Published on March 11, 2014
Pre-Production Techniques LO1 Hayley and Emily
Finance Self Financed This is when the maker and producer of a product decides to ‘self-finance’ the project, meaning that they will pay for everything they need for production. This can be done if someone wants to independently create their product without the help of other companies for financing, it can also be done if someone is on a low budget as it is something that they want to create for a small amount of people as if they wanted the product to go global they would most likely need financial backing to help them do so. It is much less common for someone to do if they wish for their product to be shared internationally as they most likely wouldn’t have the financing to do themselves, this also wouldn’t be a method chosen for people just starting out as they wouldn't be known and may need financial backing to help share their brand and product. Employer/Client Financed This is where a company is hired to complete the required brief and the client of this project provides the money that will allow them to do so. The can be done if someone isn’t prepared to pay for the whole production costs alone, meaning they get a client that is interested in the product they are creating to provide the financial side of production and in return can give them something from the business. This could mean they give the client freebies of the product for example. This is a very common way of financing a project as it means all costs are covered as long as you stick to the deadline given and you may also have to take suggestions and comments from the client to adjust and change the product slightly in some cases to ensure that they like the product and want to continue to finance it. Employers can also finance products, meaning that you are asked to create a product for them and they supply money for all of the production costs. Kickstarter This is a website that has become very popular and a great way to find media companies that are interested in financing your product for you, you can promote your product on this website and tell the media companies a little about what you are wanting to create and then you can request money from them if they like the sound of your potential product. This is a very useful website and has done well in financing products as there have been 57,572 successfully funded projects and there has also been $1,010,881,672 pledged to kickstarter projects. This is similar to getting financed by an employer/client as the media company then have to right to contribute to ideas if they aren't happy with certain methods of production.
Finance Which source of funding will be most likely for your production and why? The funding will be self financed. But this will be mainly for the food that we have bought to make the recipe for the cards so we can take images of them. For this project we have the computers available at college and at home so we don’t need to hire out computers because we have all the software we need on the ones at college. I have my own camera and have a studio so we don’t need to hire out a studio for the images that will be taken and I own pieces of photographic equipment so we won’t need to hire anything out. This makes the project cheaper and easier by having our own equipment so we don’t have to take out different pieces of equipment. There won’t be much that we need to pay for ourselves as we have a lot of resources to help us along with the project. Advantages The advantages of the project being self financed is that we only need to buy limited things as we will have computers, equipment and a studio for free and the college computers have Photoshop and InDesign which are programs that we will need to use in this project. We have these programs for free so it makes the project not as expensive as it would be if we needed to hire out equipment and buy special programs for this project. Disadvantages The only disadvantage of self financing is that we need to be have the money for buying certain things and if a piece of equipment breaks or we need something else that we didn’t think we would need, we need to be able to be financially stable to buy that piece of equipment if it's unexpectedly needed. If we need to use our computers at home to finish work off, we don’t have Photoshop or InDesign and this can make it tricky to complete work without the right programs.
Finance Explain the aspects of your production that could require finance. The only main part of the project that will require finance is if we decide to make the food for the images, we will have to buy the right ingredients to cook the food. If we need some equipment for taking the images, for example, artificial lighting and screens to lighten up the images and make them as high quality as I can and to also take out the background in the images. We have computers and the programmes for the computers at college so we don’t need to invest in anything like that as we also have computers at home but not the programmes that college has on theirs so we might also need to think about buying a cheaper version of the programmes just in case we need to complete work at home. We wouldn't need to invest money in buying a photographer to take the images or for someone to make the food for us as we have the equipment and skills to do that ourselves. If we needed to take images from the internet then we would need to get permission off the owner of the images and depending on their kindness, there may be an additional charge for using their images. But that is only if we want to use stock images. If we didn’t have a studio we would have to consider studio hire and the cost of hiring out the studio for the day and the cost of having a photographer to take the images for us. Depending on the location, we would need to think about how much it would cost for us to use their location and areas within a location but for our project we have a few locations we can use to take the images and to use that are free but if we wanted to take the images elsewhere this would need to be considered. Printing is a big cost and is something we would need to pay for in our project. The printer at college charges for printing but the quality is a higher quality than if we printed the cards out at home for free. There is the option that if we really were struggling with money we have the option to print out at home for free. If we had to print out thousands of these cards in a bigger project and they were really popular the money would be spent a lot on printing as there is the ink, paper and the machinery to pay for. We will have most of our equipment for free as we have a lot available to help take the images and use for the project. But if we were having to use equipment that we didn’t have available to us, we would have to pay for computer, cameras and equipment for photography and these can come at a high cost and needs considering. So in a bigger project it would cost a lot to self finance the project and it may be ideal to have the client pay for the project so that the makers of the product have a helping start to cover most of the costs.
