PR Conf Brief Panel 3

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Published on February 28, 2008

Author: Natalia

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National Personnel Recovery Architecture Study Final Report Briefing:  National Personnel Recovery Architecture Study Final Report Briefing Institute for Defense Analyses World Wide Personnel Recovery Conference 31 August 2004 Congressional tasking for the NPRA Study:  “…conduct a government wide interagency needs assessment in order to define the components of a fully integrated national personnel recovery architecture. The assessment should include a consideration of service personnel, civilians and contract personnel, and examine the possible consolidation of training programs. The study should recommend a coordinated national goal for personnel recovery, roles and responsibilities of each department, agency or office…DPMO lead” Congressional tasking for the NPRA Study NPRA Study Objectives:  NPRA Study Objectives Define the national personnel recovery architecture components and baseline (interagency; non-DoD and DoD) Develop a strategic vision for interagency PR Identify shortfalls and gaps Propose and evaluate enhancements needed in order to achieve the strategic vision June 2004- September 2005 – Focus on NPRA implementation Study Scope Limited To:  Study Scope Limited To Presently planned force structure of all agencies/departments Improved coordination, synergy, and leveraging among US Government Departments and Agencies Overseas Personnel Recovery Military, civilian and contractor personnel on official duty NPRA Assessment Methodology:  NPRA Assessment Methodology Plan and Prepare Force Elements • Isolated Personnel • Recovery Forces • Commanders and Staff Plan and Prepare Force Elements • Isolated Personnel • Recovery Forces • Commanders and Staff Execute the Mission • Strategic • Operational • Tactical • Report • Locate • Support • Recover • Return/ Repatriate Identify Gaps • D octrine • O rganization • T raining • Materiel • L eader Dev. • P ersonnel • F acilities Desired Desired Strategic Vision Strategic Vision End States End States Compare I m p l e m e n t Assess & Recommend Changes Assess & Recommend Changes • Doctrine • Mission Requirements Direct and Guide • Doctrine • Mission Requirements Architecture Components Proposed Definition of PR :  Proposed Definition of PR Personnel Recovery – is the sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to prepare and execute the recovery of U.S. military, government civilians, and government contractors, who become isolated from friendly control while participating in U.S. sponsored activities abroad, and of other persons as designated by the President. Expanded Scope with an Overseas Mission Focus Personnel Recovery Related Capabilities:  Personnel Recovery Related Capabilities Current capability is compartmented rather than integrated National Architecture should benefit from synergy among agency capabilities Two General Situations for PR:  Two General Situations for PR Combatant Commander (COCOM) in charge – Combat theaters such as Afghanistan and Iraq, where there was no U.S. Mission, PR was a military responsibility The PR Commander and staff (e.g., JSRC, RCC) have the authority and capability to execute PR without real-time coordination above the JTF Chief of Mission (CoM) in charge – Countries where there is a U.S. Mission, but there are no U.S. PR forces. PR responsibilities of the host nation and the U.S. Mission are fragmented. CoM and the host nation have responsibilities, but generally no standing capability causing time delays. PR coordination process is complex involving multiple players depending on the situation When a PR incident occurs, coordination and response is time-sensitive, but instead are likely to be ad hoc, causing excessive delays Isolated Personnel are likely to be captured or killed if prior coordination is not affected and response is not exercised. CoM in Charge:  CoM in Charge Outline Baseline Shortfalls (compared to vision) Solutions Recommendations … and respective costs of improvements Organized according to the DOTMLPF construct Baseline Organization for PR when CoM is in charge:  Baseline Organization for PR when CoM is in charge CoM in Charge – Shortfalls:  CoM in Charge – Shortfalls No interagency policy, doctrine, or procedures for PR (D) DoS focus on security and evacuation; no mention of PR (D) Host Nation understanding, cooperation, capabilities, interoperability are critical, but usually lacking (O) Crisis Management Support Center, Political Military Action Team, Foreign Emergency Support Team, and Emergency Action Committee not organized to respond to PR incidents in