and a process part - may have progressive aspect - occur with time-span adverbials John ran to the store in an hour. Vendler classes: Vendler classes 4. Achievements - have the same characteristics as accomplishments apart from the process part - denote punctual change They reached the top of the mountain. Singular vs multiple situations: Singular vs multiple situations A multiple situation comprises more than one instance of the same substitution: I was born on Good Friday. (singular) He was winking at me. (multiple) As HOMEWORK: Specify the classes and divide between singulary & multiple situations:: As HOMEWORK: Specify the classes and divide between singulary & multiple situations: 1. The flag is green. 2. I found the key. 3. I had walked home. 4. He is playing golf. 5. The president has resigned. 6. She cycles to work. Carlson classes: Carlson classes Predicates are divided into sub-classes They differ in relation to their subjects 1. Stage-level predicates (SLP) 2. Individual-level predicates (ILP) 3. Kind-level predicates (KLP) Milsark‘s Definition:: Milsark‘s Definition: States [are] conditions in which an entity finds itself and which are subject to change without there being an essential alteration of the entity… [Properties] are descriptions which name some trait possessed by the entity and which is assumed to be more or less permanent or at least to be such that some significant change in the character of the entity will result if the description is altered. (Milsark 1977: 12f.) Milsark offered the following list of representative predicates:: Milsark offered the following list of representative predicates: SLPs sick, hungry, tired, alert, clothed, naked, drunk, stoned, closed, open, etc. ILPs all NP PREDs shapes, colours intelligent, beautiful, boring, crazy, etc. General distinction: : General distinction: SLP: Stage level predicates transient spatiotemporal they describe characteristics of individuals that hold in time and space hence: they can combine with locatives Example: Mary was tired / hungry/ nervous in the car. ILP: Individual level predicates more or less permanent independent from time and space they cannot combine with locatives Example: ?? Mary was blond/ intelligent/ vegetarian in the car. KLPs: KLPs KLPS denote properties that logically cannot have individual objects as their arguments. Rather, they are predicates of kinds, species, or classes of objects. The following examples contain KLPs: Wolves are widespread in North America. Dinosaurs are extinct. This kind of tree is indigenous to California. Existential Construction : Existential Construction SLP: Stage level predicates Existential construction grammatical in coda position Examples with adjective phrases: a. There were people sick. b. there were people drunk. c. There were doors open. ILP: Individual level predicates Existential construction ungrammatical in coda position Examples with adjective phrases: a. * There were people intelligent. b. * There were people tall. c. * There were doors wooden. ILP must have strong subjects : ILP must have strong subjects Examples: a. The man is sick. (Strong + SLP) b. The man is tall. (Strong + ILP) c. Sm men are sick. (Weak + SLP) d. * sm men are tall. (Weak + ILP) Examples:Bare Plural:: Examples: Bare Plural: Potato ship manufacturers are upset. (existential possible) SLPs Surfers are lying on the beach. Potato chip manufacturers are intense. (generic) ILPs Surfers are laid-back. with determiner a: 1. a. ?? A madrigal is popular. (Madrigal. A part-song for several voices) b. A madrigal is polyphonic. 2. a. A hero is popular. b. ?? A hero is polyphonic Perception and emotive verbs:: Perception and emotive verbs: a. I saw Mary angry. b. ?* I saw Mary intelligent. a. Martha saw the policemen walk home. b. * Martha saw the policemen intelligent. a. I want Mary happy. b. ?* I want Mary intelligent. a. I consider John tall. b. ?*I consider John sick. a. The sight of the clown drunk sent the kids into tears. b. ?* The sight of the clown tall sent the kids into tears. Diagnostics: : Diagnostics: SLP spatiotemporal transient Existential construction grammatical in coda position generally realised as adjectival or verbal predicates can have weak or strong subjects complements of perception verbs or emotive verbs may consist of a SLP ILP independent from time and space more or less permanent Existential construction ungrammatical in coda position restricted number of adjectival predicates and can be realised by NPs must have strong subjects complements of perception verbs or emotive verbs cannot consist of an ILP (apart from consider) predicado.