Time What methods could you employ to ensure you stick to your deadlines and why would this be beneficial to your project? Using examples from your own experiences can help you add detail here. We will need to make sure that we stick to the time limits given and before the production, everything has been completed. I think the best method to apply with a project like this is a schedule. This will make sure that as we go along in the project we are looking at the schedule and sticking to the amount of time we have limited ourselves to in a task. It will be the most useful to use and it gives us an indication as to where we’re at and how well things are going. We have used schedules in past projects and this has helped us stick to the time we have set ourselves and it helps us have a clear idea of what we are doing and gives us a simple guide through the project. We didn’t always look at the schedule when working and sometimes didn’t stick to it as we may have needed more time to complete one part of a task and this sometimes makes it harder when we are reaching the end of a project when we have spent more time on one part of it but sometimes it helps us finish the last part of it when we spend more time on the important aspects to the project. It is going to help us decide when we need certain staff and to arrange when we need to use certain locations when we look back at the schedule we will notice when we need to do certain things. It will make the project more organised and it will keep everyone stress free as we won’t be running back and missing things out and it will keep us more efficient with time. This also makes the project finished on time and then the client won’t be disappointed or waiting and this will give the team good comments. It will also include the risks of what could go wrong in certain situations and this will help us out if something goes wrong and then we’ll have back up plans to make up the time we have lost and so we don’t lose anymore time deciding on what to do in the situation.
Time What is contingency time and how might this be beneficial to your project? Considering some general risks to your project could help you give a more detailed response. Contingency time is the time you leave extra for when something in the schedule doesn’t go to plan. This would be beneficial for the project because if something goes wrong and we haven’t thought enough about it and made time for these unpredictable incidents then we would be behind in the project and not get it completed on time which will leave the client waiting and not impressed. A personal example of this is when I was doing some graphic narrative work, I was quite ahead of my schedule and I was on track. I then lost my memory stick somewhere and I could not find it anywhere so I had lost all my work I had done for the project and didn’t back it it up on the computer. I then had a week left to complete the project so I started most of my work from scratch and got it completed to the same standard I had it before and finished it on time. Even though this is not directly linked to contingency time, it is a risk that could happen during the project and so to stop it from happening we must make sure everything is backed up on the computer as well as a memory stick so that we don’t have to start all again but if we keep ahead of the schedule we may have the time if it does happen. Another risk could be that the food we decide to cook might burn or not turn out to the best of our abilities which will leave us starting again or even getting stock images. If it doesn’t end up like we want it to we will need to have back up images prepared (stock images). The equipment might be dodgy or faulty so we will have to be prepared by having back up equipment around when we need it. If we don’t finish the work on time, the contingency time will help us get back on track as we will have the spare time available but we need to make sure we keep on top of the work set.
Personnel What size team will you use for your production (large or small)? How many people will you have in your team? Consider the reasons for this. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of your team size. The size of our team will be just two of us. This is very small and can cause quite a few problems having a small team. The main factor it will effect in our project with a small team is defiantly time. As there is only two of us we will need to separate time up more carefully so we can complete the tasks on time to the best of our ability. We will need to make sure we are both organised and have everything prepared so we can get on with the tasks set and then we don’t waste anymore time. We will have to accept different roles on within the project which can be quite hard as we may not be as strong in some roles as we are in others but we will need to so that we can complete the work. An advantage of having a smaller team is that it will be cheaper to run the project because there isn’t a lot of job roles to pay for and so it makes it a lot cheaper. But a disadvantage is that we will have to keep on top of time and try to adapt to job roles that might not be something we are as good at. If we had a larger team, we would have a different working environment. It will make organisation a lot more easier because we won’t have to all have job roles to do that we aren’t as strong in and we will have professionals for each role and that will make it a lot easier. It won’t make us stress about time as much because we will have a lot more people working on the project and it won’t be as stressful with time limits and meeting deadlines. But it will make the project cost a lot more because we would have to pay for every job role and this will include equipment and this can make it hard to manage with a tight money schedule.