time-sensitive manner (O) Limited number of people have received PR training (personnel at risk, management/staff, or recovery force) (T, P) Limited awareness or use of DoD tools or aids outside of DoD (M) Limited awareness of PR at senior leader levels (L) Numerous contractor coverage limitations (D, P) No focused PR training, exercises, or facilities outside DoD (F) CoM in Charge – Solutions:  CoM in Charge – Solutions NSPD required in order to Establish National Policy and NSC oversight (D) Create an organizational infrastructure to support PR (O) DoS focal point office; country team PR coordination cells Identify and fund PR training and equipment requirements (T, M) Ensure Joint Pub 3-50 addresses interagency issues (D) Standardize PR policy and support with regard to government civilians and contractors (D, P) Top-down planning emphasis, i.e., include PR in DoS Strategic Plan, Mission Performance Plans, Emergency Action Plans, evacuation, and Cooperative Security Plans (D) Improve PR training Develop senior leader and staff planning and isolated person PR courses at NFATC and NDU (JPRA assist) (T, L) Expand PR training provided by JPRA and CRCs (T) Conduct PR exercises in high threat countries to improve readiness (T) Establish interagency materiel development process to pool resources (M) COCOM in Charge:  COCOM in Charge Outline Baseline Shortfalls (compared to vision) Solutions Recommendations … and respective costs of improvements Organized according to the DOTMLPF construct COCOM in Charge – Shortfalls:  COCOM in Charge – Shortfalls No Joint PR doctrine exists; capabilities are Service-centric and do not address non-DoD interagency/coalition policies, concerns,or capabilities (D) PR organizational infrastructure lacks cohesiveness and robustness JPRA not truly joint and not resourced to provide liaison support to interagency community (O) COCOM JSRCs (other than CENTCOM) are not adequately staffed CENTCOM borrowed other COCOM personnel (O, P) Insufficient personnel structure in Services (O, P) PRAG and PRRC not efficiently organized (O) Joint training seldom exercises PR; no dedicated PR exercise (T) Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape training backlog increasing (T) Requirements for materiel and development programs are managed individually, not integrated (M, O) Contractor policies not standard across services, not enforced (D) COCOM in Charge – Solutions:  COCOM in Charge – Solutions Update Joint Personnel Recovery Doctrine Joint Pub 3-50 (D) Revise/implement policies in accordance with the NSPD (D) Expand the Joint Staff office for PR, expand DPMO PR Directorate to support Interagency, better integrate JPRA into JFCOM (O, P) Reengineer PRAG and PRRC (O) Expand PR joint training to include interagency and coalition (T) Validate SERE training requirements, implement the Core Captivity Curriculum, and expand facilities to meet requirements (T, F) Develop a Joint PR modernization plan for materiel (M) Ensure that PR policy and support is enforced for DoD civilians and contractors (D, P) Key NPRA Recommendations:  Key NPRA Recommendations Need an NSPD to create the National architecture (D, O) Define PR and the scope Develop interagency organizational infrastructure Provide adequate resources (funds and personnel) Initiate a program with DoS to assess and enhance US Embassies’ readiness to respond at short notice to PR incidents (D, O, T) Conduct periodic PR assessments in the embassies to improve planning and preparation Leverage all available programs and resources Improve host nation capability The NPRA provides US government contractors the same PR coverage as provided to government personnel (D, P) Develop Department and Agency policies and revise the Federal Acquisition Regulation Revamp the approach to survival, evasion and resistance training (T) Implement Core Captivity Curriculum Increase JPRA throughput Improve DoS training for non-DoD agencies Review and certify private sector training capabilities NSPD Establishes an Interagency Definition for Personnel Recovery:  NSPD Establishes an Interagency Definition for Personnel Recovery Personnel recovery is the sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to prepare and execute the recovery of U.S. military, government civilians, and government contractors, who become isolated from friendly control while participating in U.S. sponsored activities abroad, and of other persons as designated by the President. NSPD Establishes National Policy:  NSPD Establishes National Policy Recover all U.S. military, government civilians, government contractors, and others designated by the President who are isolated from friendly control while participating in a government-sponsored