PRC56 Amanda open

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Published on September 27, 2007

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Baikal, Amanda, IceCube:  Baikal, Amanda, IceCube Christian Spiering, ESC DESY, Sept.2003 Neutrino-Astrophysics Slide2:  Lake Baikal now: NT-200 - 2004: NT-200+ - perspectively: km3 ? South Pole now: Amanda II - from 2004/05 : IceCube construction - 2009/10: full IceCube Still with DESY participation 1. The present detectors:  1. The present detectors Baikal and Amanda The Baikal Collaboration:  The Baikal Collaboration Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen Moscow State University, Moscow Nishni Novgorod State Technical University State Marine Technical University, St.Petersburg Kurchatov Institute, Moscow JINR, Dubna Slide5:  One of the first neutrino events recorded with the 1996 four-string version of the Baikal Telescope first 2 neutrino candidates upgrade Baikal will likely stay largest H.E. neutrino telescope on northern hemisphere for another 2-3 years and nicely complement Amanda. Baikal History Baikal Upgrade NT200+:  36 additional PMTs  4 times better sensitivity ! Baikal Upgrade NT200+ The AMANDA Collaboration:  The AMANDA Collaboration Venezuela (1) Europe (10+1) Antarctica New Zealand USA (7+3) Japan Bartol Research Institute UC Berkeley UC Iivine Pennsylvania State UW Madison UW River Falls LBL Berkeley U. Simón Bolivar, Caracas VUB, Brussel ULB-IHEE, Bruxelles U. de Mons-Hainaut Imperial College, London DESY, Zeuthen Mainz Universität Wuppertal Universität Stockholm Universitet Uppsala Universitet Kalmar Universitet South Pole Station + associated IceCube institutes in USA, Europe, Japan, New Zealand AMANDA-II and SPASE:  optical module construction 1996-2000 AMANDA II South Pole Air Shower Experiment 19 strings 677 PMTs inner 10 strings: Amanda-B10 AMANDA-II and SPASE 2. Selected Physics Results:  2. Selected Physics Results Search for point sources (AMANDA) Search for a diffuse extraterrestrial flux (Amanda & Baikal) Indirect Search for Dark Matter (Amanda & Baikal) Search for neutrinos coincident with Gamma Ray Bursts (Amanda & Baikal) 5. Measurement of the spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos (Amanda) 6. Measurement of the spectral composition of primary cosmic rays (Spase/Amanda) Search for extraterrestrial point sources:  Search for extraterrestrial point sources above horizon:mostly fake events below horizon: mostly atmospheric ‘s 697 events below horizon AMANDA-II 2000 data Submitted to PRL Slide11:  AMANDA-II 20% of 2001 data Planned until Summer 2004: combined analysis 97-99 combined analysis 00-03 Now analyzed: 1997, 1999, 2000 Started: 2001, 2002 Slide13:  Amanda-II, 2000 data: Neutrino flux upper limit (90% C.L.) in units of 10-7 cm-2 s-1 for an assumed E -2 spectrum, integrated above E = 10 GeV. Slide14:  Selected point source flux limits sensitivity  flat above horizon - 4 times better than B10 ¶ ! declination averaged sensitivity: lim  0.23•10-7 cm-2s-1 @90% ¶ published Ap. J, 582 (2003) upper limits @ 90% CL in units of 10-8cm-2s-1 Slide15:  AMANDA average flux limit for two assumed spectral indices , compared to the average gamma flux of Markarian 501 as observed in 1997 by HEGRA. Intrinsic source  spectrum (corrected for IR absorption) AMANDA-II has reached the sensitivity needed to search from neutrino fluxes from TeV gamma sources of similar strength to the instrinsic gamma flux. Measured  spectrum Search for an diffuse excess of extra- terrestrial high energy neutrinos:  Search for an diffuse excess of extra- terrestrial high energy neutrinos log E /GeV Slide17:  factor 3 applied to  channel Assuming e:: =1:2:0 at source e:: =1:1:1 at Earth AMANDA-II cascades ... look also to cascades from electron and tau neutrino interactions 2000  analysis will yield an all-flavour limit close to the cascade limit Slide18:    b + b (a) Neutrinos from the Center of Earth   W + + W -  +  „hard spectrum“ „soft spectrum“ Indirect Search for WIMPs Slide19:  Green dots: Excluded by present direct searches Blue crosses: can be excluded by 10 times more sensitive direct searches Baikal 98/99 data Upper limits on muon flux from neutralino annihilations in center of Earth Slide20:  (b) Neutrinos from the Sun    Amanda At South Pole the Sun sinks maximally 23° below horizon. Therefore only Amanda-II with its dramatically improved reconstruction capabilities for horizontial tracks (compared to Amanda-B10) can be used for solar WIMP search. Indirect Search for WIMPs Slide21:  Upper limits on muon flux from neutralino annihilations in center of Sun AMANDA-II results: • based on 193 days of live time • Exclusion sensitivity from analyzing the off-source bins Will un-blind data soon and look to the Sun. ANTARES and ICECUBE: MC-calculated sensitivities 3. IceCube:  3. IceCube IceCube Collaboration:  Institutions: 11 