Personnel What job roles would you have in your production and what skills and experience would be required? Think back to your early work on jobs roles and departments and also the skills you know you need to use to produce work. Drawing on your own experience as well as your industry knowledge will help you here. We would have a wide range of job roles in our production. We would need a photographer to take the images for us who have experience in food photography and has experience using artificial lighting and working in stressful environments. We would also need a chef who can cook at a high standard and has several qualifications to prove that they can cook at a high quality. The graphic designer needs to be able to discuss the brief with the client and satisfy their needs visually and create a visual impact for the product. They decide how the page looks and how everything looks on the page so that it’s easy to read and the images are a high quality and that they fit together. A copy writer who can be creative in their writing and have experience at writing up articles even though it wouldn’t apply to this brief, they still need to have the experience to write up stories. If we needed a model for the work then we would need one who is willing to do a photo shoot for commercial purposes and have signed a model release form. They also need to be confident and willing to work under pressure. We wouldn’t need a model for our product or a copy writer for the product as they are not needed and would be wasting money hiring these job roles. But we would need a photographer, chef and graphic designer so we have the images provided for the product and the food at a high quality with high quality images and the product designed to a high quality as well.
Personnel How could you find people to be in your production team? Think back to your own career development plans to help you with this. In the production stage you need to have a good production team to help, this means that each person has a specific job role and qualifications in this role to speed up production, however this adds to cost. For example, we may need a photographer to take the images of the food, this person is specified to this job and no other role as they are experienced and have good knowledge on this role in particular. In order to find people to include in my production team I could use friends as this would be a cheaper option and it would also be more comfortable when signing contracts and releases as they may feel more comfortable towards us. Another option could be using an employee that has advertised their work and getting in contact with them to work with me, this would mean paying slightly more as they may be professionals in this field, meaning they would want to earn much more money as it would no longer be a personal relationship. I could also use previous employers or contacts I have met in the past to join my production team if I had met anyone that would fit this project well and be appropriate. As we have no previous experience in this area, we are going to use friends to be a part of our production team, this will lower cost also as this can be done as a favour instead of paying lots more money for professionals. As there is only two of us the jobs will have to be shared between us meaning that it is much more equal and fair, we both have our individual skills and tasks that we prefer to do which helps in production as the jobs can then be given and done at their best.
Facilities List the equipment, resources and facilities you need for your production and its source Equipment/Facility/Resources needed for production College Self Client We will need a camera to take the images of the food, lighting, tripods, a studio and different camera equipment for this project and to take the ideal images of the food instead of using stock images. Self We will need a computer so we can design the cards and do additional research to complete the project and different programs on the computer (for example, Photoshop) to help with the images and designing. College Self We will need the food for the project and so we can make the recipe for the project. Self We will design the cards for the client and then outsource the design to an external printer so that they can print it out, but it’s our responsibility to make sure that the printing is done for the client. Self We will need a kitchen so that we have a location to cook the food and then the studio will be at home as well so it’s all free and in one location. Self
Contributors Contributor Type of Contributor Team member expert Client expert Tutor expert Photographer of Sourced Images expert
Locations What method could you employ to identify locations needed for your production (production/ post production facilities) and how could this be useful? Many people carry out a ‘recce’ before taking images of filming for a product or any media based project such as filmmaking as this is a way to visit the location of your shoot before hand and see what it looks like, this can give you more ideas f ways in which you want to shoot the product and can also help you to decide if you actually want to shoot there as in many cases this method can change your mind about the location you had chosen if it isn’t right for the product/project. Doing a recce can also help to figure out the timings of production as this is a key feature of production because this is something you need to know and have prepared due to deadlines that you are put under when organizing production and the whole project. Time is also key due to the deadline that your financial backing provides if you have used a company or client as way to pay for production as they can then decide when they want the product ready and you have to stick to this. In our project for the recipe cards we are going to ensure that we keep up to date and have everything on time, we will also ensure that we have some spare time to catch up on any work that hasn’t been completed even though we are self financing the project as this is good practice for future projects and we have out own project deadline for college that we need to stick to. We will be carrying out a recce but as we are shooting photographs in a kitchen, it will most likely be in one of our own which makes this process/method much easier as we don’t have to spend as much time setting up what we want to do and generating ideas for how we want the room to look. This also means that we don’t need to ask permission to use it as it is ours and can be used whenever we need it, this helps when scheduling timings as this can be fit in whenever it needs to be, unlike if we were to use somewhere else as we would have to book it and prepare in much more detail to ensure we stayed on top of our deadlines. Using one of our own kitchens means that the cost is dramatically reduced as we don’t have to hire somewhere for the day, this helps as we are financing the project ourselves and this just means that we are able to pay for other things if needed. I feel that this method is the most useful to organize locations as this is a way that we can prepare and generate ideas of how we want the location to look and it can help to sort out other areas of production such as cost and health and safety.