activity and return them to a safe environment Isolated personnel will adhere to the following guidelines: Assist other Americans and do nothing that may harm a fellow American Resist attempts by captors to exploit them and refuse special treatment Refuse to make written, oral or videotaped statements harmful to the U.S. Carefully plan actions realizing that decisions can impact the Government’s ability to affect recovery or release NSPD Underscores Responsibilities Two General Personnel Recovery Situations:  NSPD Underscores Responsibilities Two General Personnel Recovery Situations Military operations in support of U.S. policy Combatant Commander responsible for protecting U.S military, U.S. Government civilians, U.S. Government contractors and coalition partners No on-going U.S. military operations Chief of Mission responsible for monitoring the recovery of U.S. Government civilians and U.S. Government contractors Actual recovery operations are normally the responsibility of the host nation Likely to be a cooperative effort between U.S. Mission, host nation, and DoD NSPD Directives:  NSPD Directives Counter-terrorism and Security Group Policy Coordination Committee of NSC will coordinate PR policy and recommend PR response options to the President DoD will develop PR policy for interagency coordination; NSC will coordinate policy with Departments and Agencies All Departments/Agencies Will participate in planning and executing PR missions consistent with respective capabilities Shall establish a PR office or focal point Will identify PR training and support requirements and PR capabilities and limitations Instruction to Chief of Mission will emphasize deliberate, integrated PR planning to include the establishment of a PR cell in selected countries DoS will plan in advance PR activities (education, training, and exercises) for high-risk countries DoS will assist the host nation in meeting PR requirements Questions? Comments! Discussion…:  Questions? Comments! Discussion… Back-up Slides:  Back-up Slides CoM in Charge – Baseline:  CoM in Charge – Baseline Host Nation sovereignty constraints and agreements (D) US National Security Strategy, DoS/USAID Strategic Plan, Mission Performance Plans; the Warden System and F77 Report (D) Emergency Action Planning process, Emergency Action Committee (D, O) Crisis Mgt Support Center, FEST, Pol/Mil Action Team, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, FBI, Country Team organization, DoD support (O, P) Security awareness training by National Foreign Affairs Training Center (NFATC); deployment training provided by CRCs and some departments/agencies (T) Commercial and DoD developed PR equipment and aids (M) Contractor support and related issues (D, P) Facilities include NFATC, CONUS Replacement Center (F) COCOM in Charge – Baseline:  COCOM in Charge – Baseline Missing Persons Act, DoDD 2310.2, Code of Conduct are the basis for DoD policy and doctrine (D) Planning and decision-making process well engrained (D,O) DPMO, JFCOM, JPRA, PRAG, PRRC, Intelligence Community all engaged in PR activities (O) SERE schools operating at full capacity (T) Command/staff training provided (T) Contractor support increasing, with related PR issues (D, P) Slide27:  PERSONNEL RECOVERY MODERNIZATION ROADMAP LT COL STEVEN JOHNS CHIEF, PERSONNEL RECOVERY UNCLASSIFIED TOPICS:  Personnel Recovery Modernization Working Group (PRMWG) Major Themes for PR Modernization Roadmap Key Findings and Recommendations Way Ahead UNCLASSIFIED Title of slide TOPICS PERSONNEL RECOVERY MODERNIZATION WORKING GROUP:  Modernization plan identified during 2000 DoD PR Conf -- No movement until 2002 when Adm Giambastiani tasked JPRA to lead the effort PRMWG was composed of members from OSD, COCOMs, Services, NRO, NSA, and JS. Analytical and admin support provided by Booze, Allen and Hamilton UNCLASSIFIED PERSONNEL RECOVERY MODERNIZATION WORKING GROUP CRITICAL THEMES:  Prepare Isolated Personnel, Recovery Forces and Commanders/Staff to plan/execute PR Ops Provide Battlespace Awareness to Isolated Personnel, Recovery Forces, and CC/Staff to prepare PR Ops Provide C4I support to Isolated Personnel, Recovery Forces and Commanders/Staff to plan and execute PR Ops CRITICAL THEMES UNCLASSIFIED CRITICAL THEMES (cont’d):  Enable Isolated Personnel and Recovery Forces to survive isolation and PR Ops Provide timely and accurate location and authentication for Isolated Personnel Enable Effective execution for all aspects of Personnel Recovery Ops. Provide future capabilities for the Joint Force to effectively execute Personnel Recovery Ops UNCLASSIFIED Title of slide CRITICAL THEMES (cont’d) KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS :  #1 – There