Predation lecture Nov30 no2

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Information about Predation lecture Nov30 no2

Published on December 30, 2007

Author: Goldye


PREDATION:  PREDATION One of the least well developed areas of ecological theory Management problems occur with a lack of information Biological data on predators and prey Explanation of the Ecosystem PREDATORS:  PREDATORS Change in feeding behavior of individual predators to different prey densities Functional Response Response of predator population through reproduction, immigration, and emigration Numerical Response Functional Responses:  Functional Responses Type l Type ll Type lll Prey Density Predator Density Predator Density Predator Density Prey Density Prey Density prey switching DEFINITIONS:  DEFINITIONS PREY SWITCHING Changing preference toward the more abundant prey. Ignoring rare prey Concentrating search in more rewarding areas Any of these behaviors result in: Type III Functional Response PREDATION:  PREDATION Population Models are uniquely related to predator-prey dynamics ½ equation Density Dependence Place where prey are most vulnerable to predation, predators have the least effect. At K Low population density prey are in good condition and more dispersed. Predators have have greatest effect, but prey are least vulnerable in body condition. Population Model of Prey:  Population Model of Prey Recruitment Rate Population Size (N) Nt Nt+1 Steepness of the line Size of “hump” above no growth line Potential to be resilient to offtake by a predator Predator Pits:  N Predator Pits Nt Nt+1 Functional response:  Functional response Prey live in small patches of high density and low density in between Clumped distribution Predators concentrate on areas of high density Predators may have a regulating effect on prey numbers Numerical response:  Numerical response Trend of predator numbers against prey numbers Predators increase as prey density increases Increased rate of predator reproduction when prey are abundant Numerical response Attraction of predators to prey aggregations Aggregational response (short term) immigration Numerical response:  Numerical response Reproduction and mortality rate of predators depends on predation rate More prey, more energy Predator numbers increase to an asymptote determined by interference Interference such as territoriality can cause reduction or stabilization of predators. High density: 20% adult wolves, 50% juveniles disperse Slide11:  Total response Total number eaten = number eaten by one predator multiplied by number of predators Can be plotted as Total response curves Need to also incorporate recruitment rate of prey Different types of curves indicate different types of relationships Predators regulate prey population Prey regulated by intraspecific competition for food Multiple stable states Population Cycles:  Population Cycles Strongest representation at high latitude Specialist predator Lynx - hare cycle Weasel – microtine cycle Red grouse – possibly gut nematodes. Slide13:  Mid-16th century, Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden published 2 reports on cyclic fluctuations of northern small rodents. In early 1900s, wildlife biologists analyzed the fur trading records of the Hudson’s Bay Company, including those for the Canadian lynx. POPULATION CYCLES Slide14:  Period is amount of time it takes population to go through complete cycle. Amplitude can be defined as difference between maximum population size and population size at midpoint, but some researchers refer to peak-to-trough amplitudes. In general, periods tend to be fairly consistent for a particular cyclic population, whereas amplitudes are more variable. Population Cycles:  Population Cycles Behavior of prey:  Behavior of prey How does the behavior of the prey influence predation? Migration Herding and spacing Birth synchrony Migration:  Migration If a prey species can migrate beyond the range of its predators the population can escape predator regulation Predators have slow growing young and are restricted to a small area to breed Ungulates have precocial young that can move within a few hours Thus prey follow food resource, predators cannot Herding and spacing:  Herding and spacing Animals reduce risk of predation by forming groups Group size predicted to increase with increasing predator densities Group size increases with distance from cover More animals in group, more vigilance of groups, less per individual. Can also leave group when most vulnerable Leave group when give birth as predators are concentrated around herds Birth synchrony:  Birth synchrony Synchronize births to reduce predation rate Predator swamping Also influenced by seasonal availability of resources Conservation and management:  Conservation and management Predator and prey populations usually coexist Prey at low density by regulation Prey at high density by intraspecific competition for food. Both systems can operate in one area Type III functional response or density-dependent numerical response Disturbance moves from one state to other Explains outbreaks of pest species, decline of hunted species Conservation and management:  Conservation and management Prey population can become extinct Type II response with no prey refuge, no alternative prey Important in management where there are habitat changes Small populations or exotics Which situation occurs depends on Ability of predator to catch prey Ability of prey to escape predation Reproduction

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