Locations Are there any limitations or risks you would need to consider for your locations? Location Limitation/Risk Kitchen Using a kitchen for this project is essential as it is all revolved around cooking, however this kind of location comes with lots of health and safety risks as we have to consider all the things that could go wrong whilst photographing the product and cooking the product also. When cooking we need to ensure that all of the ingredients is correct and all allergies are considered to avoid things such as food poisoning and allergic reactions. We need to ensure we are safe when using the oven/hobs/electricals to avoid potential injury as a result of them. Be careful when using knives and any sharp equipment to avoid injury. The risk of the camera getting damaged as we will be around water from sinks and there is a danger of dropping it.
Codes of Practice - Clearances What is a model/location release form and why is it important to your production? A model/location release form is a document that gives a company permission to photograph/film the person or location under specific guidelines and rules that the company have to stick to in order to work with them. If you want to work with a model they have to sign this release form in order for the company to work with them, this is essential to make it legal and it can also avoid complaints and law suits against them as they are under rules and guidelines. When choosing a location you have to ensure that permission is given and the owner of the property is informed of where you will be and the purpose of the shoot as this keeps them informed and ensures that they won’t complain, which can effect production. The location release form gives you guidelines of where you can go and what you can use in the location that the company have to stick to to use the place they have chosen. Both the company and the owner of the property/model have to sign this, by signing the release they agree to all of the legal guidelines and have to follow them and stick the the contract between them. Release forms can also make the production process a little more final as it sets the model and location in place meaning they have been sorted out and are ready for the day of shooting. Carrying out these kind of model and location release forms won’t be necessary for our project as we are using our own kitchens, meaning we have signed off to this ourselves and have this as our final decision. We also won’t be needing to do a model release form as we won’t be using a model in the photographs as we want to concentrate on the food only as a way to avoid distraction and attention being taken from the main focus of the food. However if we were going to be using a model or another location this stage would be essential in production as we have done this before in previous projects, for example this is something we had to consider and carry out when we were doing our photography project.
Codes of Practice - Legal What legal requirements will you have to consider in your project and what aspects do they relate to? Aspect of Production Legal Consideration Stock images We need to consider copyright rules as getting images from the internet without permission can lead to this – to avoid this we would need to ask permission from the image owner. Taking our own images We would need to consider model and location releases to ensure everything is made legal and official. Taking other peoples recipes’ We would need to ask permission from the person who owns the recipe in order to actually use it for our project. Health & safety We need to ensure that health and safety requirements are carried out to avoid injury around the location.
Codes of Practice – Regulatory Bodies Which regulatory body’s guidelines would you need to follow when creating your production? Where could you source that information from. Be specific. When in production for a product you need to consider the guidelines that need to be followed by regulatory body’s, this is essential as it can avoid complaints from the public and also avoid breaching certain rules that could result in you having legal trouble. The advertising standards authority (ASA) can help as they can ensure that the all guidelines are met and that your product, advertising of the product and any images used are all appropriate for it’s purpose and won’t cause controversy and won’t offend. We will need to follow the ASA guidelines as this is a way for us to ensure our product is appropriate for it’s purpose. Another regulatory body that we may have to look at is the vegetarian society as this is key and links with the brief well as the recipe cards are going to be specialised for vegetarian food. This can give us guidelines for what we can actually put in our food and what we cannot, this can help us to avoid giving the client something they don’t want and will help us to get the food and recipe cards correct. This is something we will definitely be looking at when researching the different potential recipes and when it comes to creating the food as we want to ensure that the recipes are correct to avoid having to re-do this project as this would ruin the schedule and would mean the deadline and brief weren’t met. Another thing that we would need to look at is breaching copyright laws as this is a very common thing to do as many different ideas and images now have copyright on them which would result in law suits being filed. For some people taking part in this project they may need to get permission from image sources as many people are going to get images from the internet meaning it’s not theirs and they don’t actually have permission to use it on their work. We are going to need to check the source of the recipe we use as we are going to be taking it from either online or a recipe book of our own, meaning we don’t own the recipe and we would have to check where this has come from and ask permission from the owner of the recipe before using it and sharing it on the recipe cards.
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