has never been an unconstrained examination of the Joint PR mission area -- Recommendation: Develop a Personnel Recovery Joint Integrating Concept #2 – There are great disparities in the Joint PR employment concepts, tactics, techniques and procedures between Services and COCOMs. -- Recommendation: Conduct a PR Functional Area Analysis UNCLASSIFIED KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS:  #3 – The Modernization Roadmap cannot, on its own, form the basis for the mission-wide transformation of Joint Personnel Recovery -- Recommendation: Develop a Joint PR Transformation Roadmap #4 – Service, Joint and Interagency PR training and education were inadequate -- Recommendation: Conduct a Review of PR Training and Education KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS UNCLASSIFIED KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS:  #5 -- Deficiencies exist in dedicated Joint Concept Development and Experimentation for PR -- Improve PR Joint Concept Development and Experimentation UNCLASSIFIED Title of slide KEY FINDINGS/RECOMMENDATIONS WAY AHEAD:  National Personnel Recovery Architecture must be established---DPMO working this National Security Presidential Directive -- Interagency involvement in PR Architecture Must ensure JOINT buy in – not just Services Personnel Recovery Policy must be updated to provide “Forcing Function” for change -- Rewrite 2310.2/JP 3-50 in progress UNCLASSIFIED WAY AHEAD Slide36:  PERSONNEL RECOVERY MODERNIZATION ROADMAP QUESTIONS?? UNCLASSIFIED Slide38:  Daniel Williams J71 JPRA J7 Policy, Doctrine, & Training UNCLASSIFIED JP 3-50 :  JP 3-50 Joint Doctrine for Personnel Recovery JP 3-50 Timeline:  JP 3-50 Timeline Distribute Second Draft 16 Jul 04 Second Draft 0-6 Review 16 Sep 04 JP 3-50 Working Group Meeting 26-28 Oct 04 Second Draft Issues Adjudication Nov 04 Distribute Final Coordination Draft Dec 04 Final Coordination Planner Level Review Feb 05 Final Coordination Issues Adjudication Apr 05 Signature Copy Preparation May 05 Publication Approval Jun 05 JP3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP3-50 Chapter Outline Chapter I, Introduction Overview The Department of Defense Personnel Recovery System Chapter II, Functions and Responsibilities General Geographic Combatant Commanders Joint Force Commanders and Staffs Component Commanders, Staffs, and Subordinate Organizations Service Responsibilities JP3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP3-50 Chapter Outline CHAPTER III, COMMAND AND CONTROL Command and Organizational Relationships Coordination and Liaison Communications CHAPTER IV, PRODUCTS AND PREPARATION SECTION A. PRODUCTS Command, Control, Communications and Computer Systems Recovery Forces Isolated Personnel JP 3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP 3-50 Chapter Outline SECTION B PREPARATION Commanders and Staffs Recovery Forces Isolated Personnel CHAPTER V, PLANNING General Planning Tasks Mission Analysis The Personnel Recovery Plan Personnel Recovery Standing Operational Procedures Personnel Recovery Mission Planning JP 3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP 3-50 Chapter Outline CHAPTER VI, JOINT PERSONNEL RECOVERY PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES SECTION A. METHODS Combat Search and Rescue Task Force Non-conventional Assisted Recovery SECTION B REPORT Distress Notification Notification Responses SECTION C LOCATE Locate Authenticate JP 3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP 3-50 Chapter Outline SECTION D SUPPORT Operational Support Techniques Other Support Considerations SECTION E RECOVER Extraction Physical Recovery Isolated Personnel Actions During Recovery SECTION F REINTEGRATION General Process Challenges During Reintegration Follow-up Legal and Administrative JP 3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP 3-50 Chapter Outline APPENDIX A. Military Support to Civil Search and Rescue B. US Army Personnel Recovery C. US Navy Personnel Recovery D. US Marine Corps Personnel Recovery E. US Coast Guard Personnel Recovery F. US Air Force Personnel Recovery G. Special Operations Forces Personnel Recovery H. Blood Chit Program Administration J. Evasion K. Sample Air Tasking Order Special Instructions JP 3-50 Chapter Outline:  JP 3-50 Chapter Outline APPENDIX L. Planning (Classified Supplement) M. Sample Checklists N. Reintegration Administration O. References P. Administrative Instructions Definition Changes:  Definition Changes Personnel Recovery. The sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to effect the recovery and reintegration of isolated personnel. Isolate Personnel changed definition to US military, DOD civilians, and DOD contractor personnel (and others designated by the President or Secretary of Defense) who are separated (as an individual or group) from their unit while participating in a US sponsored military activity or mission and are or may be in a situation where they must survive, evade, resist, or escape. High-Risk-of-Capture changed to High-Risk-of Isolation (HRI) Personnel. Personnel whose position or assignment makes them particularly vulnerable to being isolated, captured, and exploited by adversary forces, terrorists, or unfriendly governments. