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PR Research

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Information about PR Research

Published on April 18, 2008

Author: stephan

Source: slideshare.net

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& Evaluation PR Research

& Evaluation

Two parts Academic Research areas Research in practice

Academic Research areas

Research in practice

Academic Practitioner looks to & learns from looks to & learns from resolves problems from resolves problems from

but Less focus on results Can be “unpopular” Theory driven Topic driven Focus on bottom line Commercial sense Experience driven Need driven Academic Practitioner

Less focus on results

Can be “unpopular”

Theory driven

Topic driven

Focus on bottom line

Commercial sense

Experience driven

Need driven

Academic research Effectiveness & Evaluation Topical research Applied research Remember: Many academics were practitioners!

Topic Research Driven by the area of research: Often looks at practice Tries to identify emerging tactics/topics Case study and Survey research Employee Communications Survey of CSR programs

Driven by the area of research:

Often looks at practice

Tries to identify emerging tactics/topics

Case study and

Survey research

Employee Communications

Survey of CSR programs

Effectiveness Research Driven by the need to have better evaluation models: Often looks at practice Frequently comparative in nature Learns from other disciplines Highly task oriented (how effective is PR?) Experimental design Case studies Survey research (we will come back to this later!)

Driven by the need to have better evaluation models:

Often looks at practice

Frequently comparative in nature

Learns from other disciplines

Highly task oriented (how effective is PR?)

Experimental design

Case studies

Survey research

(we will come back to this later!)

Applied Research Driven by a specific research question: Usually combines evaluation & topic research Often looks takes a problem/solution approach Frequently based on problems outside of PR Experimental research designs Survey research Effectiveness of xyz programs

Driven by a specific research question:

Usually combines evaluation & topic research

Often looks takes a problem/solution approach

Frequently based on problems outside of PR

Experimental research designs

Survey research

Effectiveness of xyz programs

The importance of evaluation Credibility of you! Budget Evaluation

The importance of evaluation

Credibility of you!

Budget

commercial - justification of budget simple effectiveness - outputs ok? objective effectiveness - meets objectives? Types of evaluation

commercial - justification of budget

simple effectiveness - outputs ok?

objective effectiveness - meets objectives?

Input Output Effect Types of measures

Input

Output

Effect

Column inches: output but no effect Advertising Cost Equivalent (AVE): dito Traditionally

Column inches: output but no effect

Advertising Cost Equivalent (AVE): dito

Cutlip: PII

Social and cultural change Number who repeat behaviour Number who behave as desired Number who change attitude Number who change opinion Number who learn message content Number who attent to messages and activities Number who receive messages and activities Number of messages places and activities implemented Number of messages sent to media and activities designed Quality of message and activity presentations Appropriateness of message and activity content Adequacy of background information Preparation Implementation Impact Cutlip: PII (1985)

MacNamara: Macro Model

Results Outputs Inputs

Inputs Quality of message presentation Expert review Feedback/Audience Surveys Awards Appropriateness of message content Readability tests Review Re-testing (Focus Groups) Appropriateness of the medium Case studies Pre-testing Adequacy of background information, intelligence & research Review Existing research data Benchmark research

Outputs Number who consider messages Reader-/Listener-/Viewership stats Attendance Inquiry/Response rate Number who receive messages Circulation figures Audience analysis Number of messages supporting objectives Analysis of media coverage (media content analysis) Number of messages placed in the media Media monitoring (Clipping services) Number of messages sent Distribution statistics

Results Objective achieved/ Problem solved Observation Quantitative research Number who behave in a desired manner Sales statistics,... Quantitative research Number who change attitudes Quantitative research (Cognition acceptance) Number who learn message content Quantitative research

Lindenmann

Advanced / Level 3 Measuring: -Behaviour change Attitude change - Option change Intermediate / Level 2 Measuring: - Retention - Comprehension - Awareness -Reception Output / Level 1 Measuring: -Targeted audiences / publics - Impressions - Media placements

Fairchild 1997 Objective Setting Measurement and the Planning Cycle 1: Audit Where are we now? Existing research / benchmarks 2: Objectives Where do we need to be? Overall Goals Measurable Objectives - Messages - Timescales 3: Strategy and Plan How do we get there Level of measurement 4: Measurement & Evaluation Are we getting there Measurement (L1,2,3?) Continue/Stop/Adjust doing? 5:Result How did we do? Quantity outcome Objectives met? Learning? Value?

vital to use scientific methods of data collection “cross-over” from marketing research draw on general research methods and psychology! Whatever you do...

vital to use scientific methods of data collection

“cross-over” from marketing research

draw on general research methods and

psychology!

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