(past participle of predicar): predicado.(past participle of predicar) 1. m. Fil. Aquello que se afirma del sujeto en una proposición. 2. m. Ling. Segmento del discurso que, junto con el sujeto, constituye una oración gramatical. ~ nominal.1. m. Ling. El constituido por un verbo copulativo, como ser o estar, y por un nombre, un adjetivo, un sintagma o una proposición en función nominal. El verbo, que en ocasiones puede faltar, sirve de nexo con el sujeto, de tal modo que se establece concordancia entre los tres componentes de la oración.Mi hermano es más pequeño que yo.: ~ nominal.1. m. Ling. El constituido por un verbo copulativo, como ser o estar, y por un nombre, un adjetivo, un sintagma o una proposición en función nominal. El verbo, que en ocasiones puede faltar, sirve de nexo con el sujeto, de tal modo que se establece concordancia entre los tres componentes de la oración. Mi hermano es más pequeño que yo. ~ verbal.1. m. Ling. El formado por un verbo que, por sí solo o acompañado de complementos, constituye el predicado de una oración gramatical.Mi hermano toca la guitarra.Mi madre canta.Real Academia Española © Todos los derechos reservados: ~ verbal.1. m. Ling. El formado por un verbo que, por sí solo o acompañado de complementos, constituye el predicado de una oración gramatical. Mi hermano toca la guitarra. Mi madre canta. Real Academia Española © Todos los derechos reservados Spanish verb “to be”: Spanish verb “to be” Main differences between: Ser and Estar Ser : Ser Denotes permanent and essential properties of the subject María es una chica Mary is a girl María es simpática Mary is nice In this case Mary is always a girl and always nice Estar: Estar Denotes temporary or accidental properties of the subject. María está en su casa Mary is at home In this case there is no difference between whether she is always at home or not. We use “estar” just to denote location. Estar: Estar María está triste Mary is sad Temporary quality. She is not always sad. Comparisons: Comparisons John Lennon fue un cantante. (John Lennon was a singer.) John Lennon está muerto. (John Lennon is dead.) Los invitados están en la catedral. (The guests are in the cathedral.) La boda es en la catedral. (The wedding is in the cathedral.) Comparisons:: Comparisons: Juan es divertido. (John is funny.) Juan fue aburrido. (John was boring (today)) Slide35: Depending on the verb we choose the sentence will have a meaning or another: Juan es aburrido. (John is boring.) Juan está aburrido. (John is bored.) Vendler classes in Spanish verbs: Vendler classes in Spanish verbs Estados/States: Saber, Conocer, Querer, Ser listo, Ser español... Actividades/Activities: Andar, Correr, Leer, Escribir, Llorar... Realizaciones/Accomplishment: Escribir una carta, pintar, construir... Logros/Achievements: Reconocer, Llegar, Morir, Nacer... Vendler classes in Spanish copula: Vendler classes in Spanish copula Only 2 of the 4 classes are applicable to the Spanish copula States: With ser or estar Activities: only with estar (and only when we have a progressive form: estar caminando (to be walking)) Vendler classes in Spanish copula: Vendler classes in Spanish copula The other 2 classes are applicable when we have a “perifrasis” Accomplishment: empezar a estar borracho Achievements: llegar a ser piloto Carlson Classes in Spanish: Carlson Classes in Spanish Stage-level predicates Estar (Temporary property/quality) María está enfadada con Pedro Mary is angry with Peter Carlson classes in Spanish: Carlson classes in Spanish Individual-level predicates Ser (main properties/qualities) María es una chica rubia Mary is a blond girl Carlson classes in Spanish: Carlson classes in Spanish SLP (estar) La ventana de mi habitación está rota (the window of my room is broken) (ser) La fiesta es en casa de Irene (the party is at Irene’s) (perifrasis) El concierto está empezando a ser aburrido (the concert is becoming boring) Carlson classes in Spanish: Carlson classes in Spanish ILP (ser) Mi prima es abogada (my cousin is a lawyer) (estar) El Camp Nou está en Barcelona (Camp Nou is