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Joint Combat Search and Rescue Operation. A combat search and rescue operation in support of a component's military operations that has exceeded the combat search and rescue capabilities of that component and requires the efforts of two or more components of the joint force. Normally, the operation is conducted by the joint force commander or a component commander that has been designated by joint force commander tasking. Joint Search and Rescue Center (JSRC) change to Joint Personnel Recovery Center (JPRC). The primary joint force organization responsible for planning and coordinating personnel recovery for military operations within the assigned operational area. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Non-Conventional Assisted Recovery (NAR). Personnel recovery conducted by special operations forces unconventional warfare ground and maritime forces and other government agencies who are specifically trained and directed to establish and operate indigenous or surrogate infrastructures for personnel recovery. Opportune personnel recovery. A survivor-initiated, indigenous-assisted recovery, whereby an isolated person takes advantage of an opportunity to enlist the aid of indigenous personnel in finding their way back to friendly forces. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Personnel Recovery-Capable Forces. Forces that are not necessarily organized, trained, or equipped for personnel recovery, but have a recognized ability to perform some elements of personnel recovery. Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) change to Personnel Recovery Coordination Cell (PRCC). The primary joint force component organization responsible for coordinating and controlling component personnel recovery missions. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Personnel Recovery-Dedicated Forces. These forces organized, trained, and equipped for personnel recovery and identified by their component commander to the joint force commander as the primary forces to form a combat search and rescue task force in the conduct of personnel recovery operations. Recovery Team (RT). Designated US or US-directed forces, that are specifically trained to operate unilaterally or in conjunction with indigenous or surrogate forces, and are tasked to contact, authenticate, support, move and exfiltrate isolated personnel. Recovery teams may interoperate with other nonconventional assisted recovery forces, and other US or multinational personnel recovery capabilities. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Unconventional Assisted Recovery (UAR). Nonconventional assisted recovery conducted by special operations forces (SOF). As a subset of unconventional warfare, SOF can conduct unconventional assisted recovery unilaterally, in conjunction with indigenous or surrogate personnel, or in conjunction with other government agencies employing compartmented tactics, techniques, and procedures. Unconventional Assisted Recovery Coordination Center (UARCC). A compartmented special operations forces facility staffed on a continuous basis by supervisory personnel and tactical planners to coordinate, synchronize, and de-conflict nonconventional assisted recovery operations within the operational area assigned to the joint force commander. The joint force special operations component commander establishes the unconventional assisted recovery coordination center to manage existing nonconventional assisted recovery capability. Definition Changes Cont.:  Definition Changes Cont. Unconventional Assisted Recovery Team (UART). A designated special operations forces unconventional warfare ground or maritime force capable of conducting unconventional assisted recovery unilaterally, or with indigenous or surrogate forces. Questions ? :  Questions ? US Government Contractors in High Threat Areas:  US Government Contractors in High Threat Areas Improving Contractor Survivability in Personnel Recovery Slide59:  NPRA Study definition of Personnel Recovery covers US Government (USG) contractors: Personnel recovery is the sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to prepare and execute the recovery of