US, 10 European, 1 Japanese and 1 Venezuelan Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware BUGH Wuppertal, Germany Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, USA DESY-Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA Department of Physics, Southern University and A\&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Dept. of Physics, UC Berkeley, USA Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Dept. of Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, SSEC, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA Division of High Energy Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Dept. of Physics, University of Alabama, USA Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium Chiba University, Japan Dept. of Astrophysics, Imperial College, UK Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, USA Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela University Utrecht, Netherlands IceCube Collaboration IceCube:  IceCube - 80 Strings - 4800 PMT Instrumented volume: 1 km3 Installation: 2004-2010 ~ 80.000 atm. per year Schedule:  03-04 drill equipment to Pole 04-05 first 5 strings (proof that 16/season are feasible) 05-06 12 strings 06-07 16 strings 07-08 16 strings 08-09 16 strings 09-10 remaining strings Schedule 4. DESY Tasks in IceCube:  4. DESY Tasks in IceCube Simulation & optimization IceCube  accepted by Astropart.Phys. Design of Front-End-Electronics (Communication to Optical Module) German production site for 1300 optical modules (1/4 of all 5200 modules) IceCube lead for Amanda-IceCube integration IceCube lead for reconstruction German/European data processing center R&D wavelength shifter for optical modules R&D acoustic detection analysis: search for extraterrestrial diffuse and point-like sources, relativistic magnetic monopoles, slowly moving exotic particles DOR: DOM Readout card:  DOR: DOM Readout card 9/26/2007 Christian Spiering FPGA FLASH SRAM 96V DOM Power Clock & Time String port JTAG PLD Comm. ADC Comm. DAC Quad Cable Con. Comm. Rec. Power Switch Slide28:  Traffic over 2 km twisted pair cable: supply voltage slow control FADC output (up to 1 Mbit/sec) synchro-signals ( require 5 nsec accuracy) DOM DOR Slide29:  Production of 1300 Optical Modules Includes 10 weeks test in Dark Freezer at -45 ºC Slide30:  Dark Freezer Lab Up to 120 Optical Modules - 45 °C Slide31:  Enhancing the Sensitivity of IceCube Optical Modules by Application of Wave Length Shifters Elisa Resconi EU post-doc in DESY guest at MPIK-Heidelberg Slide32:  Deep Sea Water Slide33:  Light lost Light detected Cherenkov Spectrum Ice, in contrast to water, is UV trans- parent down to 230 nm. The glass of the pressure sphere absorbs most light below 350 nm. Slide34:  Application of Wavelength Shifters (WLS) Earlier attempts indicated that an overall gain of 40% can be achieved. However, WLS layers deteriorated in water and where mechanically unstable. Now, a water-proof and mechanically stable WLS foil exists. Slide35:  Will be optically coupled with a very thin layer of gel (less then 1mm) and fixed at optical module support. Effect: ~ 40% more light  lower threshold, better reconstruction  next: Tests in Dark Freezer Room  if success: Test at 04/05 at Pole THV granulate doped with PPO Extrusion of transparent foil Thermo-forming of cap Slide36:  Particle cascade  ionization  heat  pressure wave Attenuation length of cold ice at 15-30 kHz: ~ 2 km (light: ~ 100 meters) → given a large initial signal, huge detection volumes can be achieved. Maximum of emission at ~ 20 kHz R&D on acoustic detection: 10-100 cubic kilometer volume for extremely high energies ? Slide37:  Development and test of a variety of acoustic sensors in Zeuthen Rolf Nahnhauer et al. Slide38:  Threshold with present sensors: ~ EeV Expected improved threshold: ~ 100 PeV Hearing 180 MeV protons dumped into ice tests with laser light dumped to ice and water tests with protons dumped into ice and water tests in open water development of hardware and software filters Slide39:  See also talk in closed session Request for a test at South Pole in 2004/05  Study ambient noise  Measure absorption length 5. Summary:  Amanda-II produces new limits on point sources, diffuse fluxes, GRB, WIMPs, and measures atmospheric neutrino spectrum up to 100 TeV. AMANDA-II has reached the sensitivity needed to search from neutrino fluxes from TeV gamma sources of similar strength to the instrinsic gamma flux. Next: 2000-2003 data coherently processed Baikal produces new limits on diffuse flux, WIMPs, and GRB and will stay largest neutrino telescope on northern hemisphere for 2-3 years. IceCube is established as MRE, 6 strings to be produced in 2004. DESY-Zeuthen ready for OM production New methods - WLS and acoustic – may enhance IceCube performance considerably. R&D in Zeuthen. 5. Summary

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