in Barcelona) (perifrasis) we can’t have an ILP with a perifrasis because it denotes a process/change Some clues: Some clues When the ILP is a NP, you have to choose “ser” Ella es profesora/una estrella/la mujer de Pedro *Ella está profesora/una estrella/la mujer de Pedro Slide44: When an adjective or an AP is following the verb, then we will follow the main rules to distinguish between ser & estar (permanent/temporary properties), but we also have to pay attention to the meaning of the sentence (it can be a joke...) The valency model: The valency model In 1959 Lucien Tesnières introduced the notion valence in his work „Elements de syntaxe structurale“ valency model Tesnières assigns a certain amount of arguments to every verb The valency model: The valency model He distinguishes between three classes of verbs. Univalent verbs (with one argument) Paul dances. Bivalent verbs (with two arguments) and Bill ate lunch. Trivalent verbs (with three arguments). He gave her the book. The class of univalent verbs can further be divided into two sub-classes. If the argument is active or passive the univalent verb is either agentive or patientive. Paul dances. – Paul died. The valency model: Another differentiation is made between obligatory and facultative arguments The beings or things taking part in an action are called arguments Adjuncts are those parts of speech that can be left out without changing the meaning of the sentence or making it ungrammatical. He gave her the book in the classroom. The valency model The valency model: Different pairs of notions are used in literature on valency: Actants and circonstants Additions and specifications Arguments and adjuncts The valency model The valency model: Scientists don‘t agree on the distinction between arguments and adjuncts There are different opinions on that subject: Distinction should be dropped Is different in every sentence A gradual development from arguments to adjuncts The valency model The valency model: Argumental relations can be illustrated in the form of functions f(x) = verb (argument) (weil) Peter Herrn Meier rasiert RASIERT (PETER, HERRN MEIER) The valency model The valency model: the presentation of predicate-argument structure in a tree diagramm is different from the presentation of constituent structures The predicate represents the most important part of the system and is situated on top of the tree diagramm agent and theme are on the same level of the tree The valency model The valency model: The valency model phrase structure predicate argument structure The valency model: The valency model Euer junger Freund kennt meinen jungen Vetter. nucleus (verbal) subject object Bibliography: Bibliography Carlson, Greg N. (1977). Reference to Kinds in English. New York: Garland. Dürscheid, Christa (2003). Syntax. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag. Fernald, Theodore, B. (2000). Predicates and Temporal Arguments, New York: OUP. Huddleston, Rodney D. / Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. CUP. Internet sources: Internet sources Dobrovie-Sorin, Carmen (1997). “Types of Predicates and the Representation of Existential Readings”, in: http://www.llf.cnrs.fr/fr/Sorin/exist-SALT-1997.pdf. Jäger, Gerhard (1999). “Stage levels, states, and the semantics of the copula”, in: http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/2U2NTRmO/gjStageIndividual.pdf . Ladusav, William A. “Thetic and Categorical, Stage and Individual, Weak and Strong”, in: http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/2ExNzlkZ/ladusaw.salt4.pdf. Maienborn, Claudia (2004). “A Pragmatic Explanation of the Stage Level/ Individual Level Contrast in Combination with Locatives”, in: http://amor.rz.hu- berlin.de/~h0594bbb/pdf-files/2004-WECOL.pdf. ------. “Why can people be tired in a car but not blond: A pragmatic explanation of ‘temporariness effects’, in: http://ling.uni- konstanz.de/pages/conferences/sub7/abstracts/sub7_maienborn.pdf. Slide56: Park, Myung-Kwan “Small Clauses in English and the Stage-level and Individual-level Predicate Distinction”, in: http://mercury.hau.ac.kr/kggc/Publications/SIGG/SIGG07/SIGG07208_MKPark.pdf. Scmitt Christina, (et al.) “Acquisition of copulas ser and estar in Spanish“, in: http://psy-static01.bu.edu/posters/schmitt.pdf www.wikipedia.de
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