U.S. military, government civilians, and government contractors, who become isolated from friendly control while participating in U.S. sponsored activities abroad, and of other persons as designated by the President. Slide60:  Some Background …GAO findings, June 2003 “ Guidance at the DOD, combatant command and service levels … varies widely … mechanism for managing contractors is inconsistent. Only the Army has developed substantial guidance and policies (FM 3-100.21). There is no standardization of necessary language for deployment of Contractors. This situation can …impede the local commander’s ability to provide force protection and support to contractor personnel.” Slide61:  COLOMBIA U.S. HOSTAGE IN COLOMBIA SAYS WOULD DIE IN RESCUE from Reuters on Saturday, September 13, 2003 One of three Americans held hostage by Marxist guerrillas in the Colombian jungle for more than six months has warned authorities he will be killed if there is a rescue attempt, a magazine reported. USG Contractors presented a separate, potentially large and highly vulnerable group in the context of Personnel Recovery … … and in context of National Security Policy. Slide62:  IDA Study Team set out to: Examine approaches to mitigating and managing risk of USG contractor capture, injury, isolation. Refine the USG contracting process to reduce PR vulnerability while ensuring the means of PR success. Recommend remedies to resolving the shortfall(s) in the mid- and long-term . Broader NPRA implications … seek interagency remedies where possible. Slide63:  Doctrine … Army Field Manual 3-100.21, Contractors on the Battlefield, provided a Service-level, comprehensive concept for employment of contractors in high-risk venues. Potential to serve as source of best practices for eventual Joint doctrine, and interagency application. Potential Enablers Policy … Joint Staff, J4, Draft DoD Directive and Instructions (DoDD / I), Management of Contractor Personnel During Contingency Operations. DoD-wide Policy guidance to address GAO findings in combatant commands. May drive re-look of DoD 1300-series documents for currency. Regulations … Contract Language … GSA, Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) language to drive … USG and contractor integrated planning, CONUS prep & risk management in execution … starts at solicitation. Interagency data base for USG contractor accountability. National Security Presidential Directive … drive interagency PR . Slide64:  Proposal Deployment & Performance N S P D Improving Contractor Personnel Recovery Readiness … Overseas, High-Threat Environment Re-Deploy & Debrief Slide65:  Contractors on the Battlefield On-Going Actions … DoD Draft Directive / Instructions: Management of Contractor Personnel During Contingency. JPRA submitted critical comments giving PR greater visibility. Documents being readied for OSD coordination in August-September 2004. OPR is CDR Gary Broadwell, JS J4, (703) 697-6928, gary.broadwell@js.pentagon.mil. DFARS Case 2003-D087: Contractors Accompanying a Force Deployed. DPMO submitted extensive comments to provide for language keyed to PR requirements. The DFARS case underwent ad hoc review 28 July, before the DAR Council, DLA. POC Ms. Amy Williams of OSD(AT&L), amy.williams@osd.mil FAR Language Changes and Contractor Accountability. GSA prepared to facilitate interagency FAR language to support PR enhancements. Prepared to host interagency contractor database to support contractor-PR accountability. POC David A. Drabkin, Esq., GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy, 202.501.1043, david.drabkin@gsa.gov   Slide66:  Contractors on the Battlefield On-Going Actions … DoD Draft Directive / Instructions: Management of Contractor Personnel During Contingency. JPRA submitted critical comments giving PR greater visibility. Documents being readied for OSD coordination in August-September 2004. OPR is CDR Gary Broadwell, JS J4, (703) 697-6928, gary.broadwell@js.pentagon.mil. DFARS Case 2003-D087: Contractors Accompanying a Force Deployed. DPMO submitted extensive comments to provide for language keyed to PR requirements. The DFARS case underwent ad hoc review 28 July, before the DAR Council, DLA. POC Ms. Amy Williams of OSD(AT&L), amy.williams@osd.mil FAR Language Changes and Contractor Accountability. GSA prepared to facilitate interagency FAR language to support PR enhancements. Prepared to host interagency contractor database to support contractor-PR accountability. POC David A. Drabkin, Esq., GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy, 202.501.1043, david.drabkin@gsa.gov   Slide67:  Kenneth J. Benway NPRA Study Team kjbenway@charter.net Tel 910.949.3856

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